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Full text of "Institute of Pacific Relations. Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-second Congress, first[-second] session .."

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PART 14 

MAY 2 AND JUNE 20, 1952 

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 















PART 14 

MAY 2, JUNE 20, 1952 

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 

88343 WASHINGTON : 1952 


PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman 


JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi WILLIAM LANGBR, North Dakota 





J. G. SoDKWiNE, Counsel 

Internal Secturity Subcommittee 

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman 




Subcommittee Investigating the Institute of Pacific Relations 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

Robert Morkis, Special Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



FRIDAY, MAY 2, 1952 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 

OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

New York, N. Y. 

The subcommitte met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., Hon Pat Mc- 
Carran, chairman, presiding. 

Present : Senator McCarran. 

Also present : J. G. Sourwine, committee counsel ; Robert Morris, 
subcommittee counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, director of research. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Both Mr. Carter and Mr. Holland have been sworn 

The Chairman. Very well ; they have been sworn. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, yesterday afternoon I spent some time 
with Mr. Lockwood presenting to him copies of letters written to 
him and written by him. He was able to spend the afternoon on this, 
and he did make a statement authenticating the documents. 

Mr. Mandel, will you identify these for the record, please? 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have a list of those documents ? 

Mr. Mandel. I have a list which was drawn up under my direction. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is that a true list of that batch of documents ? 

Mr. Mandel. It is. 

Mr. Sourwine. Can you offer that list for the record ? 

Mr. Mandel. I can. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, in connection with this list, did you notice 
there have been two amendments since it was originally compiled ? 

Mr. Mandel. The list is authentic with the exclusion of those. 

Mr. Morris. Those amendments are two letters, one a letter from 
W. W. Lockwood to Col. William Mayer dated December 26, 1942, 
which is file No. 131B. The other is a letter to Philo W. Parker and 
others from William W. Lockwood dated December 2, 1942, No. 
131B.2. They were both added by Mr. Lockwood yesterday. 

The Chairman. The witness identifies everything except those two? 

Mr. Morris. No, they have been added to Mr. Mandel's list. 

The Chairman. Does he identify those ? 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Yes. I am going to introduce his statement on that. 

The Chairman. He identifies them as what? 

Mr. Morris. JSIr. Mandel will testify that all of the documents on 
this list as amended were taken from the files of the Institute of Pa- 
cific Relations. It that risht, Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 



The Chairman, Is that true? 
Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Yesterday Mr. Lockwood stated that he could not be 
liere today, and he gave a sworn statement to me which reads : 

State of New York, 

County of New York, sa : 

I have examined the documents described in the list attached hereto as 
exhibit A. While many of the documents so described are documents of which 
I have no present recollection, I am satisfied that all of the documents listed in 
exhibit A are letters or memoranda or copies of letters or memoranda sent by me 
or received by me. 

^ , [s] William A. Lockwood. 

Dated : May 1, 1952. 
Present : 

[s] Robert Morris 
Robert Morris 
[s] Stuart Marks 
•Stuart Marks 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you there, and that was your client's list? 

Mr. Marks. Yes ; that is true. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. May the list and the affidavit together with the 
documents which are named in that list ba offered for the rex^ord at 
this time ? 

Tlie Chairman. They may be inserted in the record at this time. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 765 to 771, 
inclusive; 773 to 782, inclusive, and 784 to 799 C" and a])i:.ear on 
pp. 4958 through 4983.) 

The Chairman. Who is this gentleman ? 

Mr. Morris. This is Mr. Marks of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Sunder- 
land & Kiendl. He is counsel for Mr. Holland and Mr. Carter. 

May the documents be numbered consecutively ? 

The Chairman. They may be numbered consecutively in order of 
previous exhibits. 

Mr. Morris. When Mr. Lockwood appeared. Senator, he author- 
ized me to make the statement that the list is accurate. 

The Chairman. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I offer you a group of documents together 
with a list appended thereto. Will you tell us wliat are those docu- 
ments and what is that list? 

Mr. ]\Iandel. The documents I hold are taken from the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations or submitted by officers of the Institute 
of Pacific Relations, of wdiich documents I made an itemized list. 

Mr. SouRAviNE. The list is that list you made ? 

Mr. Mandel. The list is the list I hold in my hand. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is that a true and correct list of the documents 
that you have in that batch ? 

Mr. Mandel. It is. 

The Chairman. The list is one thing. The documents are another. 
The list was made by you ? 

Mr. Mandel. The list was made under my direction from the 

The Chairman. All right. Are you offering the list, so-called, or 
are you offering the documents ? I take it that you are offering the 

Mr. Morris. We are going to offer the documents. 

Mr. Souravine. The list is in fact an inventory of those documents. 

Mr. Mandel. That is correct. 


Mr. Sot RwiNE. Mr. Chairman, we are proffering the list also as 
evidence of what this batch of documents contains. 

The Chairman. That is all right. That is merely a list that was 
made by Mr, Mandel or under his direction, but the documents are 
taken from the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Morris. Are all of those documents taken from the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations ? 

Mr. Mandel. All except one, which was prepared by Mr. Holland 
at our request. 

Mr. Morris. What is that? 

Mr. Mandel. That is a list of the staff members of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations. 

The Chairman. As of what date ? 

Mr. Mandel. Various dates. There is one list from 1936 to 1943. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may we not consider this at this time ? 
That does not belong in there. 

The Chairman. I think that is correct. I think that is the best 
way to handle that. 

Mr. Mandel. The others are all documents from the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations. 


Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland, have you had an opportunity to look at 
the documents that we have now offered for the record? 

Mr. Holland. Yes, I have been through that whole list. 

Mr. Morris. Have you in connection with that group of documents 
looked at the list that has been compiled by Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Holland. Yes. The list seems to be complete with the excep- 
tion of the document you have just removed. I found corresponding 
documents to each item in the list. I am prepared to identity all of 
the documents with the exceptions which I will name in a moment 
as letters or memoranda written by me or received by me in the 
course of my work with the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Morris. What are the exceptions ? 

Mr. Holland. Three exceptions that I wish to note are: One, a 
letter which appears to be from me to a man called Harondar, an 
official of the Soviet council. He was an official of the Soviet council 
of the IPR. 

Mr. Morris. ^Vhere does that appear on the list? 

Mr. Holl.\nd. That is item No. 4, I believe, and the point is that 
it only appears to be the last page of a letter and a copy. It is un- 
signed and is not a carbon. While it seems to me like a perfectly 
normal letter, I have no means of identifying what the beginning of 
the letter was nor do I happen to remember writing this particular 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, apparently by mistake we have only 
the second page of this letter, and I move that this be stricken from 
the list. 

The Chairman. Just do not offer it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I believe since this is on the list and since Mr. 
Holland has testified about it, it should not be stricken from the list. 


As the chairman suggested, it should be exchided from the offer. 

The Chairman. Just remove it from the offer at this time. You 
may be able to identify it at a later time. 

Mr. Holland. The second exception, which is I think about item 
No. 15, your exhibit No. 819, is an unsigned memorandum with the 
initials "W. L. H. and K. M. from E. C. C," giving background infor- 
mation on the Muslim League in India. This, too, is a letter which 
I have no recollection of and is unsigned. It appears to me to be a 
perfectly normal kind of memorandum and one which I might well 
have seen, but it just so happens that I cannot myself identify it. 

The Chairman. Mr. Carter's initials are on there; are they not? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

The Chairman. Does he identify or recall it? 

Mr. Morris. It has now been offered to Mr. Carter. 

Mr. Carter. It has every external appearance of being a photo- 
stat of an interoffice memorandum of mine to Mr. Holland and Miss 
Mitchell. I do not remember it, but it seems to be authentic, and I 
do not identify who the author is, what the source of the enclosure is. 

The Chairman. How do your initials appear on it; from or to you? 

Mr. Carter. The initials "W. L. H. and K. M. from E. C. C." My 
signature is not on it. There is a mark here, "Carter," which is not 
in my handwriting, but I think it is one of the routine information 
memorandums and while I do not remember it specifically, I should see 
no reason why it should not be used in the record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland, you say you have a third exception? 

Mr. Holland. I have a third one. This is I think about five more 
items down the list, your file No. 823. This is the one item already 
mentioned, a free distribution list for a memorandum called Korean 
Industry and Transport by A. J. G., presumably A. J. Grajdanzev. 
I have no recollection of this list, and it would appear to be some- 
thing prepared by someone on my staff, but I do recall the memo- 
randum, and it is perfectly likely that it was distributed in fact to 
the list indicated there. 

The Chairman. You make no objection to its being attached? 

Mr. Holland. No, sir. The remaining exception is the fifth from 
the last, your file No. 862. This is an original letter from a Chinese 
by the name of Tseng to S. B. Thomas, and I am prepared to say 
that this appears to me to be an authentic copy of a letter sent to a 
junior member of my staff who had apparently requested some docu- 
ments from a Chinese book agency in Peking. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland, you will notice that there is on the letter 
from Mr. Tseng a pencil notation, "rewrite for Bill to sign," and the 
Bill presumably is you. 

Mr. Holland. Yes. The following is a letter from me which I 
acknowledge and identify. 

Mr. Morris. So even though one-half of the correspondence is 
addressed to S. B. Thomas, the answer to that was prepared by you? 

Mr. Holland. That is true. Finally, Mr. Chairman, the list which 
you just excluded is one which I sent to the committee some weeks 

Mr. Morris. Let me finish this other thing first. 

Mr. Chairman, in view of Mr. Mandel's testimony and Mr. Holland's 
testimony in connection with these documents, may they all be re- 
ceived in the record ? 


The Chairman. They may all be received into the record. 
(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit Nos. 800, 802, 
804 to 866," and appear on pp. 4984 through 5031.) 

The Chairman. You are going to have to be very careful about 
identifying these documents because you are putting them in in 
clusters, and each one of them should have a serial nmnber. 

Mr. Morris. They do, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is why I am asking that the list in each case 
go in. The documents themselves have been physically examined in- 
dividually by the witnessses who are testifying with respect to the 
list, which is an accurate list of the documents, and the testimony 
of Mr, Mandel and of Mr. Holland, who said he had checked it, 
is simply to save the time of the committee and to shorten this hear- 
ing. If the list goes in and also the documents, I believe we will have 
a clear record on it. 

The Chairman. I understand the testimony, first, as to Mr. Mandel, 
saying that these are copies of instruments found in the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations. Secondly, Mr. Holland identifies 
each and every one of these as being instruments that were in the 
files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. Am I correct in that? 

Mr. Holland. Subject to the qualifications which I have just in- 

The Chairman. Subject to the qualifications that you made. 

Mr. Holland. Finally, Mr. Chairman, just so that there will be 
correspondence between the typed list and the documents, I notice two 
or three typographical, minor errors. On your file No. 807 it should 
read "to W. L. H. from E. C. C." At present you have it reversed. On 
your file No. 818 it should read "to W. L. Holland from William T. 
Stone" and not William T. Johnstone as you have it in your list. 

On your item 837, apparently a slip in the carbon copy — it may not 
appear on the original — it should read "to William L. Holland from 
Schuyler Wallace." My copy has only S-c-h-u-y-1. 

Finally on item 839, missing date figure, "to Scliuyler Wallace from 
W. L. Holland," the correct date should be April 12, 1944. I think 
it is the carbon that reads March 12, 1944. Otherwise that list seems 
to be correct. 

The Chairman. As to those corrections suggested by Mr. Holland, 
it might be well for you to make the corrections on the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations. In other words, evidently an error 
has crept in as to these small items. That should be corrected. It is 
not an exception taken by the witness. It is just a suggested check, 
and his suggestion should be followed up to see that he is correct and 
the instrument corrected accordingly. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the list describing the documents which 
we have been discussing will be corrected in view of the recommenda- 
tions made by Mr. Holland. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland, I offer you four documents, and ask you 
what they are, 

Mr. Holland. These documents are lists of the staff members of 
both the Pacific Council and the American Council of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations for various periods, namely, 1936 to 1943; 1937 to 
1943, 1944 to 1951, and 1944 to 1951. 


Mr. Morris. I think I have a fiftli one, Mr. Holland. 

Mr. HorxAND. And a fifth entitled "IPR Staff Members," sub- 
mitted by W. L, Holland, date October 10, 1951. All of these docu- 
ments, Mr. Chairman, were prepared under my direction at the request 
of the subcommittee some weeks ago, the latest date here being October 
10, 1951, and to the best of my belief and according to our personnel 
records, they present the true facts regarding the lists of employees 
and dates of employment of the persons who worked for the Institute 
of Pacific Relations, the staff members. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you have access to your personnel records in 
connection with the preparation of those lists? 

Mr. H0L1.AND. I had access to them. I did not myself scrutinize 
every personnel card. The list was prepared under my direction by 
Miss Ruth Carter, and I have every reason to believe that it is a cor- 
rect and complete list. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, will we insert this in the running re- 
cord, or should we put this in the appendix ? 

The Chairman. Where do you want it? What do you offer them 
for ? Do you offer them for the record ? 

Mr. Morris. I offer them for the record. 

The Chairman. I think so. They will be inserted in the record. 

(The documents referred to were marked Exhibit No. 801 and 
appear on p. 4987.) 

The Chairman. All that shows is who were the officers of the In- 
stitute of Pacific Relations in the respective years mentioned? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

The Chairman. Let the record show that the stenographer in the 
outer room closed the door so that the telephoning might go on in the 
outer room without disturbing the hearing and that the Chair an- 
nounced that this was an open hearing and anyone who came into the 
outer room who wished to come in here might come in. This is an 
open hearing. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I am offering to Mr. Mandel two 
groups of documents. 

Mr. Mandel, are those two groups of documents made up of letters 
and papers taken from the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations ? 

Mr. Mandel. These are documents from or to Mr. E. C. Carter taken 
from the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. They are either 
the original documents or photostats thereof. 

The Chairman. The instruments are true and correct photostats of 
documents found in the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And every one of the dociunents and papers in those 
two groups is so classified ? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Namely, taken from the files of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations. Mr. Mandel, what are those two lists ? 

Mr. Mandel. From these documents I have authorized a list to be 
prepared itemizing each document and describing them. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mean you have there a list which constitu*"es 
an inventory of the documents which you have just identified and 
which you hold? 

Mr. Mandel. That is correct. 


Mr. Morris. There are two lists, Mr. Chairman; one with each 

Mr. Carter, have yon had an opportunity to look at the documents 
so identified by Mr. Mandel and described in the list accompanying 
those documents ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes, I have had the opportunity of hurriedly going 
through them. 

Mr. Morris. Do they appear to you to be authentic documents? 

Mr. Carter. I do not challenge the authenticity of any. There are 
some that I don't particularly recollect, but those I will point out when 
I go through the list. 

Mr. Marks. You do not mean "recollection." You mean you do 
not identify because you do not have personal knowledge of them. 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. Marks. But you do not challenge the authenticity. 

Mr. Carter. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Do you want to make any particular comment as to 
any document on either of those two lists? 

The Chairman. As I understand, those minutes were made of con- 
ferences. If Mr. Carter after having examined those minutes says that 
they appear to him to be true and correct, that is about as far as he 
can go unless he made them himself. 

Mr. Marks. That is perfectly true. 

Mr. Morris. Do you want to make any comment on any of the 
documents in these two groups? 

Mr. Carter. One such case is item 978, a discussion on collective 

Mr. Morris. "^^Hiat is the nature of that document, Mr. Carter? 

Mr, Carter, It was a discussion on collective security in 700 Jack- 
son Place, Washington, I did not prepare the minutes, I don't 
know who they were j)repared by, but I remember the meeting, and 
they look like a reasonably accurate job. 

Mr, Sourwine, "\^niere is 700 Jackson Place ? Is that the corner of 
Jackson Place and Pennsylvania Avenue alongside of the Blair 
House ? 

Mr, Carter. That is where the Carnegie Endowment Library has 
been for many years. 

This is to Edward C, Carter from MC, undated. 

Mr, Morris. That is right under the exhibit No. 980 ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. I cannot think who MC is, I don't identify 
the handwriting either, and it is in collection with a letter to Mr. 
Dollard. This is a mimeographed study of Attitudes of American 
Soldiers in the Berlin District Toward Our Allies. It is not mine, 
and it was originally marked as restricted, but the classification has 
been canceled, so it was an open document. 

The Chairman. What point do you make in regard to it ? 

Mr, Marks. Nothing at all, except I do not exactly know whether 
we are authenticating this document as put out by the research library 
of the information-education division. We acknowledge it was in 
the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations if that is what you 

Mr, Sourwine. You said the classification is canceled. You mean 
it shows on its face by proper authority there has been an official 
cancellation of the security classification? 


Mr. Marks. Yes. Our only point is if you want us to say what 
it IS, we will say it was taken from the files. We did not prepare it. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Was it received by you as indicated ? 
Mr. Marks. Oh, yes. We have no objection to that. 
The Chairman. What is next? 

Mr. Carter. There is a handwritten note of mine here, and it is 
marked underneath "Dear Kate" in brackets "Enclosure, July 19 
note." It should be July 17 notes. It is perfectly routine. 

Mr. Marks. One other point on that. We don't understand why 
it says "Enclosure." The list says "enclosure." We do not under- 
stand why, but it does not make much difference, I guess. The list 
says. Senator, "(Enc. July 19 notes)" and the list should be July 17. 
We do not understand what the enclosure reference is, but I do not 
think it is very significant. 

Mr. Carter. With your permission I will let Mr. Marks do this. 

The Chairman. That is all right. 

Mr. Marks. Item 984. This is a report of conference of March 
9. Mr. Carter acknowledges that it is a fairly accurate statement 
of what went on, although he did not himself prepare the report. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Just at that point, you say he acknowledges that it 
Is fairly accurate. Does he take exception to it on any point with 
regard to accuracy ? 

Mr. Marks. On those I do not think we ought to be bound because 
we had to read those at a terrible clip. If we have to stop now to 
examine this page by page, it will keep us here indefinitely. We 
would like to reserve comment and check on these things. Mr. Carter 
spent just a few minutes to go through this thing and to construe 
it to see whether each thing is a fair statement would require a lot 
more time, and I don't think he at this time can state more than I 
have already stated. I want to suit your purpose. 

The Chairman. The question is: Is the instrument found where 
it was found ? It is admitted that it was found in the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Marks. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What it sets out is not a matter for your construc- 
tion nor for anyone else's just now. It is a matter for the committee's 

Mr. Marks. Fine. That is perfectly acceptable to us. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, if "the Chair will permit, since I 
understand that Mr. Carter is adopting Mr. Marks' statements as his 
testimony, is that right, sir? 

Mr. Carter. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. With regard to this particular document it might 
save time in the future if I ask Mr. Carter a question now. 

Mr. Carter, you have had an opportunity to examine that briefly; 
is that correct? 

Mr. Carter. Very sketchily. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From the examination which you have made of 
it, does it appear to you to be a report which was prepared under your 
direction or at your behest ? 

Mr. Carter. I was present at the meeting. It does not show who 
recorded it. The handwritten bits of editorial alterations are not 
in my handwriting, and I could not swear who the author or editor 


was. It may have been Mr, W, W. Lockwood. Let me see whether 
he was there. Yes ; he was present. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What I am trying to get at is : Was that prepared 
by someone who did so as a part of his duties as an official or employee 

Mr. Carter. Not necessarily, because in the list of attendees there 
is typed "W. W. Lockwood, Princeton," and then inserted in hand- 
writing after Lockwood's name, "ACIS." That would be the Amer- 
ican Committee for International Studies. That might indicate that 
he was there in his capacity as an executive of the American Commit- 
tee of International Studies, which has no connection with the IPR. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any knowledge as to how this found 
its way into the files of the IPR ? 

Mr. Carter. I have no knowledge. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you have any knowledge as to whether this was 
prepared for the files of the IPR ? 

Mr. Carter. I have no knowledge one way or the other on that. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is 988. Tliis is a memorandum of the 
meeting of the Arctic Institute, April 9, which was taken from the 
files of the Institute of Pacific Relations, but not prepared by Mr. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Carter, do you know by whom it was prepared? 

Mr. Carter. I don't remember. With reference to this meeting of 
the Arctic Institute, I note that there were present FD and HM. FD 
is Faith Donaldson and HM is Harriet Moore. Either one of them 
might have prepared the record of the meeting. I don't know which. 
There is nothing written, straight typing, and I have no idea which 
one of them prepared it or whether they prepared it jointly and sub- 
mitted it to me. 

Mr. SouR"\^^NE. One of those alternatives? 

Mr. Carter. One of those alternatives. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is 993. This is a memorandum of an 
interview with Mortimer Graves, December 7, 1933, at which Mr. 
Carter and Mr. Joseph Barnes were present. I think Mr. Carter will 
state that either he or Mr. Barnes prepared this memorandum. He 
doesn't remember which. 

Mr. Carter. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I would like to ask a question about that. Is Mr. 
Barnes' style so similar to your own that you cannot tell them apart 
when you look back over them ? 

Mr. Carter. This is statistical. It was in 1933. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I think in fairness to you that should be explained 
here. It is not a document that is likely enough to make it identi- 
fiable; is that the point? 

Mr. Carter. It is very short. It is statistical, and there are no 
flourishes of authorship or rhetoric in it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The point was if it had been prepared by you we 
know you would be prepared to say it was absolutely true and correct ; 
is that right ? 

Mr. Carter. It makes sense to me. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. On that basis since you cannot tell whether it is 
yours or Mr. Barnes, I assume you are still able to say that it is true 
and correct. 


Mr. Carter. It strikes me thorouo:hly as a correct compilation. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is 1005, a meeting of the presidium of 
the Soviet branch of the IPR. Mr. Carter will state that the report 
was prepared either by Harriet Moore or Kate Mitchell. Do you 
know which? 

Mr. Carter. I have no idea. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did Kate Mitchell take shorthand? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. SotTRwiNE. Harriet Moore did not? 

Mr. Carter. Not with the same precision. I don't remember 
whether Harriet Moore actually used shorthand or her own shorthand 

Mr. Sourwine. And Faith Donaldson had no shorthand system at 
all ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. She, if I remember correctly, had sort of a 
debutante shorthand. 

Mr. Sourwine. I thought you had testified here once — it is an un- 
important point — that Faith Donaldson did not write in shorthand. 

Mr. Carter. I remember describing her as a champion skier. I 
don't remember referring to her shorthand capacity. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was she a typist? 

Mr. Carter. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is 1008. This is a photostat of what 
purports to be a letter from E. V. Harondar to Kathleen Barnes, 
June 20, 1935, which Mr. Carter will say was taken from the files of 
the Institute of Pacific Relations, but it was not a letter received by 
him nor written by him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have any recollection as to whether you 
ever saw that letter before the committee presented it to you for 
identification ? 

Mr. Carter. I don't remember having seen it before. I may have 
or I may not. I don't recall it now. 

Mr. Marks. Item 1009 is a letter from Mr. Carter to Mr. Motylev. 
The list shows the date "3/4/35." It should be "5/4/35." 

Mr. Sourwine. Speaking of Mr. Motylev, we have a number of 
documents in the file including some of these summaries wherein his 
name is spelled M-o-t-i-l-e-v; is that not correct? It is the same per- 
son, is it not? 

Mr. Carter. That is correct. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is 1010. This is a carbon copy of a docu- 
ment entitled "Extracts From Letter From Harriet Moore to E. C. 
Carter" of March 20, 1935. Can you tell who prepared this ? 

Mr. Carter. I cannot discover who typed or prepared this copy, 
who selected the extracts. There is no initial or other identifying 
mark. It would all depend on who made the extracts as to what its 
significance is, I .should assume. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you remember having seen the document before 
or a copy of it? 

Mr. Cari^r. I can't at this moment say that I do recollect it. 

Mr. Sourwine. It is from the files of the IPR? 

Mr. Carter. So Mr. Mandel shows me. 

Mr. Sourwine. I mean do you have any knowledge on that point? 

Mr. Carter. Not other than Mr. Mandel's certification. 


Mr. SouRWiNE. Of course, that is not a matter of your knowledge. 

Mr. Carter. No. 

Mr. Marks. Item 1011 appears to be a duplicate of 1009. 

Item 1013, "Moscow meeting in Motylev's," the date should be 
"3/31/86. ■' That is the ('ate shown by the document. It should be 
that instead of "3/21/36' thown by the list. The document itself 
purports to be a report of what happened at the meeting. 

Mr. Carter. Tliis conc^-ns the administrative problems of the in- 
stitute and, among others, there were present Harriet Moore, Char- 
lotte Tyler, and Faith Donaldson as secretaries, but wiiich one of 
tliem, whether all three collaborated in writing out this one page, I 
don't know. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Their assignments were such that any or all of them 
might have worked on it ? 

Mr. CAR1T.R. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Mr. Chairman, may we go off the record? 

The Chairman. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

The Chairman. On the record. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, with regard to the remainder of the 
documents on this list I believe an acceptable formula has been worked 
out which will cover the identification so far as Mr. Carter is able 
to make. Is that correct, Mr. Marks ? 

Mr. Marks. That is correct, Mr. Sourwine. May I state the na- 
ture of this arrangement ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Please. 

Mr. Marks. Mr. Carter states that all of the documents listed 

Mr. Sourwine. From this point on. 

Mr. Marks. From this point on of the two lists referred to 

The Chairman. And "from this point on'' means what? What is 
the point ? 

Mr. Sourwine. From the point following the last document identi- 
fied in this record and discussed. 

The Chairman. Referring to the numbers in the list that you pre- 
pared ? 

Mr. Marks. Yes ; that is right. There are two lists which I think 
Mr. Mandel has already referred to, the last two lists that Mr. Mandel 
i-eferred to. These are lists setting forth documents which have just 
been presented to Mr. Carter for identification. 

The Chairman. And were taken from the files of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations according to the testimony of Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Marks. That is right. 

The Chairman, And have been numbered serially under the di- 
rection of Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Marks. Up to the point of 1019, and after that there are no 
inimbers, and we understand they will be numbered serially from there 

Mr. Morris. That is correct. 

Mr. Marks. From this point on Mr. Carter states that the docu- 
ments wdiich i^urport to be letters or memoranda to him, or copies of 
such letters and memoranda, or letters or memoranda from him or 
copies of those, are genuine. On the list there are a number of other 
documents which are prepared by other persons and which do not in- 


dicate whether or not they were sent to Mr. Carter or sent by him to 

As to these, Mr. Carter has no personal recollection of whether or 
not they do come from the IPR files, but he has no reason to raise 
any question about it. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Marks. That is sufficient. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Morris, Mr. Chairman, may they therefore be admitted into 
the record ? 

The Chairman. They may be admitted under that agreement, 

(The documents were marked "Exhibits Nos. 977 to 1007, 1009, in- 
clusive; 1011 to 1031, 1032 to 1068, inclusive; 1070, 1071, 1073 to 1080, 
inclusive; 1082 to 1090, inclusive; 1092, to 1095, 1097 to 1112, 1114 to 
1122, inclusive, and appear on pp. 5083 through 5197.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. This order includes the two lists which have been 
referred to and the documents which have been included on those lists ? 

The Chairman. Yes. The lists are merely identification by serial 
numbers ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Marks. That is right. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Has Mr. Carter had an opportunity to examine 
the documents which we are now discussing? 

Mr. Marks, Mr, Carter has had a chance to examine the documents 
now under discussion and identifies them all with certain exceptions 
which I shall now enumerate. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And applies them as either documents that were 
received by him or which he wrote ? 

Mr, Marks, That is right. 

This list does not bear exhibit numbers, and I am going to give the 
item number as I count down. 

Mr, SouRwiNE, Give the item number and the title, 

Mr, Marks, All right. This is the fourteenth item on the first 
page of this three-page list. It is to WLH from ECC. The date is 
given as Marcli 20, 1940. I think it should be March 30, 1940, The 
file number is 191.87. 

The next is to Philip C. Jessup from Edward C. Carter, with the 
file number of the committee 191.37. The date is given as December 
19, 1943. I think it should be December 19, 1942, subject to your 

The next one purports to be an original of part of a note to "Dear 
Dr. White."' It does not bear any date or any signature. It is on the 
second page of this list under your No. 172.1. I don't know what 
Mr. Carter wants to say about it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Carter, up to this point do you adopt Mr. 
Marks' statements as your testimony? 

Mr. Carter. I do. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. With regard to the document which has just been 
handed to you by Mr. Marks what do you want to say about it ? 

The Chairman. Dr. White is the name ? 

Mr. Marks. It is addressed to "Dear Dr. White," no address. 

Mr. Carter. I have no recollection of either side of this page. 

Mr. Morris. It is not your handwriting ? 


Mr. Carter. No. 

Mr. Morris. I move it be stricken from the list of documents. 

The Chairman. It will just not be inserted. 

JNIr. SouRwiNE. It remains on the list, but you withdraw the oifer 
of the document ? 

Mr. Morris. I do. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is a memo handwritten which appears 
on your list immediately below the item, the offer of which has been 
withdrawn. I hand it to Mr. Carter. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Do you know what that is, Mr. Carter? 

Mr. Carter. It's in pencil. I don't identify the handwriting. 
There is a note regarding treatment of a book written for the IPR 
at one time. There is nothing I object to. I simply don't know who 
the author was. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Do you have any reason to believe it did not come 
from the IPR files ? 

Mr. Carter. No. 

Mr. Marks. The next item is to W. L. Holland from C. F. Remer, 
dated March 17, 1942, your No. 119.121. 

Mr. Holland. I have read this letter and identify it as having been 
received by me. There is also the original of this same letter — this is 
a carbon copy — in the collection which I have previously identified. 

Mr. Marks. The final item is a mimeographed copy of what per- 
haps is a telegram from Edward C. Carter to Lauchlin Currie, bearing 
the date, mimeographed, September 17, 1941. This appears under 
your file No. 119.13. It is listed on the third page of the list. 

Mr. Morris. That is a copy we made of the original. We should 
have the original rather than the stenciled copy. We will withdraw 
the offer. 

Mr. Marks. Those are all the remarks and exceptions that we have 
to make to that list. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wliich you previously generally identified ? 

Mr. Marks. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do, you adopt as your testimony all the statements 
of Mr. Marks in connection with these lists ? 

Mr. Carter. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. May these be inserted in the record ? 

The Chairman. They may be inserted in the record with the same 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 1136, 1145, 
1203. and 1231," and appear on pp. 5204, 5210, 5245, 5259, i-espec- 

Mr. Sourwine. So that the record may be clear with regard to this 
document, this is the document which was previously mentioned as 
the "Dear Dr. White" letter or document, the offer of which was 
withdrawn. This is a document, which on the one side, which I shall 
designate as face, is marked with an F in ink and has a typed para- 
graph, "Dear Dr. White: I understand from Irving S. Friedman," 
and so forth, ending with the words "until the end of the current 

On the other side in pencil, handwritten, is, "Dear Malik : I under- 
stand that Mr. Friedman," and so forth, closing with the words "at any 
time convenient to you. Sincerely yours," and it is unsigned. Mr. 
darter, you state that you do not recognize that handwriting ? 


Mr. Carter. I do not recognize the handwriting. I would like to 
comment for the record that Malik was the Indian official in New 
York. It is not the Soviet. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. And you do not recollect it ? 

Mr. Holland. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. How do you know which Malik is referred to ? 

Mr. Carter. Isn't there some reference here to Friedman ? Fried- 
man was an employee of the Indian Government in New York working 
under Malik. 

Mr. Sour wine. How do you spell it? 

Mr. Carter. M-a-1-i-k. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wliat you are saying really is because you know of 
Friedman's connection you assume that was Malik the Indian rather 
than the Russian? 

Mr. Carter. That is right. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you renewing your offer on that now ? 

Mr. Morris. I now offer it. 

The Chairman. Very well; it will be inserted in its proper place 
in the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1202," and 
appears on p. 5245.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have a third envelope which Mr. 
Carter was not able to finish reading last night, and I wonder what 
we can do with respect to having those received. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have a suggestion, if the Chair please. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Sourwine. If the Chair please, I propose to ask Mr. Mandel to 
identify these papers as coming from the files of the IPR and to 
identify the list. 

The Chairman. Let Mr. Mandel identify them. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Mandel, I hand you a number of documents or 
what purports to be a list or inventory of documents. Will you please 
identify them? 

Mr. Mandel. I have here an inventory of documents taken from 
the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. The sheet begins with 
a document to ECC and ends with one to A. Hiss. The documents 
all come from the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is that list a correct inventory of those documents 
and prepared under your direction? 

Mr. Mandel. It is ; yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I- ask the permission of the Chair to 
hand this list and the documents in question to Mr. Carter and to ask 
that at his early convenience he go through these and examine them 
and then furnish the committee with a statement in affidavit form 
with regard to them along the lines of the statemens he has previously 

The Chairman. All right. Do you want them inserted in the record 
now, to be followed by what you request? 

Mr. Sourwine. I would request, sir, that tlie documents be put 
in the record at this point, but that the affidavit which Mr. Carter 
furnishes also go in at this point in the record when he furnishes 

The Chairman. All right; is that satisfactory? 

Mr. Marks. Yes, it is. Senator 


(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 1269 to 
1291, inclusive; 1293 to 1312, inclusive; and 1314," and appear on 
pp. 5272 throu*rh 5303.) 

Mr. SouRWiNE, I liand 3^ou additional groups of documents and ask 
you if you will identify t?hose. 

Mr. Mandel. I have here an inventory of documents from the files 
of the Institute of Pacific Relations beginning with one marked 
"Atomic Energy and U. S. Int. Policy," and ending with one ad- 
dressed to "Secretary, Lithuanian Legation," which is an inventory 
of documents from the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations, and 
a second batch which is headed "A Second Batch," of which the inven- 
tory begins with a document to E. C. Carter and ends with one to 
E. C. Carter. This is an inventory of documents from the files of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Mandel, in each case does the list represent an 
inventory of the actual documents to which it is attached? 

Mr. Mandel. It does. 

Mr. Sourwine. The inventory was prepared under your supervi- 
sion ? 

Mr. ]\f andel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And the documents themselves are all from the 
files of the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Mandel. They are. 

The Chairman. Are they, or are they photostatic copies? 

Mr. Mandel. They include originals, carbons, as taken from the 
files, and photostats. 

The Chairman. Photostats of instruments in the files ; is that right? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The photostats were made under your direction ? 

Mr. Mandel. They were. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the reasons for the recurrence of the 
photostats are many. In most cases the reason for it is that we have 
gone through the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations on Fifty- 
fourth Street and taken out certain documents there. We returned 
the original documents to the Institute of Pacific Relations, but had 
them photostated before returning them. That is the reason for the 

The Chairman. The photostats were not themselves taken from the 
files ? The instrument was taken from the files and photostated, and 
the photostats are here; is that right? 

Mr. Morris. In almost every case. I think in some cases there were 
photostats in the IPR files. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr, Chairman, I ask in regard to these two groups 
of documents and the list attached thereto that Mr. Mandel has most 
recently identified they be offered to Mr. Carter with the same stipu- 
lation as the earlier one. 

The Chairman. They will be inserted in the record and offered to 
Mr. Carter with the same stii^ulation as to his making an affidavit. 

(The documents referred to w-ere mai"ked "Exhibit Nos. 889 to 903, 
inclusive ; 905 to 954, inclusive ; 956 to 964, inclusive, and appear on 
pp. 5031 through 5083.) 

Mr. Sourwine. I hold in my hand a file of material which was of- 
fered for the recoi-d during Mr. Bogolepov's testimony. The Chair 

88348-52-pt. 14 2 


ruled that it would be accepted and inserted in the record, but there 
was the proviso that it be offered to Mr. Carter for identification. I 
would like to ask has this ever been offered to Mr. Carter and has Mr. 
Carter had an opportunity to examine it? 

Mr. Marks. No, he has not. He just p;ot it. 

]\Ir. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that these documents, which I 
shall briefly identify, the first headed ''Confidential, not for distribu- 
tion outside the office," under date of August 10, 1934 

The Chairman. Where do they come from ? 

Mr. Morris. They have been identified by Mr. Mandel at an open 
session of the hearing as having been taken from the files of the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, and they were admitted by you provisionally 
on their being recognized by Mr. Carter. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I simply thought, Mr. Chairman, that since the 
record at this point does not specifically identify what we are handing 
Mr. Carter there should be this identification : Under date of August 
10, 1934, headed "Memorandum of Personnel on Soviet Studies." 
The next item is called "Confidential, not for distribution outside the 
office, Report on Soviet Relations with the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions." The next is to Frederick V. Field from Edward C. Carter 
under date of January 16, 1935. The next is headed "Meeting, April 
9, Institute of Oceanography ; ECC ; OL ; HM, Harondar." 

The next is headed "Report of the V isit of the Secretary General to 
Moscow, December 20-31, 1934." The next is a letter or what appears 
to be a letter, under date of April, 1934. It is headed "Communist 
Academy, Volkhonka, 14 Moscow, U. S. S. R." The next is a letter, 
and the date is Hotel Richemond, Geneva, September 12, 1934, and it 
begins "Dear Owen," 

Then there is a letter to Senator McCarran under date of March 24 
from Carlisle Humelsine and the attachment thereto. 

The Chairman. Mr. Carter would have nothing to do with that 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The attachment, sir, is the one wliich raises the 
question as to whether Mr. Carter can add anything by way of 

The Chairman. These are to be made available to Mr. Carter for 
his comment and his affidavit ? 

Mr. Souewine. Along the same lines with regard to any identity he 
should make, and he should have the privilege if he cares to include 
in that affidavit any voluntary statement or comment about it. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(The documents referred to were previously marked "Exhibit No. 
58" and appear on p. 262, pt. I. For the other documents, see exhib- 
its 749, 758, 759, 760, 761, 763, respectively. ) 

Mr. Marks. With reference to comment, it is obvious from the rec- 
ord that we have not made any comments on the contents of these. 

Mr. SoTTRWiNE. That is correct. It is not completely correct because 
in the instance of Malik he had a comment to make. 

Mr. Marks. You are right there. % 

Mr. SouRwiNE. With regard to any others he has not made a com- 
ment. He is not bound, but if he wants to make comment as to these 
submitted for study, he is to have the right to include in that affidavit 
any comment he desires to make. 


Mr. Marks. We would like to reserve whatever rights we have to 
comment on the others. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland or Mr. Carter, are you going to offer any 
documents to be inserted into the record at this time ? 

Mr. Carter. If I may have your permission, Mr. Chairman, on 
April 23 1 mailed you in Washington, A Personal View of the Institute 
of Pacific Relations, by Edward C. Carter, and in my letter to you 
I promised to send a second statement on clarification and correction. 
This I now hand you with a covering letter, and here is a copy of 
my letter to Senator McCarran for Mr. Morris. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. With regard to these documents, Mr. Carter, have 
they been prepared by you ? 

Mr. Carter. They have. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you offering them as part of your testimony, 
that is, that the material in here is true to the best of your knowledge 
and belief where it is stated to be on knowledge and belief, and if not 
so stated it is true ? 

Mr. Carter. That is my position. 

Mr. Marks. Just one moment, Mr. Sourwine; I am not sure that 
Mr. Carter understood the import of that. 

Mr. Sourwine. I do not mean to take advantage of him in any V7^j. 

Mr. Marks. I understand that, but I think as to everything he states 
it is true to the best of his knowledge and belief. He is not using a 
pleading style and stating upon information and belief thus and so, 
but he is doing his best to represent the facts. Is that all right? 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Carter has handed here a document of over 50 
pages, nearly 60 pages, including the appendix, headed "Amplification, 
correction, and clarification of testimony." Obviously if Mr. Carter 
is going to amplify, correct, and clarify his testimony, he has to do it 
under oath. 

Mr. Marks. I am sure that Mr. Carter will say that this shall have 
the same status as if these things were read orally or stated orally at 
any committee hearing. 

The Chairman. Under oath? 

Mr. Marks. Under oath ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Does he make an affidavit to this ? 

Mr. SouRWTNE. No, sir, that is another point. There is no jurat on 
this. Whatever the form is immaterial, but the record should show 
that Mr. Carter fully adopts this statement, the main text of 49 pages 
and the appendix of 7 pages, as a sworn statement presented before 
this committee. 

Mr. Carter. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. The committee staff of course has had no opportun- 
ity to see this until this moment and has of course had no oppor- 
tunity to cross examine jSIr. Carter with regard to it. I cannot state 
what the staff might desire in that regard. 

]\Ir. Carter. Might I ask, ]\Ir. Sourwine, Mr. Chairman, whether 
my first statement was received ? 

Mr. Sourwine. The statement has been received, but has not been 
offered in the record. You are referring to "A Personal View of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations." I think it should be under the same 
stipulation, that you were offering it as your sworn testimony. 

Mr. Carter. I would be agreeable to making the stipulation now so 
that it is all formally in your hands. 


Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr, Chairman, Mr. Carter is stating, as I understand 
it, that he offers as his sworn testimony at this hearing his statement 
entitled "A Personal View of the Institute of Pacific Relations," which 
he transmitted to the chairman in his letter of April 24. 

The Chairman. Yes. I think the regular way and most orderely 
way would be to have Mr. Carter present when the committee con- 
siders that and let him then swear to it. I think you are doing this 
by a long-distance operation here. I do not particularly like it, but 
we can determine that when we get to it. We can call Mr. Carter 
and have him go over his two statements, the one he sent before and 
this one, and make any comment on them and then be examined on 
them if you want to and let it go in the record. I think that is the 
clearer and more satisfactory wa}'. I do not like to insert his first 
statement in the record now with a kind of an offhand saying that he 
swears to it. 

I think it would be best to have him present and swear to it at the 
proper time. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Is that the Chair's ruling also with regard to this 
document which has just been handed in? 

The Chairman, Yes, 

]^r. Morris, Mr, Chairman, may I amend Mr, Sourwine's list of 
documents included in the material introduced during Mr, Bogole- 
pov's testimony, I have been informed by Mr, Mandel — it is a letter 
from Carlisle Humelsine and so described in Mr. Sourwine's testi- 
mony — that it should not have been included in that list, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mean that material submitted by Mr. Humel- 
sine is not such that Mr. Carter would be able to shed any light on ? 

Mr. Morris. That is correct, and it may be excluded from the doc- 

Mr. Mandel, that got erroneously in this file [indicating] when it 
should be in this [indicating] ? 

Mr. ]VL\NDEL. That is right. 

Mr. Carter. I accept it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Morris has a few other docu- 
ments to be offered for the record, 

]\Ir, Morris, Mr, Chairman, we have received an answer from Car- 
lisle Humelsine dated April 11, 1952, in reply to your letter of April 
2 to the Honorable Dean Acheson of that date. May that go into 
the record? 

The Chairman, That may go in the record, 

(The document referred to was marked ''Exhibit No, 1315-A, B, C, 
D, E, F, G, H" and is as follows :) 

Exhibit No, 1315-A 

Apbil 2, 1952. 
Hon. Dean Acheson, 
Secretary of State, 

Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Secretary : We have examined carefully the letter of March 19, 
1952. fi-om Mr. Carlisle Humelsine in reference to a conference which took place 
at the State Department October 12, 1942, between Mr. Sumner Welles, Mr. Earl 
Browder, Mr. Rol)ert Minor, and Mr. Laughlin Currie. In this connection, we 
should like to have the full State Department records on this conference pre- 
cisely as they appeared. 


We should also like to know the steps by which this conference was arranged, 
-who was responsible, and the correspondence that was exchanged in connection 


Pat McCarran, Chairman. 

Exhibit No. 1315-B 

Deputy Under Secretary of State, 

Washington, April 11, 1952. 
The Honorable Pat McCarean, 
United States Senate. 

My Dear Senator McCarran : I refer to your letter to the Secretary of April 
2 in which you Department of State records on the conference "which 
took place at the State Department, October 12, 1942, between Mr. Sumner Welles, 
Mr. Earl Browder, Mr. Robert Minor, and Mr. Lauchlin Currie." You also re- 
quest information regarding "the steps by which this conference was arranged, 
who was responsible, and the correspondence that was exchanged in connection 

As I stated in my letter to you of March 10, the Department's investigation 
into the history of this meeting reveals little more than the fact that Mr. Welles 
did meet with Mr. Browder on October 12, 1942, at which time Mr. Welles handed 
Mr. Browder a memorandum concerning U. S. policy in the Far East. Although 
the Department cannot locate a verified copy of this memorandum, ovir files do 
contain several letters in response to request for copies of this memoranduni in 
which was stated that "a verbatim text of the memorandum, as given by Mr. 
Browder to the press, appeared in the October 18 [16], 1942, issue of The Worker." 
I enclose two such replies. 

A thorough search of the Department's files does not reveal whether either 
Robert Minor or Lauchlin Currie, or both, attended the Welles-Browder confer- 
ence on October 12, 1942 ; any invitations to Mr. Browder or to anyone else to 
attend this meeting; any correspondence in regard to calling the meeting; any 
memorandum of conversation or record of the meeting : or any record of who 
drafted the memorandum handed by Mr. Welles to Mr. Browder. 

Since these may be of interest to you, I am also enclosing copies of the follow- 
ing letters which bear on the Welles-Browder meeting : (1) letter from Assistant 
Secretary of State Dean Rusk to Mr. Sumner Welles, dated September 26, 1951 ; 
(2) reply from Mr. Welles, dated October 10, 1951; (3) letter from Mr. Rusk to 
Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, dated May 19, 1950; and (4) reply from Dr. Horn- 
beck, dated June 7, 1950. 

I regret that the Department is unable to provide further information in regard 
to the conference to which this letter refers. 
Sincerely yours, 

Carlisle H. Hxjmelsine, 

Exhibit No. 1315-C 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C, Novemiber 13, 19/t2. 
Mr. Arnold B. Hartley, 

Radio Station WGE8, Western at Madison, Chicago, III. 

My Dear Mr. Hartley : Mr. Welles has asked me to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of November 6, 1942, in which you request a copy of the text of 
a statement issued by him in regard to the questions of national unity in China 
and other United Nations. 

It is thought that you may refer to a memorandum which Mr. Welles gave on 
October 12 to Mr. Earl Browder in regard to this Government's policy with 
respect to China. This memorandum, which was referred to in the press, includ- 
ing the New York Times and the New York Herald Tribune of October 16, has 
not been puMished by the Department. However, a verbatim text of the memo 
randum, as given by'lNIr. Browder to the press, appeared in the October 18, 1942. 
issue of The Worker. 

Sincerely yours, 

George Atcheson, Jr., 

Acting Chief, Division of Far Eastern Affairs. 


Exhibit No. 1315-D 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C, October 29, 1942. 
Mr. Morris U. Schappes, 

School for Democracy, 13 Astor Place, New York, N. Y. 

My Dear Mr. Schappes : Mr. Welles has asked me to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of October 26, 1942, in which you request a copy of the text of a 
memorandum which he gave on October 12 to Mr. Earl Browder in regard to this 
(xovernment's policy with respect to China. 

The above-mentioned memorandum has not been published by the Department. 
However, a verbatim text of the memorandum, as given by Mr. Browder to the 
press, appeared in the October 18, 1942, issue of The Worker. 
Sincerely yours, 

George Atcheson, Jr., 
Assistant Chief, Division of Far Eastern Affairs. 

Exhibit No. 1315-E 

Department of State. 
Washington, D. C, September 26, 1951. 
Hon. Sumnek Welles, 

Oxon Hill, Md. 

My Dear Mr. Welles : The Department has under consideration a request 
from Senator McCarran of Nevada for information concerning a meeting which 
purportedly took place between Mr. Earl Browder, Mr. Robert Minor, Mr. 
Lauchlin Currie, and you at the State Department, October 12, 1942, to discuss 
American policy toward China. Mr. Browder testified before a Senate committee 
headed by Senator Tydings in May 1950 that you handed him a written state- 
ment of the United States Government's views on the Far East at the conclusion 
of this meeting. 

Although a very careful search has been made of the Department's files, we 
have not been able to locate the statement described by Mr. Browder or any 
record of your conversation with him. The files do reveal, however, that Mr. 
Browder released to the press and the Daily Worker published October 16, 1942, 
the text of a memorandum allegedly handed to him by you. 

It is realized that it is difficult to recall details of events which transpired 
many years ago, but it would be greatly appreciated if you could furnish the 
Department such details concerning this matter as you might have available. 
In this connection it might be helpful to you to read the enclosed statements by 
Mr. Browder taken from the Daily Worker. 

I am most reluctant to bother you with this request, but the absence of sufii- 
cient information in the Department's files has led us to seek your assistance. 
Sincerely yours. 

Dean RuBk, 
Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs. 

Enclosures : Daily Worker, October 4, 1942, and October 16. 1942. 

Exhibit No. 1315-F 

Oxon Hill Manor, 
Oxon Hill, Md., October 10, 1951. 
Hon. Dean Rusk, 

Assistant Secretary of State, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Rusk : I have been away from home for some time and your letter 
of September 26, 1951, has consequently only now been brought to my attention, 
I regi-et the delay in replying to your inquiry. 

In view of the many years that have passed since the interview of which you 
refer in your letter, it is unfortunately very diflacult for me to recollect in any 
detail what took place during the course of the interview. Of one thing, however, 
I am certain, and that is that any memorandum that may have been handed to 
Mr. Browder at that time was not prepared by myself, but by the Far Eastern 
Division under the supervision of either Dr. Hornbeek or Mr. Max Hamilton. 
There is no copy of any such memorandum in my own files. 


I also think I am correct in my recollection that some official of the Far Eastern 
Division was present at the interview and subsequently prepared at my request 
a memorandum of the conversation that took place. 

It occurs to me that it might be helpful to you to consult either Dr. Hornbeck 
or Mr. Hamilton since their recollection of what took place at the interview 
and of any documentation that might have been prepared with regard to the 
interview might be more accurate than mine. 

I am very sorry not to be able to be more helpful to you, but neither my memory 
nor my own files throw much light on the matter. 

Believe me, 

Yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) Sumneb Welles. 

Exhibit No. 1315-G 

Mat 19, 1950. 
The Honorable Stanley K. Hornbeck, 

2139 Wyoming Avenue NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mt Dear Dr. Hornbeck : During his recent testimony before the Senate For- 
eign Relations Subcommittee under the chairmanship of Senator Tydings, "Mr. 
Earl Browder stated that in October 1942 he called on Mr. Sumner Welles, then 
Under Secretary of State, to discuss American policy toward China and that 
Mr. Welles handed to him a written statement of the United States Govern- 
ment's views on this subject. He further stated that, while the Department 
considered that this statement did not represent any change in United States 
policy toward China, he did consider it a change in policy and thus an important 
document. In subsequent debate in the Senate, Senator Knowland referred to 
this portion of Mr. Browder's testimony and expressed the view that this was 
an extremely important document since it apparently marked "the turning point 
of American policy in China."' Senator Knowland has not requested the De- 
partment to furnish him a copy of the statement, together with any other perti- 
nent documents leading up to the issuance of the statement. 

Alhough a very careful search has been made of the Department's files, we 
have not yet been able to locate the statement described by Mr. Browder or any 
record of Mr. Welles's conversation with him. The files do reveal, however, that 
Mr. Browder released to the press and The Worker published on October IS, 
1942, the text of a memorandmn said to have been handed to him by Mr. Welles. 
The files also contain memoranda indicating that the matter of Mr. Browder's 
call and the statement given him by Mr. Welles were brought to your attention. 

It is realized that it is difiicnlt to recall the details of events which trans- 
pired many years ago, but it would be greatly appreciated if you would furnish 
the Department such details regarding this matter as you can reconstruct from 
memory. In this connection, it might be helpful to you to read the enclosed copy 
of a dispatch from the Neiv Yo7k Herald Trihune of October 16, 1942, which gives 
Mr. Browder's version of his call on Mr. Welles. 

I am reluctant to bother you with this request, but the absence of sufficient 
information in the Department's files make it necessary for us to seek your 
assistance in this regard. Similar inquiries are being made of other officers of 
the Department then in the Division of Far Eastern Affairs who might have 
some knowledge of the matter. 
Sincerely yours. 

Dean Rttsk, Assistant Secretary. 

Enclosures : 

1. Excerpt from The Worker, October 18, 1942. 

2. Excerpt from the .Vew York Herald. Tribune, October 16, 1942. 

Exhibit No. 1315-H 

2139 Wyoming Avenue, 
Washington 8, D. C, June 7, 1950. 

The Honorable Dean Rttsk, 

Assistant Secretary of State. 
Dear Mr. Rttsk. In reply to your letter of May 19 regarding statement re- 
cently made by Mr. Earl Browder and a memorandum released to the press 


by Mr. Rrowder and published by The Worker on October 18, 1942, and with 
reference especially to your request that I furnish the Department such details 
resanlinj; this matter as I can reconstruct from memory. 

You will doubtless have been informed by !\Ir. Sprouse that, after the receipt 
of your letter under reference, I some days ago spoke with him on the telephone 
and informed him that, although I clearly recall having known at the time 
that Mr. Welles talked with Mr. Browder and that Mr. Browder thereafter 
issued a statement and released therewith the text of a memorandum which 
he said had been handed him by Mr. Welles, there was little that I could add 
from memory to what is set forth in your letter and the enclosure thereto. At 
the same time I offered to come to the Department at any time for he purpose 
of discussing the matter or seeing what the files disclose, or both. 

That Mr. Welles gave Mr. lirowder a memorandum there can be no doubt. 
The account given in that text of the matters to which it relates is, I believe, 
substantially accurate. How or by whom that text was drafted I am not able 
to say. There are passages in it which might have been drafted by me or by 
any one of several officers on duty and concerned with China and relations 
with China as of October 1942, and there are passages which might have been 
accepted or approved by me but which would not, I believe, have originated with 
m§. I recall that Mr. Welles communicated with nie regarding Mr. Browder's call, 
and I do not recall at what stage or stages. I believe that he asked in advance 
for a memorandum for his (Mr. Welles') information and guidance, and, al- 
thoutrh I do not recall the circumstances of the drafting, I believe such a; 
memorandum was prepared with participation on my part and for those pur- 
poses. I recall being informed after the call that Mr. Welles had given Mr. 
Browder a memorandum : and I recall having felt that the text of the mem- 
orandum thus given was not entirely such as I would have drafted or recom- 
mended for that purpose. 

More important, in my opinion, that the question of the origin of the mem- 
orandum under reference is the question whether there took place in 1942 a 
"change" in American policy regarding China and whether this memorandum 
or the facts of the situation to which it related marked a "turning point." 

What Mr. Browder may have had in mind when he expressed himself in 1950 
to the effect, as stated in your letter, that "he did consider it a change of policy," 
we need not for present purposes attempt to conjecture. 

Looking at the text of the memorandum as copied from The Worker of October 
18, 1942, I can say : In that memorandum, dealing with and refuting as.sertions 
and charges which had been made by Mr. Browder, there was given an obejctive 
account of developments in and regarding China and an honest review of what 
had been and was the official position of the United States with regard to the 
question of "civil strife" in China. A review of the whole history of American 
policy in relations to China will show that although the United States had con- 
sistently deprecated not only aggression by other countries against China but 
civil strife — with or without foment or support by other countries — within China, 
the United States had long been committed to the princijile of ncminterveution 
in the internal affairs of other countries. It will show also that for many years 
before 1942, and in that year, and for some time thereafter the Government of 
the United States, in the formulating of official policy regarding China, both kept 
in mind and respected that commitment and that i)rinciple. There was official 
noting of civil strife in China ; there was official giving of advice that civil strife 
be avoided ; there was official collaboration with the Government of China toward 
strengthening China's effort in the war; but there was with regard to the civil 
conflict within China no official taking of a position either "against" or for any 
party or faction. There were on the part of some American nationals some 
manifestations in some contexts of a tendency to ignore or misinterpret or dis- 
regard official policy, but the thoughts and the acts of such nationals in re- 
spects were their own, not those of their (Jovernment, and were, incidentally, in 
most cases favorable to, certainly not "against," the Communists. On the basis 
of what I then knew and of what I have from subsecpient study learned, I find 
no warrant for an oi)inion or a conjecture that there took place in 1942 a change 
in the official attitude and policy of the United States regarding China. 

Both "turning point" and "change of policy" came later. 

A case could be made for a contention that the "turning ])oint" came at the 
time of the Teheran Conference (November-December, 194.'i) ; a better case, 
that it came toward the end of the next year, 1944; but .search for a clearly di.s- 
cernable and describably "change of policy" leads into and through the year'l945. 

It will be recalled that there took place in 1944 — and not until then— the first 


of a series of reorganizations of the Department of State ; that during that year 
there were substantial shiftinss of personnel within and outward from the De- 
partment, inehidins:, in December, the retirement of Secretary of State Cordell 
Hull ; and that thei-e took place in 1945 the Yalta Conference, the death of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, the San Francisco Conference, the capitulation of Germany, the 
capitulation of Japan, the Potsdam Conference, the conclusion (with American 
encouragement) of an Agreement between the Soviet Union and China, the first 
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers, and, in December, announcement 
by President Truman of a "United States Policy toward China" which was then 
and thereafter declared to be a "new" policy. 

It was then, in the year 194r» — and nt)t before then — that the Government of the 
United States, first having taken action inconsistent with tradition and commit- 
ment in regard to China, embarked upon what became a course of intervention in 
regard to the civil conflict, the conflict between the National Government and 
the Communists, in China. It was then that words and action of the Govern- 
ment of the United States began to be expressive of an "against" and a "for" 
attitude ; then and thereafter that the Government of the United States brought 
to bear pressures, pressures upon the National Government, pressures which were 
not "against" the Communists but were on their behalf, pressures not to the 
disadvantage of the Communists, but, in effect, to the disadvantage of the Na- 
tional Government. 

To the circumstances of the "change," to the content and purport of the policy 
devised in 1945, proclaimed on December 15 of that year, and given expression in 
word and in deed since then, and to the gross and the net consequences thereof, 
there is no need for attention in the present context. There is however, in my 
opinion, great need that in the context of present American involvement as a 
leading participant, in a third global conflict, wherein "Communist" totalitarian- 
ism is making war both "cold" and "hot", on all States, Governments, peoples, 
institutions, organization and persons disinclined to accept domination by it, 
there is urgent need that the Government of the United States give solicitous 
attention to the question : Must the United States follow to the bitter, tragic and 
discrediting end the downward path, in relations with China, on which its feet 
were set in the fateful year of military victories and diplomatic vagaries and 
vitiations, 1945? 

I should welcome an opportunity to talk with you on the implications of query. 
Yours cordially and sincerely, 

[s] Stanley K. Hornbeck 
Stanley K. Hornbeck. 

Mr. Morris. This is a copy of a letter, Mr. Chairman, you sent to 
the Secretary of State dated May 1, 1952, wherein you renew your 
demand for the handwritten notes of Alger Hiss taken at the Yalta 
Conference in 1945. May that go into the record ? 

The Chairman. Was there an answer to that ? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

The Chairman. That may go in the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1316" and is 

as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 1316 

May 1, 1952. 
The Secretary of State, 

The State Department, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Secretary : On February 21, 1952, I wrote to you asking that 
the handwritten notes of Alger Hiss taken at the Yalta Conference in 1945 be 
made available to the Internal Security Subcommittee. 

In my letter of February 21st it was pointed out that a witness before the 
Subcommittee, Dr. Edna Fluegel, an employee of the State Department from 
1&42 to 1948, testified that, in the course of her official duties in the Department, 
she dealt with and handled the penciled notes of Mr. Hiss. 

This letter is written to determine what action has been taken on my request 
of February 21, 1952, to you. 

Pat McCarran, Chairman. 


Mr. SoTJRWiNE. The oricrinal request is already in the record. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; and this is the renewal. 

These will be made available, Mr. Holland, if you want to see them. 

The next will be a copy of a letter by you, Senator McCarran, ad- 
dressed to Rear Adm. Robert L. Dennison, dated May 1, 1952, in con- 
nection with a request that the Forrestal diaries and papers be made 
available to this committee. May that go into the record? 

The Chairman. That may go in the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 131T" and is 
as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 1317 

May 1, 1952. 
Rear Admiral Robert L. Dennison, 
The White House, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Admiral Dennison : My attention lias been called to the story appearing 
in the New York Times today concerning the intention of the White House not 
to make available to the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee the diaries and 
papers of the late James Forrestal. 

As you know, on Decemlier 3, 1951, a subpena was served on the New York 
Herald Tribune directing tliat it make available the papers and diaries of Mr. 
Forrestal. It is my understanding these are the property of the New York 
Herald Tribune. The Subcommittee has been assured by the New York Herald 
Tribune that as far as it is concerned it has done everything possible to comply 
with the demands of the subpena. The staff of the Subcommittee contacted 
you about this matter because it was understood you were holding these papers 
for the owners. 

The New York Times story referred to above, which credits a White House 
source, treats this matter as though the documents in question were Executive 
papers and wholly subject to Presidential control. 

If for any reason you have decided to refuse to make these subpenaed papers 
and diaries available to the Subcommittee, it is requested you directly inform 
me, as Subcommittee Chairman, of the position you choose to take. 

Kindest personal regards and best wishes. 

Pat McCarran, Chairman. 

Mr. Morris. We have a letter from Mr. Edwin O. Reischauer dated 
September 26, 1951, which he requested to go into the record. This was 
discussed before. We held it up on the grounds that we had hoped 
possibly that we might have a sworn statement by Mr. Reischauer, but, 
in view of the fact that we are a little pressed, will you accept this 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, it is the opinion of counsel that this 
letter is distinguishable and should be distinguished from an offer of 
proof which is not made in affidavit form, since this letter is a recital 
which does not appear to be at variance with the facts ; is that correct, 
Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. All right; it will go in the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1318" and is 
as follows) : 


Exhibit No. 1318 

Harvard University, 
Department of Far Eastern Languages, 
Boylston Hall, Cambridge S8, Mass., September 26, 1951. 
The Honorable Pat McCarran, 

Senate Judiciary Committee, United States Senate, 

Washington, D. 0. 

Db:ar Senator McCarban : I understand that my name was cited before your 
committee yesterday as one of a group who had taken a pro-Chinese Communist 
stand at a three-day meeting called by the Department of State in October 1949. 
I am certain that any examination of the record of those meetings or of my various 
writings before or after that time will reveal nothing which could be called pro- 
Chinese Communist or in favor of communism in any form. As I recollect the 
meetings, my chief role was to present, at the request of the State Department, 
a statement on the situation in Japan. I took this opportunity to urge the con- 
clusion of a peace treaty with Japan as soon as feasible, in part on the grounds 
that this was an important step in our efforts to halt the spread of Communism 
there. This opinion subsequently became a generally accepted view in the U. S. 
Government, and the peace treaty which Mr. Dulles and Mr. Acheson so ably 
brought to successful completion was in part based on such a point of view. 

I am sending you this statement so that the records of your committee will not 
contain false testimony uncorrected and so that the committee may be warned 
of the unreliability of some of its witnesses, such as Professor Kenneth W. 
Colgrove, who is quoted as being responsible for the statement in question. 
Yours sincerely, 

[s] Edwin O. Reischauer, 
[t] Edwin O. Reischauer, 
Professor of Far Eastern Languages. 

September 28, 1951. 
Prof. Edwin O. Reischauer, 

Harvard University, Department of Far Eastern Languages, 
Boylston Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Dear Professor Reischauer : I have your letter of September 26, 1951, which 
will be inserted in the public record of our proceedings. 

Pat ]\IcCarran, Chairman. 

Mr. Morris. This is a reply the staff has received in connection with 
a compilation. Perhaps this was done by Mr, Mandel. Will you 
identify that? 

Mr. Mandel. This is a reply from the Library of Congress. 

The Chairman. Wliat is the date? 

Mr. Mandel. It is dated March 12, 1952. We had asked for in- 
formation regarding the activities and career of Madame Sun Yat-sen. 
The letter is signed by Ernest Griffith, director of the Legislative 
Reference Service. It is a reply to a request from me. 

Mr. Morris. Will that go in the record ? 

The Chairman. That will go in the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1319," and 
is as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 1319 

Legislative Reference Service 

The Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C, March 12, 1952. 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. 0. 
(Attention: Miss Walker.) 
Gentlemen : With respect to your request concerning Madame S«n Tat-sen's 
cooperation with the Communists, we submit the following information. It Is 


based largely on the articles on Madame Sun in Current Biography, 1944; the 
Neiv York Times Magazine, August 11, 1946 ; A'ejo York Herald Tribune, March 
7, 1950. 

Madame Sun was active in the Chinese revolutionary movement during the 
period of the "first united front" in China (1924-27) when the Communists 
and Nationalists cooperated under the initial leadership of her husband, Dr. 
Sun Yat-sen. 

Madame Sun left China in 1927 after the split in the revolutionary movement. 
Living abroad, first in Moscow and then in Berlin, Madame Sun was critical 
of the National Government under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek. She re- 
turned to China in May 1929, to attend to the removal and reintei'ment of the 
remains of her husband. 

After the Japanese invasion of China in 1931, Madame Sun urged a united 
effort against the Japanese. In 1938, she accepted a seat on the Central Execu- 
tive Committee of the Kuomintaug. She had been elected to the post in absentia 
in 1929, but refused until this time to lend her pi-estige to the party. However, 
she continued to criticize what slie termed the "reactionary minority within the 
leadership" of the Kuomintang "which has forgotten the teachings of Sun 

When the Chinese Communists took Shanghai in May 1949, Madame Sun re- 
mained in the city. In the early fall of 1949 she became a "non-Comnmnist" 
member and vice chairman of the "People's Political Consultative Council" in 
the newly formed "People's Republic of China." 

Since that time Madame Sun's name has appeared as author of several ar- 
ticles attacking the motives and policies of the United States. Such attacks 
have contained references to the "peaceful" intentions of the "Great Soviet 
Union" led by the "mighty Stalin" and similar terminology. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] Ernest S. Griffith 

[t] Ernest S. Griffith. Director. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, if I might revert to the offer of the 
letter by yoit to Admiral Dennison, through error for which counsel 
is responsible, the document is not here physically at this hearing. 
There is in the files of the committee in Washington a letter addressed 
to Mr. Morris from Charles Murphy, administrative assistant to the 
President, with regard to the Forrestal diaries. I ask the Chair to 
order that that letter may be inserted in the record. 

The Chairman. Yes; I know of that letter, and it may be inserted 
in the record. It has to do with my request for the Forrestal diaries. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1320," and 
filed for the record.) 

Exhibit No. 1320 

The White House, 
Washington, April 28, 1952. 
Mr. Robert Morris. 

Counsel, Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, 
United States Senate. Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Morris: It is understood that you have been in touch with Admiral 
Robert L. Dennison, the President's Naval Aide, concerning the possibility of 
having made available to the Subcommittee on Internal Security certain papers of 
the late James V. Forrestal, which are now in the custody of the White House. 
I have been requested by the President to advise you that in his judgment the 
disclosure of these papers would not be in the public interest. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] Charles S. Murphy 
[t] Charles S. Murphy. 
Special Counsel to the President. 

The Chairman. It is a reply made by Mr. Charles Murphy of the 
President's staff. 


Mr. SouKwiNE. If the Chairman please, it is in a sense not a reply 
because the committee had made no request of Mr. Murphy or of the 

The Chairman. I understand, but he is makin<; the reply, is he not ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. It is a letter stating that the President has directed 
him to inform the committee the President does not feel the committee 
should have the Forrestal diaries. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I offer you a group of letters and a list. 
I ask if you will identify the letters and the list. 

The Chairman. Take the list first. 

Mr. Mandel. This is a list prepared under my direction of lettei*s, 
memoranda, and documents from or to Mr. E. C. Carter as taken from 
the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Sgfrwine. Is that list an inventory of the documents and 
papers whicli have also been handed to you at this time ? 

Mr. Mandel. It is in fact an inventory of these documents. 

The Chairman. You better tie them into the record a little bit by 
some identification. There are so many that we are handling here 
rather loosely. I think you better identify them. 

Mr. Mandel. This list begins with A. Von Trott and ends with 
E. C. Carter. 

The Chairman. Are there numbers of serials? 

Mr. Mandel. The documents are numbered and dated. 

The Chairman. And the list sets forth the numbers and the dates? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Ml'. Sourwine. Were the documents themselves taken from the 
files of the Institute of Pacific Relations^ 

Mr. Mandel. They were. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have these documents been shown to Mr. Carter? 

Mr. Marks. Yes, they have, Mr. Sourwine. 

The Chairman. They may be inserted in the record. 

(The documents referred to were marked Exhibits Nos. 1123 to 
1139, inclusive; 1141 to 1182, inclusive; 1184 to 1223, inclusive; 1125 
to 1229, inclusive: 1231 to 1240, inclusive; 1242 to 1254, inclusive; 
1256 to 1260, inclusive, and appear on pp. 5198 through 5272.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Alfred Kohlberg was the object 
of certain statements made by a witness before this committee, Mr. 
Owen Lattimore, and he has Avritten in demanding the right to be 
heard. The committee has rejected a statement that he gave to the 
committee on the theory that it was not a sworn statement. 

At the suggestion of the committee he has now made this a sworn 
statement. May that be received into the record at this time? He 
has presented it in the form of an affidavit. 

The Chairman. Is it the same in substance that he made before 
he took an oath to it? 

Mr. Morris. Previously he was introducing certain letters and cer- 
tain material which the committee felt were self-serving and they 
were rejected. In lieu of that Mr. Kohlberg has submitted this 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I believe it would be clarifying if 
the Chair also ordered printed in the record at this point the corres- 
pondence in the committee file between Mr. Kohlberg and the com- 
mittee on this subject. That would explain it. 


The Chairman. That will be the order, and this will be inserted 
in the record together with the correspondence of the past. 

(The documents referred to were marked exhibit No. 1321-A, B, C, 
and is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 1321-A 

March 28, 1952. 
Senator Pat McCarran, 

Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Senator : As proposed in your letter I enclose affidavit for inclu- 
sion in the record of your Hearings. 
Briefly it states : 

1. References to me by witnesses before you Committee as the China Lobby, 

2. My background and interest in the Far East. 

3. Letters from Air Marshal Bishop and Assistant Secretary of Navy Gates 
attesting my interest in opposing totalitarianism. 

4. Service in Civil Air Patrol. 

5. Wartime trip to China and discovery of apparent treasonable activities. 

6. Study of IPR and publication of findings November 9, 1944. 

7. Answer by four trustees. 

8. My answer of December 28, 1944. 

9. Special meeting of IPR — my letter to members and defeat of my resolution 
for investigation. 

10. Formation of American China Policy Association in 1946 and letter of 
Congresswoman Clare Booth Luce, October 11. 1945, revealing attitude of 

11. My appearance before Senate Committees and acquaintance with members 
of Foreign Relations Committee of Senate. 

12. My connection with Senator McCarthy. 

13. Admiral Nimitz, General Marshall, and IPR. 

14. Letter to IPR Trustees, March 13, 1952. 

15. Letter to Dr. Roscoe Pound. 
IG. Closing statement. 

Very sincerely yours, 

[s] Alfred Kohlberg 
[t] AxFREo Kohlberg, 
1 West 37th Street, New York, 18, N. Y. 

Exhibit No. 1321-B 

April 9, 1952. 
Mr. Alfred Kohlberg, 
1 West 37th Street, 

Neiv York 18, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Kohlberg : I have your affidavit of March 28, 1952, which contains 
extraneous clippings and supplementary letters. 

For inclusion in the record of the Internal Security Subcommittee what you 
submit should be all in affidavit form. 
Kindest regards, 

Pat McCarran, Chairman. 

Exhibit No. 1321-C 

(Mr. Alfred Kohlberg's affidavit of April 16, 1952 :) 

State of New York, 

Count!/ of New York, ss: 

Alfred Kohlberg, being duly sworn, deposes and says : 

That I reside in New York, my office address being 1 West 37th Street, New 
York 18, N. Y. 

That Professor Owen Lattimore referred to me three times in his statement 
read to the subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the United States Senate, 


generally referred to as the McCarran Committee. That in addition Professor 
Lattimore referred to me several times in his verbal testimony ; that I vpas like- 
wise referred to numerous times by other witnesses before tlie McCarran Com- 
mittee ; alos by Professor Lattimore and other witnesses before the Tydings 
Committee in March, April, May and June 1950; also by Senators Morse and 
McMahon during the Joint Committee hearings on the dismissal of General Mac- 
Arthur ; and on the floor of the Senate by Senators Lehman, Connally and others. 

That beginning in April and May 1950, after Professor Lattimore's statements 
to the Tydings Committee, articles and editorials appeared in the Washington 
Post, St. Louiy Dispatch, New York Post, New York Compass, New York Daily 
Worker, New York Times, The Nation (a weekly), the New Republic (a weekly). 
That I was mentioned 17 times in Owen Lattimore's book '"Ordeal by Slander." 

That the testimony and articles stated that I was the "China Lobby," that I 
was the "man behind McCarthy ;" that "McCarthy's charges were nothing but a 
rehash of the irresponsible charges of Kohlberg;" that I was probably secretly 
in the pay of the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek ; that I had connec- 
tions with a so-called Christian-front, with fascists, with anti-semites ; and an 
editorial in the Washington Post entitled "Kohlberg's Klan" suggested further 
disreputable connections. 

That I have written evidence that in April 1950 one, Robert W. Barnett, form- 
erly Secretary of the Institute of Pacific Relations, and in 1950 Chief of the 
Economic Section of the Far Eastern Division of the State Department, advised 
certain reporters of the above alleged facts about me and further advised them 
that more details could be obtained from an organization in New York called The 
Friends of Democracy, headed by Rev. Leon Birkhead ; and that Friends of 
Democracy had prepared a three page statement entitled "The Case Against 
Alfred Kohlberg." 

That the facts concerning my interest and activities in opposing Communism, 
and opposing the Chinese Communists, are as follows: 

I have been engaged in the import textile business for more than 35 years, 
having offices and agents at various times in China, Japan, Iran, France, 
Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. At no time have I ever done any busi- 
ness with or had any financial transactions of any character with the Govern- 
ment of the United States or any foreign Government, or any subsidiary thereof 
(with two exceptions), except for the payment of customs dues and taxes. When 
I refer to any business or financial transactions, I include myself personally and 
any and all corporations with which I have been actively connected. The ex- 
ceptions referred to above were (1) a period of 2 or 3 years during which one 
of my corporations acted as agent for the Amtorg Trading Corp. for Russian 
linens in the late 20's or early 30's ; and (2) the purchase of some surplus navy 
jackets, after V-J Day, from the United States Government. 

During these more than 35 years in foreign trade, I came to understand the 
wisdom of the now-abandoned Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy. The 
Monroe Doctrine was designed to prevent the possibility of the building up 
of a European empire on this continent, with its resulting constant threat to 
our security. The Open Door Policy was designed to prevent any military 
empire from adding to its power the resources and manpower of the Chinese 
Empire, with a resulting threat to our security in the Pacific. 

Therefore when Japan began her all-out war on China in 1937, I contributed 
to relief work and addressed some open letters to Congress on America's inter- 
est, as I saw it. At the beginning of that war I learned that the Soviet Union 
extended aid in military supplies and a Rus'-ian-manned airforce to the Republic 
of China. Being in China in the summer of 1938, I learned that the Soviets had 
ceased their aid and that Russia had reached agreement with Germany and 
Japan. This agreement, which was finally made public as the Hitler-Stalin 
Pact of Aug. 23, 1939, I reported in an interview in the New York Times of 
Nov. 25, 1938. During the course of said interview I stated, and the New York 
Times reported, that Russia, Germany, and Japan had arrived at an agreement 
by which Russia "either joined the German-Japanese alliance, or, if she did not 
go so far, made peace with Japan and Germany. The arrangement called for 
cooperation with Russia by Japan and Germany rather than antagonism, and 
provided for withdrawal of Russian support to Chinese forces." 

After the war started in Europe the following year, and after the replace- 
ment of Neville Chamberlain by Winston Churchill convinced me that Britain 
would really fight the Hitler-Stalin-Japanese alliance, being a licensed airplane 
pilot. I w'ent to Canada in May 1940 to volunteer, but was rejected because 
of age. 


The following month, after the fall of France, I wrote to Wing Commander 
Homer Smith of the Royal Canadian Air Force, offering to volunteer, with my 
airplane, to fly a suicide mission into any German objective selected by them. 
On July 2, 1940, Air Marshal W. A. Bishop wrote me "Wing Commander Smith 
has shown me your letter and I wanted to take this opportunity of telling you 
how much we appreciate your offer of service, and the offer of your machine. 
At the moment, however, the age limit makes it impossible for us to accept your 
services, but should this at a later date change, I will get in touch with you." 

Thereafter I volunteered to fly a similar suicide mission for the Australians, 
the British, and the Chinese ; but was refused. 

Finally, after Pearl Harbor on December 9, 1941, I wrote Artemus Gates, 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air, stating in part : 

"In May 1940 I volunteered for the R.C.A.F. at Ottawa but was turned down 
on account of age. In July 1940 I volunteered to fly any old trainer loaded with 
explosives into a troop transport, warship or any other objective. This offer was 
refused. In April 1941 I repeated this offer. This last offer is still being con- 
sidered, but the Air Attache of the British Embassy in Washington still has no 
final decision from London, but is not hopeful of a favorable answer, as the regu- 
lations provide for no such service." 

"I now make this offer to you  * * Can you use me? Rank and pay are 
no object, but I would like two weeks to wind up my affairs. This letter, of 
course, is strictly confldential." 

On Jan. 8, 1942, Mr. Gates wrote : 

"I have your offer very much in mind, in fact, I have not been able to forget it 
since you wrote me early in December, but to date I just don't know where such 
100 percent unselfish services can be used. Perhaps the opportunity will develop 
but I think our battle on the Pacific is going to be a long war. 

"Incidentally, a number of officers in the Bureau of Aeronautics have been 
acquainted with your sacrifice." 

P^ailing to obtain such a commission, I finally served with the Civil Air Patrol 
in the antisubmarine patrol in the Gulf of Mexico in the latter part of 1942, and 
hold Certificate of Honorable Service of the Department of the Air Force. 

I refer to this service and attempted service as an answer to charges and im- 
plied charges, referred to above, that I was a Fascist or sympathetic to fascist- 
minded groups, with none of whom have I ever had any association whatsoever. 

Meantime I had become a Director and in 1941 Chairman of the Executive 
Committee of the Board of Directors of the American Bureau for Medical 
Aid to China. In the Spring of 1943 ABMAC and United China Relief, of 
which it had become a part, received unfavorable reports from their staff 
men in Chungking about graft and incompetency in the Chinese Army medical 
services, which we were aiding. Mr. E. C. Carter, of the IPR, had become head 
of the United China Relief Committee that allocated funds to the various 
agencies in China, and had recommended for appointment most of the employees 
of United China Relief. 

I flew to China in June 1943 at my own expense to invetigate. Shortly before 
leaving for China, Mr. Lauchlin Currie jjhoned New York and asked me to 
see him before going, in his offices in the State Department. He told me at 
considerable length of reports being received from China, of incompetence, 
corruption and the inability and lack of will on the part of the Chinese to fight. 
He told me I could check with Americans in Chungking, and that he would 
be pleased to hear my impressions on returning. On arrival in China Dwight 
Edwards, head of UCR there. Dr. George Bachman, head of ABMAC, and various 
other Americans including some in our Embassy confirmed the reports of cor- 
ruption and incompetence. 

As none of them had been in the field, I asked their sources, which they 
protested were confidential. I therefore felt it necessary to check in the field, 
which I did against their advice. After traveling through five provinces by 
truck, ambulance, rail, air and horse-back, including 8 days in the 0th War 
Area, I found the itemized charges either completely untrue or greatly exag- 

On returning to America I complained to Dr. Stanley Hornbeck, Polit'cal 
Adviser to the Secretary of State on the Far East, and Joseph Ballantine, 
Director Far Eastern Division of the State Department, in a lengthy interview. 
1 protested that the untruths were making Chinese-American cooperation dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, witli resultant benefit to the Japanese enemy and un- 
necessary loss of both Chinese and American lives. 


They professed to be unable to do anything about it ; Dr. Hornbeck saying : 
"When I see the people that this Department is sending to China, I shake in 
my shoes." 

It was not until early 1944 that I began to realize that the lies about the 
Chinese Government and Army were Communist propaganda ; and that the 
main source for spreading them in this country was the Institute of Pacific 
Relations. Although I had previously been a member of the Finance Committee 
of the IPR and helped raise funds for them, and had previously recognized 
that some of the employees were pro-Communist, I had not suspected the 
scope of the infiltration. As I had foolishly thrown away all back copies of 
their publications, unread, I went to their offices to rebuy such back copies. 
They told me that they were out of print. 

I therefore went to the public library and from about April to October 1944, 
read all articles they had published on the Chinese military and/or political 
situation from 1937 to that date. I then read the articles in the New Masses, 
an official Communist weekly, and The Communist, an official Communist month- 
ly, on the same topics, for the same years. 

From these I prepared an 88 page study (frequently referred to in the Mc- 
Carran hearings) and sent it with a covering letter to Mr. E. C. Carter and to 
each of the Trustees of the IPR and such members and other persons interested 
in the Far East as were known to, or suggested to me. (Later the IPR in their 
so-called analysis which Mr. Dennett testified was prepared by Mrs. Maxwell 
S. Stewart, and not by the Trustees, and in other testimony, charged that my 
study contained extracts from only 2 percent of their articles published between 
1937 and 1944. This may or may not be literally true, but is irrelevant as I 
studied and extracted only their articles on the military and/or political situation 
in China. To the best of my memory my extracts covered all or practically all of 
their articles in those two fields. I did not attempt to analyze their articles on 
other countries than China (even including the U. S. and Canada), nor on other 
topics such as economics, industry, transportation, finance, agriculture, folklore, 
family life, shipping, missionary activities, fisheries, etc., etc.) 

In my covering letter to Mr. Carter, dated Nov. 9, 1944, I said in part : 

"Last June I received from United China Relief a copy of a booklet issued 
by your IPR entitled 'War-Time China' (IPR Pamphet No. 10). In a recent 
advertisement, Rosamund Lee, your Publications Secretary, referring to this 
pamphlet states. 'What is the true situation between the Chinese Communists 
and the Kuomintang as explained by Maxwell S. Stewart in War-Time China.' 

"Frankly, I was shocked at this pamphlet. From start to finish, it seemed 
to me a deliberate smear of China, the Chinese and the Chinese Government. I 
was especially shocked by the following: 'They (the American, British and 
Soviet Governments) have, however, limited their economic and military as- 
sistance because of fear that any supplies they send might be used in civil strife 
rather than against the Japanese.' 

"The statement seems completely at variance with the many statements made 
by our President to the effect that all possible aid is being given to China and 
will continue to be given to China. 

"Three or four years ago, you may recall, I resigned after a dozen years mem- 
bership in IPR. You asked me the reason for my resignation and I told you 
frankly that I thought you had too many Communists on your staff. You asked 
me if I thought you were a Communist, to which I, of course, replied 'No.' You 
then told me that you did not question your staff as to their political beliefs : 
whether they were Democrats, Republicans, Socialists, Communists, or what 
not; that you investigated their qualifications and judged them by their work. 
This seemed to me at the time a very businesslike attitude and I withdrew my 

"After reading the above referred-to booklet, I decided to look into the IPR 
publications further. As a result of this reading, I now attach hereto a lot of 
clippings from your publications, along with clippings from 'The Communist' 
(Official organ of the Communist Party in the U. S. A.) and 'New Masses' 
(another Communist organ), also a few other clippings that seem to bear on the 
same issues. If you will go throiigh these, I think you will find that your 
employees have been putting over on you a not-too-well-camouflaged Communist 
line. Your staff publications follow the 'New Masses' line exactly but not quite 
so frankly and the 'New Masses' articles are much better documented. In 
selecting these, I have had to clip and clip to keep to reasonable length, but I 
believe that what is left of each article fairly represents the article as a whole, 
as far as same touches on the subjects coverprl 

88348— 52— pt. 14 3 


"This study poses the question : What are the Soviet Union's aims in the Far 
East? Is there a sinister purpose behind this Communist inspired campaign 
to discredit China? Only Marshall Stalin can answer this question. 

"But another question has been bothering me as I made this study. This 
question is: Is it treason? Does the publication of untruthful statements give 
'aid and comfort' to our enemy, Japan, in its attempt to break Chinese unity under 
Chiang Kai-shek? This question I propound to your Board of Trustees. 

"Look over these clippings and see if you do not think it is time for a house- 
cleaning in the IPR. The economic articles (not quoted) sounded to me very 
much like undergraduate studies, compiled from studies of Chinese economists 
and lacking any practical business background. 

"If you agree that a house cleaning in the IPR is long overdue, I will be happy 
to help. My suggestions would be : 

"1. Fire all the Reds, because the truth is not in them. 
"2. Adopt a policy of presenting facts rather than opinions. Identify the 
sources of your information. 

"3. Name a responsible body to determine policy. 
"This last point is suggested to me by what I missed in going through your 
last 7 years' publications. I found : 

1. No criticism of Japan in those 7 years, except of her rural land system • 

2. No single criticism of Communist China ; and ' 

3. No single criticism of the Soviet Union ; whereas I found : 

4. Severe criticism of the Chinese Government, alternating with praise 
closely following the alternations of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and of 
the Communist press. 

"A responsible committee controlling and vouching for your policy would be 
very reassuring to the members of, and contributors to your Institute." 

This letter was answered, not by Mr. Carter, but by Messrs. Robert G Sproul 
Chairman ; Robert D. Calkins, Dean, Columbia Universitv ; G. Ellsworth Huggins' 
Treasurer, and Philip C. Jessup. In their answer they said : 

"At its December 11 meeting the Executive Committee of the American Council 
reviewed Mr. Kohlberg's charges and demands. It desires to report the following : 
_ "The Executive Committee and the responsible officers of the American Coun- 
cil find no reason to consider seriously the charge of bias. The character of the 
personnel associated with the Institute, the long history of its research activities 
and the demonstrated value of its research testify to the fact that it has 
properly fulfilled its function to conduct impartial research on important issues 
even though they are controversial. The Committee believes a full presenta- 
tion and discussion of such issues is desirable, even in wartime. 

"The Institute of Pacific Relations has, and always has had, a responsible 
body to determine policy. The Pacific Council, with which Mr. Carter is 
associated, is directed by representatives from the National Councils and that 
body, made up of these representatives, determines its policies. 

"The general policy of the American Council, which is one of the ten con- 
stituent bodies in the Institute, is determined by the Board of Trustees The 
Executive Committee acts on behalf of the Board of Trustees, when the Board 
is not in session. 

"The research conducted by the American Council is under the direction of 
Its Research Advisory Committee, to which research planning and policy have 
been delegated by the Executive Committee. This Committee formulates and 
approves research programs, and it approves the research personnel who are 
engaged for their competence to undertake the special assignments required in 
the research program. Having hired competent research workers, it is not the 
policy of the Committee or of the American Council to censor this findings, but 
to publish them as the research results of the authors themselves." 

This answer of the 4 trustees, I answered Dec. 28, 1944. My answer follows 
(in part) : 

''The issue presented to Mr. Carter by my letter of Nov. 9 is : 

"Have the publications of the I. P. R. (both American Council and Pacific 
Council) closely followed the Communist line in alternate praise and abuse of 
the Chinese Government? i. e. 

Prior to the Hitler-Stalin past of Aug. 23, 1939 __ Praise 

Then until June 22, 1941 (Hitler invasion of Russia) Abuse 

Then until Summer of 1943 Praise. 

Since Summer of 1943 1 Abuse. 

"The issue presented to your Board by my letter of Nov. 9 is : Are these publi- 
cations treasonable, inasmuch as they are calculated to give 'aid and comfort' to 


our enemy, Japan, in its attempts by propaganda to break the faith of the 
Chinese people in the Government of Chiang Kai-shek? 

"Neither of these issues is touched on in your letter of Dec. 19. Wliether they 
were discussed at your meeting of Dec. 11 is not stated. 

"Your letter states that, having selected competent employees, you let them 
publish what they wish, without censorship. Do you consider yourselves re- 
sponsible bodies and if so, do you, or do you not, assume responsibility for those 
publications by your staff? 

"As a member, may I ask your Research Advisory Committee for the quali- 
fications as 'experts' of the following staff members who write your articles on 
whether, including dates of their visits to China, cities and provinces visited, and 
whether you feel their impartiality is attested to, or questioned by, their accept- 
ance as authorities by, and contributors to, the American Communist press: 
Maxwell S. Stewart 
T. A. Bisson 
L. K. Rosinger 
Y. Y. Hsu 

"As a member, I would be interested to know who elected or appointed to 
your Board and to your Executive Committee, Mr. Frederick V. Field, Gen- 
eralissimo of the White House pickets until their liquidation, Sunday, June 22^ 
1941, and now featured writer on China for the 'Daily Worker,' 'The Commu- 
nist,' and 'New Masses', I would also be interested to know what makes him; 
an 'expert' on China. 

"In my letter of November 9, I called attention to the fact that in reading^ 
your publications for the past 7 years, I found no criticism of Japan, Communist 
China, or the Soviet Union, but alternating praise and abuse of the Chinese 

"Since that time I have received scores of letters, many from outstanding: 
American authorities on the Far East. None was critical, some were non- 
committal, the majority were commendatory of my study. A number were from 
ex-members of your Institute who resigned because they felt the Institute had 
become the not-too-well-camouflaged agent of a foreign power whose way of 
life and world-wide tifth column infiltration are antagonistic to the interest of 
these United States. 

"From that correspondence I attach a letter written to you Oct. 8, 1942, by 
Mr. Miller Freeman, Seattle publisher. Mr. Freeman tells me his letter was- 
neither answered nor acknowledged. Maybe he, too, should have cleared it 
privately with Mr. Carter. 

"Before closing, one more quotation — this from signed statement of Upton. 
Close : 

"'A few days prior to the Pearl Harbor disaster, Mr. Trammell' (head of 
NBC) 'himself received a letter from E. C. Carter, head of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, demanding that I be dropped from the air because I was 

"One of the questions most commonly asked is : "What are IPR's motives 
for their current attacks on China.' Possibly your Boards would like to make 
a statement on this, explaining why all your articles on the current complicated 
situation are written by staff members, none of whom has been in China for 
years, while contrary statements by such liberals as Pearl Buck and Lin Yutang 
are ignored, and articles from your own Chinese Council are rejected. May I 
also ask Mr. Carter whether he personally presented your public criticisms to 
Chiang Kai-shek, Ho Ying-chin, Chen Li-fu and Sun-fo in Chungking last year 
and what were their answers?" 

I then asked for permission to circulate my fellow members. This was 
granted by letter from Mr. Raymond Dennett. But when I sent a secretary 
by appointment to copy the names, they withdrew permission. I filed suit for 
the membership list, which after various court vicissitudes was settled by agree- 
ment by the IPR to address on their machine under my inspection any one mail- 
ing I might choose to send their members. 

In said mailing, dated March 18, 1947, I included a printed resolution appoint- 
ing an impartial committee of investigation and a proxy to vote for same. Also 
one article from the New Leader and one from Plain Talk, both about the IPR 
and wrote my fellow members of the IPR in part as follows : 

"By order of the supreme court of the State of New York, this letter is being 
mailed to you by the American Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc. 

"Early in July 1943 I was told by several Americans in Chungking that 'the 
Chinese Government was hoarding tanks and guns given them under lend-lease 


to use against the Japs.' Late in August, having spent six weeks traveling 
through Szechuen, Kweichow, Kwangsi, Hunan and Yunnan, I called on Brig. 
Gen. Arms, U. S. Army, Commander of the Infantry Training School in Kun- 
ming. Among other items I asked why we permitted such hoarding. He laughed 
and said he'd heard some good ones, but this took the cake. He said that 
nip to that date all the arms and ammunition that had come in had gone to 
liim and to the artillery training school; that they were not fully equipped as 
yet and, until they were, nothing would be flown in (the air route over the 
iump to Kunming being the only route in) for any other force except the air 
force whose minimum requirements were the first priority. He explained that 
nothing but air-force supplies had come in since May, due to the monsoons. 
After the monsoons ended, he expected the resumption of his equipping; and 
after that was completed, he explained, General Stilwell was to get full equip- 
ment for two of his divisions, and then, after that, 50% was to go to Stilwell and 
50% to the Chinese Army- — sometime in 1944. At that moment, he said, not 
one tank or gun or rifle or bazooka or cartridge had been turned over to the Chi- 
nese Army under lend-lease — hence none could be hoarded. 

"On returning to the United States, I spoke of this and other reports with 
;some heat and was told by friends that the IPR was the chief culprit in the 
spreading of lies about China, and that the motivation back of it was Commu- 
nism. I had been a member of the IPR since 1928, but like most businessmen 
and (as I later learned) like most of their Board of Trustees, I seldom read 
the literature they sent me, and like most people knew nothing about Com- 

"To check on these charges, I read through the Fae Eastern StmvEY and our 
quarterly Faciftc Affairs from 1937 to that date (summer of 1944). In my 
reading I read every article on the political and military situation in China 
and skipped nearly everything else. Then, to learn the Communist line, I read 
all the articles on the political and military situation in China in the Netw 
Masses (weekly) and The Communist (monthly), both being Communist Party 
ofiicial publications. 

"In the course of this reading I learned that the IPR and the Communist 
publications had switched their attitude or 'line' on the situation in China 
several times between 1937 and 1944; both IPR and Communists making the 
same switches at the same time. Further I noticed that to some extent they 
interchanged writers and both quoted the same authorities ; that they were both 
lyrical in their reviews of the same books ; but that, of the three, the New 
Masses (possibly because it was franker and more open in taking sides) had the 
best documented articles. In fact, if the IPR had disregarded whatever in- 
formation sources it had (if any) and relied only on the New Masses, it would 
have omitted little that it published on the Chinese military and political 

"After completing my study, I published extracts from the IPR and the Com- 
munist press in an 88-page booklet and sent it with a letter to Mr. E. C. Carter 
and each of our Trustees and to personal acquaintances interested in China. 
(You may have a copy of this and later correspondence for the asking.) 

"At that time I thought that Mr. Carter, who was then President of Russian 
War Relief, was so busy that he had let some Reds on the staff run off with the 
Institute. I called on him and the Trustees to fire these Reds and exercise a real 
control over their publications. (That was November 1944.) The answer of the 
Executive Committee was to issue a letter stating that they did not think my 
charges 'merited serious consideration.' (Two of them told me later that they 
had not read the study.) They then turned the charges and study over to the 
staff (against whom the charges were filed) to be studied and answered. By 
April 1945 the stafC had prepared a 52-page answer of which I only learned in 
1946 and of which even the Chairman of the Trustees couldn't get a copy to give 
me. I finally obtained a copy by court order in October 1946. 

"Since 1944 I have learned much more about the IPR ; its apparently completely 
Communist or pro-Communist staff ; that all articles on Far Eastern politics are 
written by Communists or pro-Communists (some articles on economic, scientific, 
geographic questions are not) ; and that it has ties through interlocking direc- 
torates or staff with various Communist or pro-Communist organizations. 

"Through its influence in the stafiing of the State Department, Army and Navy 
Intelligence, and Far Eastern Divisions ; of UNRRA. of OWI, and even General 
MacArthur's staff, our Institute has put considerable niimbers of Communists 
and pro-Communists where they could and have done the most possible harm 


and spread the most confusion. How far they have succeeded is strikingly illus- 
trated by comparing the present confusion in our attitude to China with the 
statement handed to Ambassador Nomura on November 26, 1941, which laid down 
the terms on which we would restore peaceful relations with Japan (ruptured 
by the blockade declared July 25, 1941). Hull's essential demand was : 

" '4. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will 
not support — militarily, politically, economically — any Government or regime in 
China other than the National Government of the Republic of China with capital 
temporarily at Chungking.' 

"To attempt to prove my statements is impossible in this letter. They are 
proven in part by the study and correspondence referred to above, which will 
be sent you on request. 

"My attempts to arouse Mr. Carter and our Trustees to investigation and 
action have failed. Several Trustees, including several of the Executive Com- 
mittee have resigned, claiming that they were worried by the charges of com- 
munism, but had no time to look into them so thought they'd better get out. Our 
Board of Trustees (47) scattered all over the country never meets. The Execu- 
tive Committee (10) is chairmanned by a Calif ornian who never attends. The 
connections of the others are as per attached sheet. Most of our Trustees are, 
of course, not Communists and furthermore don't take Communists very seri- 
ously. Their attitude is very similar to that of a witness before the Senate 
Atomic Committee, as reported in the New York Sun February 22, 1947, as 
follows : 

" 'Cameron said that he roomed with Hart and knew that his roommate held 
Marxist views, was sympathetic to Russia, and read the Daily Worker, Communist 
paper, but did not know that he was a Communist.' 

"If our Institute is to be saved for the useful work it can and should do in 
soundly and objectively posting American scholars, teachers, and writers on 
the Far East, we, the members, will have to do the job. The first step is to appoint 
a Board of Investigators to listen to my charges and dig out the facts. Some of 
the gentlemen named in the enclosed proxy are known to me, some are not, but 
all bear reputations as good Americans informed on the Far East. I have not 
asked them if they will serve and cannot do so until I hold sufficient proxies. I 
have no doubt that enough will accept to make up a satisfactory board. 

"In order to keep this letter within reasonable length, I have omitted going 
into the following : 

"1. Many of the staff and writers have no real claim to scholarship in 
the fields they cover. 

"2. Much of the material published is plagiarized for the above reasons. 
"3. Our staff and officers were instrumental in forming the violently pro- 
Communist 'Committee for a Far Eastern Democratic Policy.' 

"4. Our staff and officers were instrumental in maintaining the pro-Com- 
munist 'Japanese American Committee for Democracy.' 

"5. Our staff and officers conducted a pressure mail campaign to force 
NBC to continue the wartime 'Pacific Story'— a Communist-angled dramatic 
half hour. 

"6. Our staff and officers have sponsored and published books and articles 
by such known Communists as Abraham Chapman, Jos. S. Allen, Harriet L. 
Moore, Philip Jaffe, Anna Louise Strong, Frederick V. Field. 

"7. Members of our Board of Trustees and our staff managed to get 
control of the Far Eastern Division of the State Department, UNRRA 
and OWI, where they loaded all three with pro-Communists. Two of them, 
Owen Lattimore and John Carter Vincent, accompanied Henry Wallace to 
China in 1944 and talked that adolescent into reporting to Roosevelt that 
•we were backing the wrong horse in China' and that 'Chiang Kai-shek's 
government would collapse within 90 days.' Just prior to that much heralded 
trip of that great friend of the common man, IPR published a booklet 
by Henry Wallace, Our Job in the Pacific, which they knew he had not 

"8. Four of the six persons arrested in the Amerasia case were connected 
with the IPR. 
"I no longer believe the officers and Executive Committee can clean up the 

"After such an Investigating Committee has completed its investigation and 
reported, action will then be up to us. Our Trustees will not act and if we 
wait until Congressional investigation reaches us, it may be too late to save 
our institution and even our good reputation." 


At the meeting, April 22, 1947, the tellers advised me that they had over 1,100 
proxies against the resolution for an investigating committee. I presented 86 
but they disqualified about 20, though they refused to show me their proxies. 
In the meeting I read my proposed resolution and then stated : 

"It would be my intention to present first to this Investigating Committee 
witnesses, and by witnesses I mean more than one, who would testify that the 
Institute of Pacific Relations is considered by the National Committee of the 
Communist Party to be one of its organizations and that certain of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the American Institute are members of the Communist Party. 

"In addition to these witnesses who would testify to that effect, I would 
expect to show that committee that there have been certain misstatements of 
fact in the publications of the Institute, that these misstatements of fact follow 
a pattern, that the publications of the Institute have been free of criticism of 
Japan up to Pearl Harbor except for criticisms of the Japanese rural land 
system, and that they have been free of criticisms of Russia up to date, both 
Japan and Russia — that is, Siberia — falling within the area covered by the Pacific 

"I would call attention to the fact that although the Institute has referred 
to many documents and in books and pamphlets issued by it has published many 
pertinent documents, four of the most pertinent documents referring to the Far 
East have always been omitted, and as far as I have been able to find by an 
examination of the publications, have never been either printed in full or referred 
to by the Institute. 

"Those four documents are the Tanaka Memorial, the Resolutions of the 
Colonies and Semi-Colonies adopted by the Sixth World Congress of the 
Comintern, the program of the Comintern adopted by the same Sixth Congress, 
and the note of Secretary Hull to Ambassador Nomura of November 21, 1941. 

"I would also expect to show to that same committee that many of the writers 
are not qualified and that there are much better qualified people in certain of 
the fields on, for example, the Philippines, Hawaii, than the writers in the 
publications of the Institute. They are not qualified, and qualified writers are 
available, and, in fact, members of the Institute. 

"I would also call to the attention of that committee that American policy 
for the Pacific has been a consistent policy and in a traditional policy. That 
policy is the policy of the Open Door, proclaimed in 1899 and further confirmed 
in the Nine-Power Treaty of 1922, and that policy calls for the Open Door, for the 
Independence and the territorial integrity of China, and that the publications 
of the Institute, although they have published vast amounts of material on China, 
seldom, if ever, have referred to this policy and its implications. 

"I believe that if the opportunity is presented, I can prove each of those state- 
ments and also the charges with which you are familiar from the letter sent you 
March 20." 

Mr. Arthur H. Dean, Vice Chairman of the IPR, presided in the absence of 
the Chairman, Robert G. Sproul. He answered my statement, saying that the 
IPR was lily-white (not red) and he could vouch for it. The vote cast by the 
nearly 100 present, was unanimous against the resolution. A few days later, by 
letter, I resigned from the IPR, since which time I have devoted little 
attention to it. 

Just about a year previous to the above meeting, Mr. J. B. Powell, dean of 
the American correspondents in China, and Miss Helen Loomis, a former mis- 
sionary teacher in China, had called a small meeting at Miss Loomis' apartment 
to form a committee to warn the country of the dangerous policy we were follow- 
ing in China. From this meeting came the American China Policy Association, 
Inc., of which Mr. Powell was President until his death in 1947, when he was 
succeeded for one year by former Congresswoman Clare Boothe Luce, and Miss 
Loomis was Secretary-Treasurer. I was elected Vice President and later Chair- 
man of the Board. By resolution the American China Policy Association, Inc., 
limited its members to persons of American citizenship and provided that only 
Americans could be brought as guests to its Board meetings, so that America's 
interest, only, should be presented for consideration. 

Meantime also, I had become publisher and sole financial backer of the magazine 
Plain Talk, published from October 1946 to May 1950, as a monthly, and now 
merged with The Freeman, a fortnightly. 

During these years, and continuing to the present, I have written numerous 
open letters to various persons, including Government officials, numerous arti- 
cles for magazines, and letters to newspapers, on the general topic of our strug- 
gle with World Communism. I have also made speeches on numerous occa- 
sions. In all cases I have refused to accept monies, from any source, either for 


articles, speeches or traveling expenses, or as contributions. All expenses have 
been paid by me personally or by one of the corporations controlled by me and 
interested in these matters. 

I have five times appeared at public hearings before Committees of the 
Congress — twice on behalf of the American China Policy Association, Inc., and 
three times as an individual. Three of the hearings were before the Foreign 
Relations Committee of the Senate and two before the Appropriations Committee 
of the Senate. 

Other than these appearances my visits to Washington have been mostly 
seeking information as to what was going on in the labyrinth of apparent ab- 
sence of over-all policy which has led to such disastrous results for America 
and the Free World. The only members of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee whom I have ever met are Senators Brien McMahon, H. Alexander 
Smith, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Owen Brewster. These were chance meetings. 
The only members of that Committee on whom I have ever called are Senators 
H. Alexander Smith and Owen Brewster. When Senator Smith returned from 
the Far East in 1949, I sent my card in to the Floor and he came to the Senate 
Lobby and told me of his impressions. I called on Senator Brewster in New 
York once when he was en route to Europe and presented him with copies of 
three important Comintern documents. 

Sometime in March 1950 one of Senator McCarthy's assistants got in touch 
with me and I supplied published material on the Far East and on persons con- 
nected with American policy in the Far East. Subsequently, I met the Senator 
for the first time. Thereafter Drew Pearson broadcast the statement that I 
was backing Senator McCarthy financially. Up to that moment it had not 
occurred to me that Senator McCarthy had to pay his staff, as I presumed they 
were supplied by the Senate. So I wrote Drew Pearson as follows : 

"Your broadcast suggested that Senator McCarthy has been put to heavy 
expense in his patriotic work of exposing the traitors who have controlled our 
policy in Asia. I think Americans should join in helping pay some of Senator 
McCarthy's expenses, so I am going to send him a small check today and hope 
others do likewise." 

Some days, or a week later, I sent a check for $500 to Senator McCarthy. He 
returned it with a polite letter saying that charges that I was the China Lobby 
made it inadvisable for him to accept the contribution. Since then. Senator 
McCarthy has not suggested, nor have I offered or made a further contribution ; 
nor had I ever previously offered or made any contribution to Senator McCarthy. 

In the course of my studies (which were those of a businessman with some 
background, but not those of a trained student of international affairs), I 
learned from persons in a position to know, that at all times for more than 
10 years the Communists have maintained control of the Executive Committee 
of the IPR and of the staff; and that the few changes made, under pressure of 
public exposure, have not altered this control. About .5 years ago an investi- 
gator for the State Department spent two days in my files, and after investiga- 
tion elsewhere filed a report on the IFR which must have revealed to the State 
Department the true facts. In spite of which our Far Eastern destiny still lies 
in the hands of IPR-connected officials. 

At about the same time an investigator for ONI called on me, said Admiral 
Nimitz had been invited to become Chairman of IPR ; that he had asked ONI 
to report, and they were making a routine check. Admiral Nimitz did not 
become Chairman or a Trustee, but thereafter General Marshall became a 
Trustee, in spite of the previously filed report of the State Department investi- 

In a speech to the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco, February 29, 1952, 
I called on those Trustees of the IPR (of whom some were present) who were 
neither Communist nor pro-Communist to rehabilitate themselves with their 
fellow Americans by coming forward and publicly revealing who pulled the 
strings and who had induced them to lend their protection to the Communists. 
On March 1.S, 1952, I wrote to the Trustees in part as follows : 

"To Messrs. .Jos. P. Chamberlain, Arthur H. Dean, W. F. Dillingham, Brooks 
Emeny, Huntington Gilchrist, W. R. Herod, and Philip C. Jessup: 

"In March 1947 I proposed a Resolution for investigation of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, to be voted at a special meeting on April 22, 1947. 

"In seeking proxies to oppose my Resolution, a public letter (March 17, 1947) 
issued by all of you, denied that there was any need for investigation of the 
Institute. Among various inaccurate statements, you said : 

" 'The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees has investigated Mr. 
Kohlberg's charges and found them inaccurate and irresponsible.' 


"Raymond Denuett, your then secretary, has now sworn before the McCarran 
Committee that the above statement was untruthful, and known to you to be so. 

"To Messrs. Eugene Staley, Herbert Eloesser, Galen M. Fisher, Mrs. Frank A. 
Gerbode, O. C. Hansen, Mrs. E. H. Heller, Eene A. May, Mrs. Alfred McLaughlin, 
Mrs. Harold L. Paige, Robert Gordon Sproul, Lynn White, Jr., and Ray Lyman 
Wilbur (all of California) : 

"On March 31, 1947, you issued a public letter of the same general tenor as 
the above, seeking proxies to oppose my Resolution for investigation. 

"To Knight Biggerstaff of Cornell; John K. Fairbank, of Harvard; Harold 
H. Fisher of the Hoover Library ; Kenneth Scott Latourette, of Yale ; Raymond 
Kennedy, of Yale ; Wm. W. Lockwood, of Princeton ; Donald G. Tweksbury of 
Columbia : 

"You signed statements in the same proxy fight, exonerating the I. P. R. of 
the slightest Communist bias. 

"To Messrs. Edward W. Allen, Raymond B. Allen, Christian O. Arndt, J. Bal- 
lard Atherton, E. C. Auchter, George T. Cameron, Edward C. Carter, D. C. 
Clarke, Arthur G. Coons, George B. Cressey, Lauchlin Currie, John L. Curtis, 
Len de Caux, K. R. Duke, Clarence A. Dykstra, Rupert Emerson, Frederick V. 
Field, Charles K. Gamble, Carrington Goodrich, Henry F. Grady, Mortimer 
Graves, R. P. Heppner, John R. Hersey, Paul G. Hoffman, Benjamin H. Kizer, 
Daniel E. Koshland, Lewis L. Lapham, Owen Lattimore, Herbert S. Little, Boyd 
A. Martin, Charles E. Martin, Abbot Low Moffat, Donald M. Nelson, David N. 
Rowe, Gregg M. Sinclair, D. B. Straus, Donald B. Tresidder, Juan Trippe, Sum- 
ner Wells, Brayton Wilbur, Heaton L. Wrenn, Louise L. Wright and J. D. Zeller- 

"You were the remaining members of the Board of Trustees of the IPR at the 
time my Resolution for investigation was voted on April 22, 1947. Not one of 
you voted for my Resolution to investigate. 

"Since that time numerous qualified witnesses have testified under oath be- 
fore the McCarran Committee that : 

"1. Your organization constantly and deliberately followed the Commu- 
nist line in its publications. 

"2. Some espionage activities were carried on. 

"3. More than forty of your staff, Trustees and writers were actual Com- 
munists, or espionage agents, or both, and others leaned that way. 

"4. That activities in infiltrating our government by such people were car- 
ried on both oflicially and unofficially in your name. 

"The balance of this letter is addressed only to those of you who are not Com- 
munists, or pro-Communist in your sympathies. I suggest that you explain to 
the McCarran Committee your defense of the conspiracy in your midst ; stating 
names of persons who induced you to protect the guilty, and reasons given ; and 
reasons for neglecting the duty incumbent on you as Trustees. For example, 
which of you inveigled General Marshall into joining your Board? 

"Such confession is the atonement for past injury to our country made by 
Louis Budenz and the other ex-Communists who testified. I hesitate to think 
you have less regard for our country's welfare than they." 

Thereafter I received a letter from Dr. Roscoe Pound, dean emeritus of the 
Harvard Law School, and at present, visiting professor at the School of Law, 
University of California at Los Angeles, dated March 18, 19.52, in which he said: 

"Many thanks for your statement of date March 14 which I am rejoiced to have. 
One of the worst offenders in my experience is Professor J. K. Fairbank of 
Harvard. He is beyond redemption, but I take pleasure in showing him up on 
every occasion. I ran into him first in Nanking where the State Department 
information office was a fountain of misinformation." 

I further state that the testimony on page 1085 of the MacArthur hearings of 
last May by Senator Knowland and General Bradley to the effect that we have 
no objectives in Korea ; and the statement near the bottom of page 1556 of 
Part 5 of the McCarran hearings by Ambassador George Kennan to the effect 
that we have no over-all foreign policy, not even the Open-Door Policy and the 
Monroe Doctrine any longer, is conclusive proof either of incompetence on the 
part of the State Department, or neglect of America's interests by that Depart- 

Alfred Kohlbebg. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this IGth day of April 1952. 
[seal] Pasquale J. Fenico. 

Notary Public, State of New York. 
Commission Expires March 30, 1954. 


Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you identify those documents, please? 

Mr. Mandel. I have here nine groups of photostats that are stapled 
together, and they come from the files of the Institute of Pacific Ke- 

The Chairman. Are they photostats of instruments found in the 
files of the Institute of Pacific Relations ? 

Mr. Mandel. These actual photostats as they are now were found 
in the files of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Morris. They were found in photostatic form ? 

Mr. Mandel. In photostatic form and stapled as they are now. For 
purposes of identification I will read one cover sheet. It reads : "De- 
part of State, Office of Research and Intelligence," marked "Re- 
stricted," No. 3024.3, Economy of Communist North China, 1937-45; 
Land Policy, Description, Analysis of the Chinese Communist Agrar- 
ian Policies and of the Results Obtained From These Policies in Com- 
munist-Controlled Areas, Washington, D. C, March 8, 1946," and 
then there is a rubber stamp in the photostat, "Department of State, 
Reference Division, Received January 14, 1947," and another rubber 
stamp, "Division of Geography and Cartography, May 13, 1946, 
Department of State." 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Don't you think that identifies it adequately? 

Mr. Mandel. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you made up copies of the first sheets of every 
one of those documents ? 

Mr. Mandel. I have made up copies of nine cover sheets. 

Mr. Morris. May we offer for the record Mr. Mandel's copies of 
the cover sheets of these documents rather than the documents them- 
selves? In other words, the significance of this offering is the na- 
ture of the documents found rather than the contents of the docu- 
ments. Because of their great bulk I do not recommend that they 
be put into the record, but that Mr, Mandel's copies of the cover sheet 
in each case be introduced into the record after Mr. Marks, Mr. Hol- 
land, and Mr. Carter have had an opportunity to make comment on 

Will you accept that? 

Mr. Marks. We have not checked those cover sheets. 

Mr. Morris. We will get a ruling first. 

The Chairman. As I understand it now, the cover sheets were 
copied by Mr. Mandel ; is that right ? 

Mr. Mandel. That is right. 

The Chairman. And you want to offer the cover sheets ? 

Mr. Morris. We are going to offer the cover sheets, thereby de- 
scribing the nature of the documents found. 

The Chairman. Does the cover sheet reflect the nature of the docu- 
ment ? 

Mr. Mandel. It does. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What you are offering is the cover sheet of the 
document; you are not offering Mr. Mandel's copy. The docu- 
ments are here, and you are offering the cover sheet of the document 
of the record in each case ; is that right? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

Mr. Marks. Mr. Mandel has his own copy. 

The Chairman. He has a copy of the photostats. 


Mr. SouRwiNE. The photostats themselves are physically in ' 
Mandel's hands, and I am simply suggesting that we disregard 


question of any copies that he may have made and that the Chair's 
instruction be that the cover sheets of each of these groups of photo- 
static documents be put into the record. 

Mr. Marks. Fine. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What is ordered into the record is the cover sheet 
itself if the Chair so rules. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, could you tell us precisely in what files 
they were found ? Is that information possible ? 

Mr. Mandel. I could not tell you what cabinet or class of cabinet 
it was found in. 

Mr. Marks. Do you think they came from Lee, Mass., or do you 
think they came from the files you examined here in New York? 

Mr. Mandel. I am positive they came from the files of Lee, Mass. 

Mr. Marks. I am just trying to locate these things. Did you notice 
these things before ? I know you have had a lot of papers. Are these 
recent discoveries? 

I am going to say frankly right now that Mr. Holland and Mr. 
Carter will state that they do not recall having seen those, and I am 
just trying to figure out just what did happen. 

Mr. Mandel. As I recall, they were in a drawer loosely, not in any 
particular folder, and due to the bulk they were withheld pending 
further examination and questions to the State Department. It is 
correspondence with the State Department regarding these, and 
that is why they have not come up until now. 

Mr. Marks. Do you recall any correspondence in those boxes about 
these boxes or any kind of covering letter ? 

Mr. Mandel. No, I do not. 

Mr. Marks. And there is no stafi^ memorandum or anything, just 
saying that we received these? 

Mr. Mandel. That is correct. 

Mr. Marks. Perhaps Mr. Morris would like to ask you whether you 
or Mr. Carter can identify these, 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Holland, do these documents suggest anything at 
all to you ? 

Mr. Holland. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you had an opportunity to examine them? 

Mr. Holland. Yes ; not every page, but I have examined the covers 
of each one, and I have a general idea of the nature of the documents. 
I have no knowledge of ever having seen this document before, and 
no knowledge of its being in the Institute of Pacific Relations' files. 
I wish, Mr. Chairman, to note that in the inventory listing of this 
document, it is given a committee serial number 500.28, and I won- 
dered whether from that Mr. Mandel might be able to locate a little 
more precisely where in the files he found it. 

Mr. Mandel. The designation was made in the last few days and 
covers only the documents that we did not have in our ordinary file 
and had to classify roughly for purposes of this hearing. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 1 might say to Mr. Holland if it is important for 
him to know how the committee operates in its classification numbers 
that that is more in the nature of a library classification. It does not 
have a reference back to the source of the document in the IPR files, 


but refers only to the evaluation or the tentative evaluation by the 
committee staff. 

Mr. Holland. Mr. Chairman, my purpose in asking for informa- 
tion about the location in the files is because the dates on these docu- 
ments I think all relate to late 1945 up to I think either January or 
May 1947. To the best of our knowledge the files in Lee did not 
include material after 1945. 

Mr. SouEWiNE. On that point, the files would of course speak for 

Mr. Holland. Sure. lexplainthisis the only reason for my asking 
for some clarification if it can be provided. 

Mr. SotJRWiNE. Mr. Mandel, can you recall whether there have been 
other documents in the IPR files of a date as late as 1947 'i 

Mr. Mandel. That point has not come up. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Sourwine, would it be proper for me to testify on 
this of my own recollection? 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Do you want to make a statement or sworn testi- 
mony ? 

The Chairman. Yes. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give before the subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Morris. I do. 


Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this question has come up, and I have 
a vivid and unmistakable recollection of this very question because it 
was my understanding when I first began to examine the files last 
February and March that the documents contained only letters up to 
and including 1945. The first or the second day that I began to exam- 
ine the files I found letters in there subsequent to that date. 

Mr. Sourwine. As a matter of fact, you called that to my attention 
at that time, did you not ? 

Mr. Morris. I did, Mr. Sourwine. They number, I would say, at 
least in the hundreds in that description. Some of them have been 
put in the record. I was pointing that out to Mr. Holland yesterday, 
and one I could think of offhand was a letter describing a conference 
between Mr. Carter and Mr. Robert T. Miller, which was introduced 
in the record the first or second day of our open hearings. There have 
been others, and my recollection is that it is at least in the hundreds. 
It came as a surprise to me, and I have an unmistakable recollection 
on that score. 

Mr. Mandel. I might add, Mr. Chairman, that there were two 
classes of documents, those taken from the files at Lee, Mass., and those 
taken from the New York office. If these had come from the New 
York office you would have had photostats of all of them because that 
was the arrangement. 

Mr. Holland. Yes. 

Mr. SouRA^rENE. As far as that goes, the committee staff in its han- 
dling of these documents has kept the items which came from the 
New York office and those which came from the Lee bam in such a 
way that there has been no possibility to be confused. 


Mr. JVIandel. That is correct. They are designated as coming from 
the New York office. 

Mr. MoKRis. Mr. Holland, do these appear to you to be based on 
reports made by the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Holland. No ; I have no indication of that. Yesterday when 
I was speaking to you informally I said it might, but on subsequent 
looking at them I don't find any sign that they are based except in- 
sofar as they contain footnote references to published materials by 
the institute. The other comment I wish to make is that in our New 
York office here and subsequent to 1945 after the end of the war, the 
institute like a number of other research organizations has received 
from the State Department a nuinber of declassified documents, 
some of which resemble this, but so far as I am aware none of them 
have been in this photostat form. They have all been mimeographed 
or done on one of these ditto form things, and that is why I am ex- 
tremely surprised to have this brought to my attention, because it 
is the kind of thing which I myself would be expected to know because 
of its subject matter, but, as I say, I have no knowledge or recollection 
of having seen it before or knowledge of its being in the institute's 

Mr. Marks. Do the declassification documents received always show 
on the document that they have been declassified? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I cannot answer it. It should be obvious that it is 
possible to have in one's possession a document which does not show 
any declassification stamp and which has in fact been declassified, 
because if you had a document in your possession at a time when it was 
classified and retained it in your possession until after it was declas- 
sified, it would be a declassified document. 

Mr. Marks. I understand that, but I think the practice is sometimes 
to declassify by a covering letter. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Perhaps you are sufficiently familiar to testify on 
that point. 

Mr. Marks. From Mr. Holland's experience, and I would like him 
to testify on that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you consider Mr. Holland is able to testify with 
regard to Government practices ? 

Mr. Marks. Just his own experience in regard to the Institute of 
Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Holland. From our own experience, Mr. Chairman, in one or 
two cases we have received documents subsequent to 1945 from the 
State Department in sending along with a group of documents, most 
of which had the usual stamp "declassified by order of," and then the 
signature of the person — one or two documents did not have this 
stamp, but the document was identified in a covering letter transmit- 
ting it to us, saying, "We are herewith sending you the following 

Nevertheless, this does not 

Mr. Marks. You have not completed that sentence, I don't think. 
Is that all the letter said ? ' 

Mr. Holland. Of course, I cannot remember the exact title, but 
indicating the title on the document, which on subsequent examina- 
tion we have found did not include the usual stamp. 

Mr. Marks. But the letter talks about classification. What is it? 


Mr. Holland. I can't speak from direct recollection, but I do know 
we have one or more letters in our files with inventory documents being 
transmitted to us, and in that inventory are items which on subsequent 
examination we found referred to documents which did not include 
on the cover the usual declassification stamp. 

Mr. Marks. Did the letter refer to those documents as declassified, 
or was it completely silent ? 

Mr. Holland, That I can't say. 

The Chairman. Well, we have the testimony here of Mr. Mandel 
that these photostats were actually found in the files of the Institute 
of Pacific Relations in photostatic form as they are presented to the 
committee now ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Mandel. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Wliat is your offer? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I offer the cover sheets of each one of 
these documents and ask that they be admitted into the record. 

The Chairslan. All right. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. After the Chair rules on that point and if Mr. 
Marks has finished his cross-examination of Mr. Holland, I have a 
question I want to ask. 

The Chairman. Do you want to cross-examine now ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I would simply like to ask Mr. Holland this : Since 
you did remember such a letter, do you remember who wrote it ? 

Mr. Holland. No, because it was not addressed to me. I ascertained 
this information by, speaking to our publications secretary yesterday. 

Mr. SoURWiNE. Was it an official State Department letter, or merely 
from someone in the State Department ? 

Mr. Holland. No, it was an official State Department letter which 
I can produce. It does not refer to this document because when I 
asked for this information, I said, "Have we any record in our file 
of a document with this title and serial number?" And it is not there. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I would like to ask that Mr. Holland be directed 
to furnish to the committee the letter he speaks of and any other letter 
he speaks of, to wit, letters which contain in terms transmittals of 
documents which at the time were on their classified list and also that 
he indicate which of the documents on that letter so transmitted were 
in fact on their classified list. 

The Chairman. All right. Your request is that these cover sheets 
be inserted ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(Mr. Mandel, after a subsequent examination of his files, testified 
at a hearing held on May 13, 1952, that he had been in error in testi- 
fying that the photostats were found in the files of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations. See pp. 4616 and 4617, pt. 13.) 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit Nos. 1322 to- 
1330, inclusive," and are as foljows:) 


181101 3 

Exhibit No. 1322 

(Handwritten:) 097.3 
44 Z1092R 

no. 3024.1 



Interim Research and Intelligence Service 

research and analysis branch 

R & A No. 3024.1 

EcoNOMT OF Communist North China, 1937-1945 : Areas of Economic Control 


This Study, the first of a series, outlines the territorial basis of the economy 
of Communist North China. 

Date : 23 November 1945. 

This document contains information affecting the national defense of the 
United States within the meaning of the Espionage Act, 50 USC 31 and 32, as 
amended. Its transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an 
unauthorized person is prohibited by law. 

Copy No. 


Exhibit No. 1323 

Department of State, Intelligence Reference Division. Received, Aug. 12, 1946. 

(Handwritten:) R 

no. 3024.5 



Office of Research and Intelligence 

No. 3024.5 

Economy of Communist North China, 1937-1945: Standards of Living 


Analysis of wages, food, clothing, shelter, health care, and other aspects of 
standards of living in Communist North China. 
Washington, D. C, June 15, 19^6. 


Exhibit No. 1324 

(Handwritten) R 
29 097.3 

no. 3024.6 



Office of Research and Intelligence 

No. 3024.6 

Economy of Coaimunist Nobth China, 1937-1945 : Labor 


A study of labor policies, labor force, wages and hours, and labor unions in 
Communist North China. 

Washington, D. C, April 25, 19.^6. 

Exhibit No. 1325 

Handwritten: 097.3 

22 Z1092 




Economy of Communist North China, 1937-1945: Cooperatives 


Intelligence Research Report 


June 30, 1946. 

A study of the historical background, types, organization, and development of 
cooperatives in Communist areas of North China. 
Distributed by Office of Intelligence Coordination aiJd Liaison (OCL), 


Exhibit 1326 

(Handwritten) 097.3 
38 Z1092 


Interim Research and Intelligence Service : Research and Analysis Branch 

R. & A. 3024.2 

Economy of Communist North China, 1937-45 : Summary of Economic Policies 


A summary of the economic policies of the Chinese Communists as analyzed 
in further detail in the forthcoming parts of the Economy of Communist North 
China, 1937-45. 

11 December 1945. 




Exhibit No. 1327 

(Handwritten:) 097,3 

47 Z1092 

No. 30243 



Office of Research and Intelligence 

No. 3024.3 

Economy of Communist North China, 1937-1945: Land Policy 


Analysis of the Chinese Communist agrarian policies and of the results obtained 
from these policies in Communist-controlled areas. 

Washington, D. C, 8 March 1946. 

Handwritten: 446 

ExHiBrr No. 1328 

Handwritten : 57 

Illegible initials 


Office of Research and Intelligence 

No. 3024.4 

Economy of Communist North China, 1937-1945 : Land and Food 


Analysis of the topographic and agricultural regions, land utilization, and crop 
production of Communist North China. 

Washington, D. C, April 12, 19.'f6. 


Exhibit No. 1329 


Handwritten: 097.3 
27 Z1092 


Office of Research and Intelligence 

No. 3024.7 

Economy of Communist North China, 1937-1945 : Industries and Mining 


A study of the nature and extent of industrial development, types of indus- 
trial activity, and geographic distribution of industries in Communist areas. 

Washington, D. C, August 20, 1946. 



Exhibit No. 1330 

Handwritten : #3024.9/46. Other handwritten fijiures crossed out. 


Economy of Commukist Nokth China, 1937-1945: Finance 


Intelligence Reseaech Repobt 


August 26, 1946. 

A study of money and banking and the operation of taxation systems in Com- 
munist Areas. 
Distributed by Office of Intelligence Coordination and Liaison (OCL). 

Mr. Carter. Mr. Mandel recently referred apropros of letters al- 
legedly in the Lee files after 1945. There were two sources of the 
Senate subcommittee's IPR documents, one at Lee and one in the 
New York office. I think I might have pointed out before, Mr. Chair- 
man, that in the barn at Lee was a three-drawer wooden cabinet of 
my personal papers. Those were taken to Washington at the same 
time, and it is conceivable that some of these 1945 and subsequent let- 
ters were in my personal file, not in the IPR files. 

I do not thiiik that is particularly material, but there is that pos- 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Could you say whether these photostats were in your 
personal files ? 

Mr. Carter. My testimony on them is identical with that of Mr. 
Holland, that until I saw them in Davis Polk's office yesterday I didn't 
remember ever having seen them before. 

]Mr. SouRWiNE. Then, you cannot testify whether they were or were 
not in your personal files ? 

Mr. Carter. No. It was not apropos of that, but to establishing the 
date of what the Lee files covered. I thought that in my personal 
files there might have been some IPR letters. The thing that recalled 
it to me was Mr. Mandel and Mr. Morris's comment with reference 
to the Miller letter which was of a date later than 1945. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was that Miller letter in your personal files, or 
do you know ? 

Mr. Carter. I don't know. 

Mr. SoLTRWiNE. Mr. Mandel, can you say whether the so-called per- 
sonal files of Mr. Carter were separately identified ? 

Mr. jVLyndel. They were not. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, there has come up for attention part 
of the witness, Mr. Owen Lattimore's, testimony that he did not clearly 
understand the testimony of Mr. Barmine with respect to a certain con- 
versation :Mr. Barmine "had with General Berzin. Mr. Chairman, I 
feel our public record is clear and unmistakable on this point, particu- 
larly if you read two or three pages, and it comes to the very point. 

In reading through the executive session testimony of Mr. Barniine 
taken on May 5, 1951, several months prior, the thing is even more 
clear and more precise. For the sake of clarity I ask that pages 21 

8834S — 52 — pt. 14 4 


and 22 of Mr. Barmine's executive session testimony be introduced 
into our public record. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, since that obviously requires a rul- 
ing by the committee to release executive session testimony, I would 
ask Mr. Morris if he would amend his request to be that the chair 
at an appropriate time lay before the full committee the question of 
inserting in the record such portions of the executive session testimony. 

The Chairman. I think that is the correct attitude to take. I think 
it should be presented to the subcommittee. At that time let the sub- 
committee release it from its executive position. 

Mr. SoURWiNE. The chair could order included at this point in the 
record such portions of the executive testimony of Mr. Barmine as the 
subcommittee rules may be released from the executive session. 

The Chairman. That will be the order. 

(The document referred to was marked Exhibit No. 1331 and is as 
follows :) 

Exhibit No. 1331 

Mr. Bakmine. * * * 

In this connection with General Berzin and one of his assistants, we were 
discussing possible personnel. 

Mr. Morris. Who was his assistant? 

Mr. Barmine. He was chief of the second section, Firin. 

So there was discussion about the personnel at least and Firin was called to 
the discussion and there were exchanges about the possible people among the 
Military Intelligence personnel who were at that time in China or had knowledge 
of Chinese affairs, and would it be possible to use them. 

Several names of Russians, Chinese, Americans, Czechoslovakians, French, 
were mentioned. 

Now, I want to make the statement that that conversation was in 1935, sixteen 
years ago, and I only can tell these conversation were carried by hours and for 
weeks. There were so many other problems in our work in the export of arms, 
things that you are interested in, it was a very casual and incidental part of it. 

I had my hands full of other things, so probably only I can tell to the best 
of my recollection whatever remains in my memory. 

Mr. Morris. What did he say about the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Barmine. Several names were named of men working for the apparatus 
of Military Intelligence there, and suggested, not even suggested, but discussed 
the posibility. Two of them were Americans, Lattimore and Joseph Barnes. 

Executive Session, Volume 21, May 5, 1951. 

Testimony of Alexander Gregory Barmine, pages 21-22 of transcript. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandell, will you identify these two letters, please ? 

Mr. Mandell. I have here three photostats which I personally ob- 
tained from the files of Ray Lyman Wilbur at the Stanford University. 

The Chairman. Did you have those photostats made ? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mean from the files of Ray Lyman Wilbur, or 
from the files of the Ray Lyman Wilbur Library or some other 
library ? 

Mr. Mandel. They were files of Ray Lyman Wilbur. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Personal files? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes. They were obtained from the Hoover Libr^^ry 
at Stanford Univei-sity. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the first of these purports to be a letter 
signed by Mr. Edward C. Carter, dated December 30, 1933, to the 
members of the American council : 


It gives me great pleasure to announce that at the board of trustees meeting 
on December 20 Mr. Joseph Barnes was unanimously selected my successor as 
secretary to the American council. 

I offer this to Mr. Carter and ask him if he can recall having written 
that letter. Does that look like a photostatic copy of a document sent 
by you, Mr. Carter? 

Air. Carter. Yes. 

The Chairman. The question is, Does he recall having sent the 
original of that ? 

Mr. Carter. I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is a photostatic copy of your signature? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I have here photostatic copies of correspondence be- 
tween Mr. Eliot Wadsworth and Mr. Edward C. Carter dated No- 
vember 25, 1941, and November 26, 1941. I offer you that, Mr. Carter, 
and ask you if those documents recall such an exchange of corre- 
spondence that you had ? 

Mr. Carter. They appear to be one sent by me and the other re- 
ceived by me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is one of those in fact a letter which you sent and 
signed ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE, Is it a photostatic copy ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. The signature is not there on either letter. 

Mr. Sourwine. This is a photostatic copy of a letter dated Novem- 
ber 26, 1941, typed and addressed "Dear Eliot" and is a letter which 
in fact you dictated and sent ? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. The next document is headed "American Red Cross" 
and is dated November 25, 1941, to Mr. Edward C. Carter and signed 
"Eliot Wadsworth." Is that a copy of a letter you received? 

Mr. Carter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Ma^ they be received in the record ? 

The Chairman. They will be received in the record. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 1332, 1333, 
1333-A, and are as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 1332 

Amekican Council, Institute of Pacific Rbxations 

129 East 52nd St., New York City (top floor) 

Telephone PLaza 3-4700. Cable, INPAREL, New York 

December 30, 1933. 

To the Members of the American Council : 

It gives me great pleasure to announce that at the Board of Trustees meeting 
on December 20th Mr. Joseph Barnes was unanimously elected my successor as 
Secretary of the American Council. He will take office on January 1st, 1934. 

For the past two years Mr. Barnes has been a member of the Research staff 
of the American Council. He was the editor of the series of studies in Conflict 
and Control which were presented as the American Council data papers at the 
Banff Conference. He wrote Government Promotion of Foreign Trade in the 
United States in that series. In 1932, in collaboration with Mr. Frederick V. 
Field, Mr. Barnes wrote two of the American Council's most widely circulated 
pamphlets, Conflict in the Far East, 1931-1932, and Behind the Far Eastern Con- 
flict. He is the author of several of the American Council's Fortnightly Memo- 


At the 1933 annual meeting of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, Mr. Barnes read a paper on The Tactics of the Third International,, 
and at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association he presented 
a paper on Military Communism. In March 1934, Doubleday, Doran are publish- 
ing a symposium which has been planned by Mr. Barnes and written by ten 
members of the American Council. The title of the forthcoming book is "Empire 
in the East." 

After being graduated from Harvard and completing a period of study at the 
London School of Economics and in the Soviet Union, Mr. Barnes joined the 
staff of the Chase National Bank. From the Chase Bank he returned to Russia 
for a further period of study, at the end of which he went to the Far East as a 
member of the American Group at the Shanghai Conference in 1931. He joined 
the staff of the American Council at the end of that year. In addition to the 
higliest research qualifications, Mr. Barnes has shown pronounced executive 
ability. He assumes office with the unqualified support of the officers of the 

In connection with my new work as Secretary General of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, Mrs. Carter and I leave San Francisco for Honolulu and the 
Far East on January 26th. 

Sincerely yours, 

[s] Edward C. Carter, 
[t] Edwaed C. Caetek. 

Exhibit No. 1333 

American Red Cross, 
Washington, D. C, November 25, 1941. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

129 East 52d Street, New York, N. T. 

Deas Ned : Thanks for your letter of the 21st with a most interesting report 
as to the varied activities of the staff of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

You certainly have been playing checkers and almost rival Felix Frankfurter 
in his reputing activities in recommending young men for positions. 

I am certainly glad that you put aside the crown and stuck to your old job 
which must be more important all the time. 
Enclosed is check for $50, which I am glad to send. 

(Signed) Eliot Wadswoeth. 

Exhibit No. 1333-A 

November 26, 1941. 
Eliot Wadsworth, Esq., 

American Red Cross, Washington, D. G. 
Dear Eliot : It was great to get your prompt and generous response to our 
appeal. Enclosed is the Assistant Treasurer's receipt. 

As you can well imagine, it is satisfying to find that we have been lucky in 
developing both a system and an appeal which draws exceedingly able young 
people to our staff, whose services subsequently appear invaluable to various 

Allen Wardwell has just spoken very appreciately of Andrew Grajdanzev's 
article on Russia's War Potential in the Far Eastern Survey of November 17, 
and four departments of the Government have indicated that his article on 
the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Problem of Soviet Supply in December 
Pacific Affairs is the most authoritative and useful treatment of this all-import- 
ant railway which has been prepared in this country. 
Again many, many thanks. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Mr. Morris. With respect to these others, they do not require the 
presence of these gentlemen here, but they are perfectly willing to 


rstay on. I suggest that they do stay on because they may be of inter- 
est to them. The only thing is your time. 

The Chairman. My time is coming up right now. I have an ap- 
pointment. When would we go on again? 

Mr. Morris. We can do it in Washington. 

The Chairman. That would be better. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Before we conclude this hearing, I would like to 
ask one question of Mr. Carter and Mr. Holland. Do each of you 
adopt as your testimony the statements here made in your behalf by 
Mr. Marks ? 

Mr. Holland. I do. 
• Mr. Carter. I do. 

Mr. Morris. We have two statements from Mr. Carter which have 
been submitted to the committee today, I have not seen either one 
of those, but the question comes up. Suppose those statements are 
based on letters that are not now in our records; will they be able to 
be received in the record ? 

The Chairman. They are not admitted in the record of this com- 
mittee yet. If you need those letters, you can call on Mr. Carter to 
produce them. 

Mr. Morris. On several occasions I have invited Mr, Marks and 
Mr. Holland and Mr. Carter and others in the Institute to put into 
our record, if they feel it is necessary in the sake of justice and fair- 
ness, if we have, for instance, introduced a letter of a certain nature, 
the reply to that letter. I was hoping that today they might have 
some of those things that might go into our record at this time. 

Mr. Holland. The selection of those letters is one of the things 
why Mr. Carter is working in New York. We do have a few and, as 
I recall, Mr. Carter has one section, the appendix to one of his state- 
ments, and we will have others that we wish to submit fairly soon. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. With the knowledge of the shortage of time that 
the chairman has, it seems perfectly clear there is going to have to 
be one more session. Could we recess subject to the call of the 
chairman ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

(Whereupon, at 12:15 p, m., the hearing was adjourned, subject 
to the call of the Chair,) 



Exhibit No. 765 




Type of 



ECC and CP 


1/ 5/37 

1/ 5/37 


12/ 1/37 

1/ 4/38 


. 10/10/38 

1/ 5/40 









3/ 3/42 








11/ 6/42 


it conf.) 



12/ 3/42 





10/ 1/42 

10/ 9/42 



J dated 12/ 

12/ 2/42 














Carbon. . . 

















191. 100 

119. 146 

105. 244 

100. 26 




119. 120 
105. 202 
191. 197 



105. 322 

131B. 117 




105. 27 

500. 2 
131B. 149 


500. 18 

131B. 2 





Fred V. Field 

W. W. Lockwood, Jr 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Jr 



Maxwell M. Hamilton 







Owen Lattimore .-. 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Jr 

George V. Blue 


W. W. Locliwood 


E C Carter 

Wm. W. Lockwood.. 


W W Lockwood 

Bob Lynd - 





Prof O Nve Steieer 

Wm. W. Lockwood 


Wm. W. Lockwood 

Lt. Col. B. B. McMahon... 


ECC - - 


Wm W. Lockwood 

Roger S. Greene 


Arthur H. Dean 

Wm. W. Lockwood 

Joe (8-page memo attached). 


Wm. W. Lockwood 


KB GET WLH et al 


W. L. Holland 

C. F. Remer (COI)... 


Ma . Hardy C. Dillard 





Wm. W. Lockwood - . 

Jesse I. Miller (War Dept.).. 
W. W. Lockwood .-- 


Robert W. Bamett 


ECC - .. 



Dr. S. K. Horn beck 

W. W. Lockwood 

W. W. Lockwood.. 


(Attached: Partial" list of U. S. 
W. A. M. Burden 

Lt Col John W Coulter 

Delegation to Mont Trembla: 

Wm. W. Lockwood 

Wm W. Lockwood 


Wm. Lockwood 

Robert N. Magill.-. 

Wm. W. Lockwood 


Laughlin Currie 

Anthonv Jenkinson 



Wm. W. Lockwood.. 



Wm. W. Lockwood 


Lt. Col. Wm. S. Culbertson 

Maxwell S Stewart 

Wm. S. Culbertson, Lt. Col. 

Wm. W. Lockwood 

Wm. W. Lockwood . 





W. W. Lockwood 

(Enc. letter to Col. W. W. Pett 
Philo W Parker and others 

Wm. Mayer, Col 

igrew from Wm. W. Lockwoo 
Wm. W. Lockwood 


Exhibit No. 7G5-A 
WWL to ECO and CP; 

Miss Grace Simons, 4122 42nd Street, Long Island City, Apt. 3K, came in 
to inquire about a job. She would like to do some kind of writing and research, 
but is equipped and willing to do secretarial work. 

Miss Simons returned from the Far East a year ago. During her five years 
residence in China her experience was as follows : 

One year as secretary to Leighton Stuart at Yen-ching; Two years as secre- 
tary to Messr. Hogg and MacKay at the National City Bank in Shanghai ; and 
a year and a half with Havas in Shanghai doing rewrites and translations from 
French. During the past few months, she has been doing secretarial and library 
work in the New York office of Havas but is now without employment. I should 
judge that she is about 35 years old. 

The most intriguing thing about Miss Simons is the fact that she is the 
sister of Rahna-Trone of Vincent Sheehan fame. 

(Hand written) 


Grace Simons, 4122 42nd St., Long Is. City, Apt. 3-K. 

American — Chi — sister of Rahna-Trone, Yenching, sec. to Stuart, Shanghai^ 

Sec'y — Hogg & MacKay, Nat. City Bank. v 

Havas 1^2- 

Rewrite & translation French. 

NYC — Havas — Editorial & Library wofk. 

Secretarial work equipped writing & research. 


Exhibit No. 766 

Janxjaby 5, 1937. 
WWL to FVF: 
Re: Study of the U. S. Navy. 

While in Chicago I talked with several people, especially with Quincy Wright, 
concerning- a research project on the Navy. Wright expressed himself as very 
much in favor of the proposal, and was unable to recall very much that has been 
done in this field. He thought that the subject would require some prolonged 
digging in Congressional hearings, navy reports, etc. 

As to persons who know something about the subject, I learned of two. 
Wright mentioned Mr. Robert P. Lane, now director of the New York Welfare 
Council, 122 East 22d Street. He once did a good deal of work (at Chicago, I 
think) on the navy during the first phase of the modern era — 1884-1898. This 
work might be made available to us. The second person is John Ross, of the 
Institute of International Studies at Yale. He is said to be working on various 
aspects of the navy in connection with the Yale studies in American foreign 
policy. Another person with an academic interest in the Navy is Joseph P. 
Baxter, of Harvard. Doubtless these people, and perhaps others, should be 

At the present stage, my suggestion would be to proceed as follows : 

(1) Secure for Pacific Affairs from some competent person an analysis of the 
naval building program since 1933, and especially of the construction and en- 
largement of naval and air bases in the Pacific. This could be primarily an 
analytical study of the economic and strategic factors. It might be confined to 
Pacific bases, which the navy people reckon as second only to ships as an ele- 
ment of sea power. (Some experts claim, I believe, that the building of bases 
in the Western Pacific would make the fleet something like 50% more effective, 
and that the money spent on one battleship might better go into the building 
of bases). This article we might secure from some young naval officer who 
knows what he is talking about. The editor of the Proceedings of the Naval In- 
stitute might be approached for suggestions. Incidentally, we should subscribe 
to this publication. 

(2) Have Hall continue his present bibliographical work with a view to pre- 
paring for Pacific Affairs a bibliography on the U. S. Navy (appropriations, 
building programs, operations, strategy, etc.) and a more extensive bibliography 
for ofiice reference. 

(3) With the knowledge gained from this bibliographical work, we can dis- 
cuss with Walter Millis, and also perhaps with Stone of the F. P. A. and the 
above-mentioned Ross, Lane and Baxter the possibility of an extended study of 
the Navy. If we could arouse the interest of Millis in doing the job, it would 
be relatively easy, would it not, to secure funds to finance the project. 

Copy to WLH. 

Exhibit No. 767 

November 1.5, 1937. 
Mr. Frederick V. Field, 

San Francisco. 

Dear Fred : Probably by this time you have given up the American policy pam- 
phlet in despair. Here is another draft. Will you please read it at once and 
return your comments by air mail? I am unwilling to have it go to press without 
your criticisms. 

As a matter of fact as things have turned out it is unfortunate that we did 
not publish your original draft of this pamphlet weeks ago. I am afraid that 
the best opportunity has already passed, although it is still worth while to get 
out something. If we have missed the boat I am afraid that it is my responsibil- 
ity. When I consented to undertake the job I had no idea of the number of things 
which would delay and interrupt its completion or of the diflBculties I would 
encounter in this rather unfamiliar field. However, I have learned a good deal 
about the subject even though it has been a little expensive for the American 
Council and a little trying for Jinny, whose apartment has been littered up with 
mountains of clippings for weeks. 

I hope that you are finding material to do a first-class job for the Sitrvey on 
shipments of war supplies to China and Japan. We should have had a thorough 
discussion of this topic before this. So far as the China trade is concerned 
I have made a few casual inquiries around here but have been unable to learn 


anything definite. San Francisco should be a good place to find out about what- 
ever stuff is going from Pacific Coast ports. Some stuff, however, may be going 
via Europe. I notice that the nineteen planes were loaded on a train headed east 
several weeks ago. Another story told of DuPont shipments of TNT by way of 

Eliot Janeway, with whom Chen and I have had several long talks recently, 
is convinced that an embargo on American shipments to Japan, even if under- 
taken without the cooperation of other powers, would be a very serious blow 
to the Japanese. He says, for example, that this high-test aviation fuel which 
the Japanese have recently bought in large quantities is a special kind of gas 
which cannot be procured elsewhere. Without it Japanese planes would be 
crippled both in respect to speed and efiiciency. Janeway says, furthermore, that 
American machinery and machine tools now going to Japan cannot be easily re- 
placed. In the case of industries equipped with American machinery constant 
replacements are required in the form of parts which are manufactured best 
in this country. Japanese steel production, he says, is deficient particularly in 
various kinds of alloy steels (manganese, nickel, etc.) and they rely heavily on 
American supplies. How much weight should be attached to this point I don't 
know. It is difficult to believe that the Japanese are as dependent as Janeway 
believes and that they could not carry on readily even though with some diflB- 
culties if they can no longer secure American stuff. This is a technical question 
on which we are not very well qualified to pass judgment. It would be inter- 
esting to get the opinion of businessmen who know the oil and machinery trades 

I have agreed tentatively to tackle the subject of Japan's economic problem 
in North China for the Stxr^'ey. Whether there is enough reliable information 
to make possible and satisfactory a job remains to be seen. Have you any 
suggestions as to how the thing should be tackled and where the best informa- 
tion is to be found? Peflfer says that he went to great efforts to collect infor- 
mation on this subject and made little headway. Even the best informed people 
in North China did not know what was going on. 

In response to a letter of mine, Joe Jones, who is now an economic specialist 
in the Far Eastern Division, writes that he is now contemplating a study of a 
similar nature. He thinks that the Department of Agriculture and the Bureau 
of Mines can be enlisted to help. He is willing to supply us with information for 
this study but is not yet sure how quickly it can be carried through. He offers 
to let me see the basic diplomatic and consular reports on the economic resources 
of North China. I shall go down to Washington one of these days and go over 
the matter with him. 

That reminds me that I am sending a copy of this American policy manuscript 
to Maxwell Hamilton with the request that he or someone else in the Division 
go over it for us. 

Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Jr. 

Exhibit No. 768 

December 1, 1937. 
Mr. Maxwell M. Hamilton, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Hamilton : I am most grateful to you for the suggestions concern- 
ing the manuscript America and the Far Eastern War conveyed with your letter 
of November .30th. Some of the suggested corrections I am now unfortunately 
unable to make because the printing of the pamphlet is already far advanced, 
but I appreciate very much this help which you have very kindly given us. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Jr. 


Exhibit No. 769 

January 4, 1938. 
BL from WWL : 

IPR Representative in Washington 

If, as your letter indicates, the proposal for an IPR Washington representative 
has come up for discussion, there are a few suggestions I might offer as to the 
functions which such a person might perform. Obviously it is important to have 
rather definitely in mind what our representative could most usefully do before 
laying any plans, even though it is true that a resourceful and energetic person 
would naturally create his own job to a large extent. 

As for Washington "society," I never made much use of the black or white tie 
in Washington and I don't know what the possibilities really are. Doubtless 
there are potential contributors there, but I see little reason to suppose that we 
should set out to cultivate directly the elderly dowagers of Washington any more 
than the social set of any other city. 

Nor is it likely that Washington is a particularly opportune place for a local 
educational program. Outside of the comparatively small circle of government 
people, Washington is a rather provincial town with a good deal of the lethargy 
of a huge bureaucracy hanging over it, and with so much "'public affairs" as its 
daily business that it is bored with the whole thing and is rather unreceptive 
to lectures, dinners, discussion groups, etc. 

The really important contacts in Washington are as follows : 

(1) administrative officials and legislators 

(2) news men 

(3) private educational agencies (League of Women voters. National Council; 

FPA, AVIL, etc.) 

(4) Embassies, especially Chinese and Japanese, and Filipino delegation 

(5) universities 

It would be the job of our representative there to work with these groups, 
first, to extract from them the information, aid, and support which they can give 
to Quv national program, and, second, demonstrate the value of the IPR and of 
himself to them in a variety of ways. 

Given our present program and set-up it should be recognized, I think, that 
the value of a Washington office would be somewhat limited. It would become 
invaluable, however, as our program develops along new lines, as it is likely 
to do. The present limitations in this regard are threefold. First, as long as 
our chief and almost sole current publication is the Survey, we have little prac- 
tical use for the political information for which Washington is the pi'eeminent 
source, both its officials and its newsmen. If we did get the hot dope from the 
State Department, what would we do with it? 

Second, as long as our publications deal mainly with the general course of 
events in China and Japan rather than with the specific American angle of such 
events or with American affairs which have some relation to the Far East, 
Washington contacts are also of limited aid. Excepting for the Embassies — 
and this is a doubtful exception — I doubt if one can get in Washington a great 
deal of news froin the Far East which is not available here. Its preeminence 
is as a source of information on what is going on in the United States, and the 
value of an IPR agency there would depend in part on how much we propose to 
concern ourselves with American shipping, investments, education, public 
opinion, etc. 

Third, our value to the people in Washington and the welcome we would re- 
ceive depend on what we can give them in the way of information as to events, 
publications, and what not in the Far East. It would hinge on whether our 
contacts through our international set-up enable us to offer anything of distinc- 
tive value. At present the IPR is so loosely knit and our contacts in the Far 
East so haphazard that we have little to offer in Washington through the con- 
tinuous personal relationship which an IPR man might have there. The people 
there already have access to most of our sources of information and more besides. 
We can offer them a limited educational outlet and the support of our research 
program such as it is, it is true, and in this way we can enlist the interest and 
support of persons anxious to enlighten public opinion. On the whole, however, 
an IPR man starting out in Washington today would find himself in the position 
of going hat in hand for information and assistance rather than bringing some- 
thing the people there are eager to get. 


There are a good many things an IPR agency in Washington could do and it 
might be a swell job for someone to tackle. If there are limitations such as I 
have described and if they should be overcome, one way of contributing to this 
end would be for someone to start in down there. Some of the possibilities are 
as follows : 

(1) The Washington bureaus— agriculture, commerce, tarifC, maritime, etc., 
are stuffed full of information on all aspects of American economic life and of 
economic developments abroad. Moreover, for most subjects of this sort with 
which we deal there are men who have spent their lives cramming up on the data 
and they are usually quite willing to cooperate with outsiders. I should say that 
roughly a third of the Survey should be devoted to American-Far Eastern topics 
and that such studies can be done in Washington better than anywhere else. One 
obvious function of an IPR agency, then — although not the most important one — 
would be to serve as a branch of the New York research staff for the execution of 
certain projects. Moreover, the ideas and information picked up in Washington 
through" this broadened contact might help to shape our whole program more 

(2) Our Washington man would doubtless have to spend a great deal of time 
drifting around among officials, Congressmen and newsmen developing personal 
contacts and making himself a person to whom individuals might turn when an 
issue of Pacific relations and policy arose. (Bill Stone has done this rather 
successfully, especially as regards armaments and naval policy.) The import- 
ance of the Washington newspaper corps ought to be emphasized in this connec- 
tion. The Washington correspondents are the most influential group of reporters 
in the country. Moreover, they have a wide editorial leeway in their despatches. 
Also, they are fairly close knit and accessible as a group since tlieir offices are 
practically all in one building, and since Washington is a comparatively small 
place. An able IPR man could make himself useful feeding them stuff, prompting 
various stories, securing Washington releases on IPR studies, etc. 

As regards Congressmen, we should have to be quite wary. Under no cir- 
cumstances do we want to engage in lobbying. By slow personal contact, how- 
ever, a relationship with the IPR which is now totally lacking might be built up 
informally. It is not difficult to imagine that under the circumstances of the 
last six month this contact might be valuable. The same, I think, can be said of 
relationships with administrative officials, and especially with the junior group 
who do most of the real brain work in Washington. This part of the job ought to 
be thoroughly enjoyable providing it was not aimless, and in the end it would be 
helpful all around. 

The value of such contacts with Congress, the State Department, and the 
correspondents would depend in part, I should think, on whether we plan 
to go into the field of political journalism. If we do, an agency in Washington 
would be just as indispensalDle for us as for the FPA. I doubt that we want 
to go very far in this direction, but as matters now stand we lack channels 
for effectively using the political information to be had in Washington. If 
we should eventually take over Amerasia or if we should start a mimeographed 
news sheet for American Council members, or something like that, it would 
be different. In any case if we expand along the lines of regional educational 
activities, a Washington bureau might be helpful in a variety of ways. 

(3) The universities in Washington are rather poor on the whole, and 
there is no use looking to them for a lot of good research in our field (Brook- 
ings stands in a somewhat different category). Nevertheless, there is a good 
deal of educational effort in the field of public affairs and a growth of special- 
ized training for government work. Our man might be able to associate him- 
self with these activities through doing some teaching, taking part in dis- 
cussion groups, etc., but this sort of thing would not add up to a great deal 
in its value to the IPR. 

(4) Another minor phase of the opportunity in Washington is a closer 
relationship with a handful of private agencies, including the ones named 
above, with the Embassies, and with such offices as the ILO, etc. This need 
not be rated very high in the scale, for such contacts can be maintained from 
New York, but it would be all to the good if we had a man on the spot. 

(5) One more function of the IPR representative, and doubtless a fairly 
troublesome one, would be to trundle foreign visitors around. 

Tlius the job suggests a combination of research and of contact work, both 
to secui'e and supply current information and to pick up leads for our general 
national program. I dare say it would be something of a gamble at the start, 
but it seems to be a logical step in expansion. This step is especially impor- 


tant — in fact, it is essential — if we are to move further and further away 
from a strict research program appealing only to the academic world. It 
goes without saying that the individual chosen for the job would have to 
know his onions and be able to make his way as a person ; otherwise he can 
do us a lot of damage. 

Incidentally, as a measure of economy it might be possible for the IPR 
representative to share the office and secretarial services of the FPA in 

Exhibit No. 770 

Septembeb 19, 1938. 
WLH f ram WWL : 

Several of us had lunch today with Mr. R. Kano, who is a friend of Tsuru of 
Harvard and who came in to inquire about the possibility of work in connection 
with the Secretariat Inquiry. I referred him to you, of course, and suggested 
that he telephone tomorrow or Wednesday to make an appointment. Kano left 
Japan three years ago, having involved himself in sufficient difficulty with the 
authorities to make it difficult or impossible for him to continue his university 
work at Shizuoka. He spent two years at Chicago, receiving his A. B. degree. 
Last year he studied economic history at the Sorbonne, and he has just come 
over from Paris, hoping to find some opportunity which wiU enable him to sup- 
poi't himself in academic work. Tsuru had written him, he says, that he (Tsuru) 
might be doing some work on the Secretariat Inquiry, and suggesting that Kano 
might assist him. Meanwhile, Tsuru returned to .T.ipan for a brief visit this 
summer, and Kano, hearing nothing further from him, has come over anyway. 

Kano makes a good impression in terms of personality and intelligence. He 
is somewhat leftist — how far I don't know — and his particular interest is in the 
economic history of Japan in modern times. He and Tsuru are translating a 
Marxist interpretation of the rise of Japanese capitalism, and hoping to publish 
it, possibly under assumed names (this is confidential). He says that he can 
still go back to Japan, but that he might be denied any university connection, 
and for for this reason he prefers, if possible, to remain here for the time being. 
He is now awaiting the return of Tsuru, on September 26th, and can be reached 
at 73 Martin Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Exhibit No. 771 

New Yokk, N. Y., October 10, 1938. 
Mr. Owen Lattimore, 

6 Middleton Court, 'Paddington Road, 
Hoinelmid, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Dear Owen : This wiU introduce to you Arthur L. Pollard, of Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee. Mr. Pollard, a successful engineer and businessman who has had a lot to 
do with the fertilizer program in the Tennessee Valley, is arranging for a trip 
to the Soviet Union next May. He is anxious to talk with you about certain 
phases of his plans, and I am sure that you will be glad to make his acquaintance. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Jr. 

Exhibit No. 773 

Department of State, 
Washington, January 5, 1940. 
In reply refer to RP. 

Mr. William W. Lockwood, 

Research Secretary, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
129 East Fifty-second iStreet, Neiv York, New York. 

My Dear Mr. Lockwood: The receipt is acknowledged of your letter of De- 
cember 21, 1939, in which you request copies of certain documents. 

There are enclosed copies of publications containing the texts of the docu- 
ments to which you refer, with the exception of the document described as 
"Letter from Department of State to registered manufacturers and exporters 


of aircraft, July 1, 1938." A summary and partial quotation of the letter of 
July 1, 1938, will be found in the enclosed copy of The Department of State 
Bulletin, August 12, 1939, page 121. 
Sincerely yours, 

George V. Blue, 
George V. Blue, 
Acting Assistant Chief, 
Division of Research and Publication. 
Enclosures : 

1. Senate Document No. 55, 72d Congress, 1st Session. 
8. Publication No. 296. 

3. Conference Series, No. 37. 

4. Press release no. 706 of December 20, 1939. 

5. The Department of State Bulletin (Publications Nos. 1359, 1363, and 

Exhibit No. 774 

American Committee for International Studies, 

Princeton, Netv Jersey, July 12 1940. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 East 52 Street, New York, New York. 

Dear Mr. Carter: In talking yesterday (Thursday) with Joe Jones in Wash- 
ington, I found that he is very much interested in the whole conception of a 
Pacific bloc as we discussed the subject recently at Lee. If you are getting out 
a report on those discussions, he would like to see a copy and would also appreci- 
ate the chance to talk to Fred Alexander the next time the latter is in Washing- 
ton. It's Joseph M. Jones, Division of Far Eastern Affairs, State Department. 

Jones, by the way, gives an optimistic impression as regards the possibilities 
of future American aid to China. He is very guarded in what he says, but I 
rather inferred that he was thinking of monetary cooperation through the Trea- 
sury and perhaps also a tightening embargo against Japan. Alger Hiss, on the 
other hand, fears that the appeasement move is gaining a good deal of ground 
south of Forty-second Street. Hiss, by the way, is probably one of the few gen- 
uinely liberal men in the State Department — that is to say, he sees the direct 
connection between effective national defense and a strong New Deal policy at 
home. A Republican victory in the Fall, he believes, will be the prelude to an 
appeasement program, a "back-to-normalcy" movement, and the danger of in- 
ternal disintegration. 

As you have learned from other sources, the State Department was anything 
but pleased with the O'Ryan mission and with the President's interview with 
the General. I gather that the official introductions giv^n by the mission are not 
going to be very helpful to them, and that Mr. Grew will not be very cooperative. 

I spent most of yesterday scouting around in the Latin-American field, trying 
to find out what the government proposes to do. When the President issued his 
public statement about a hemisphere cartel some weeks ago, they really had no 
plan, as a matter of fact, and a good deal of discussion since then has thus far 
failed to produce one. There is wide disagreement, with the Department of 
Agriculture taking the lead in favoring drastic efforts to reorient and control 
trade and currency relations, with the Treasury lukewarm, and with the State 
Department divided but inclined on the whole to be cautious and skeptical. If 
you would like to see an enthusiastic set of proposals along this line, write to the 
American Council on Public Affairs, 1721 Eye Street, for a pamphlet entitled, 
"Total Defense." This is the work on a committee headed by Clark Foreman. 
It has had such a response in Washington that Foreman and Joan Raushenbush 
are now producing a book on the subject. There is the same kind of feverish 
activity around Washington now that used to chai'acterize it during the early 
days of the New Deal. By comparison, I must confess that the universities I 
have been visiting seem like medieval monasteries. 

Although innocuous enough, this isn't quite the kind of letter I like to leave 
lying around, so will you kindly toss it in the waste basket? 

Sincerely yours, ^ 

Bill, William W. Lockwood, Secretary. 



Exhibit No. 775 

Columbia University in the City of New York 

faculty of political science 

March 21, 1941. 

Dear Bill : I guess it's too late, but why the devil don't you have Joe Barnes 
do a book on the Soviet Union rather than Germany? I'd rather read him on the 
S. U. than any man I know of. Or he could compare certain aspects of both 
Germany and Russia, e. g. : 

Relation of economic to political power in each country. 

The social structuring of life of the common people at grass roots in each 

The freedom allowed the individual in each. 

Tolerance of diversity. 

Citizenship literacy and devices (press, etc.) serving effective participation as 


Joe is unique in that he knows both Russia and Germany well. Other men 
can write on the economic structure of Germany (an important job) but Joe, bet- 
ter than anyone else, could bring us Americans a comparative sense of the social 
strengths and weaknesses of the two systems. 

What we need on both countries is not books pro and con, but candid appraisals 
of strengths and weaknesses. 

I don't know Hartshorne — only that he has been working on case studies of 


Bob (Lynd). 

(Handwritten) To W. W. Lockwood. 

Exhibit No. 775-A 

April 15, 1943. 
To: ECC 


From: WWL 

Max Stewart called me on Tuesday to say that Peggy Snow had been in to 
express to him her concern over the prevailing and increasing lack of knowledge 
among even informed people concerning current developments in China. She 
felt this very strongly in Washington, and felt that something ought to be done 
about it. She wondered whether some new organization and/or journal should 
be started to circulate at least within a limited group the information brought 
back by people coming from Chungking. 

Max doesn't like the idea either of a new organization or of a new journal, 
but agrees with her diagnosis of the situation and wonders whether the IPR 
can do something about it. He suggested to Peggy Snow, I believe, that she 
come in and see Harriet Moore and Mr. Carter. 
Two possibilities suggest themselves : 

(1) That we make an effort to include more current material on China in the 
Survey and in our pamphlets, and 

(2) That we redouble our program of meetings in Washington and New York, 
taking steps to bring in more non-members from organizations, the press, etc. 

Exhibit No. 776 

December 10, 1941. 
Professor G. Nye Steiger, 

Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Dear Steiger: I am wondering whether I may call on you for assistance in 
meeting an emergency demand from the Public Relations Bureau of the War 

4966 INSTITUTE or pacific relations 

That Bureau, under Colonel Beukema, whom you probably know, is arranging: 
for an educational program on the international position of the United States, 
to be carried forward in the army camps this winter. Colonel Beukema has 
asked the American Council to cooperate in the supply of materials, including 
one item which we would like very much to get you to do. 

This is a series of three lectures which are to be prepared within the next 
month, printed or mimeographed, and distributed to a large number of officers 
in charge of camp programs. These officers in turn will themselves deliver the 
lectures in series, and use them as a basis for questions and discussion. It is 
proposed that the three lectures be divided chronologically as follows: (1) The 
period 1931 to 1934, with some preparatory background; (2) the internal situa- 
tion in China and Japan during the period 1934 to 1937, the international setting 
of the two countries at this time and events leading up to the outbreak of hos- 
tilities in the latter year; and (3) the last four years culminating in the 
present war. 

Each of the lectures is to be about seventeen pages, double spaced. They 
should be simple, factual, as graphic as possible, and directed at an audience of 
a high-school level. 

The War Department is in a position to pay the author an honorarium of 
$10 per day for time expended in their preparation. 

There is no one I can think of who could do this job more admirably than you. 
You have a thorough command of the facts and a wide experience in writing^ 
for high-school and college readers. You could also give the papers the char- 
acter which would be necessary for effective oral delivery. 

Within a day or two I can give you further particulars. I have only just 
learned of this over the telephone, but a member of our staff is talking with 
Beukema this afternoon and will be back tomorrow with the details. 

I hope very much that you will be able to join us in this cooperation with the 
government in an exceedingly important enterprise. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

(Handwritten:) WLH. 

Exhibit No. 777 

War Department, 
War Department General Staff, 
Military Intelligence Division, G-2, 

Washington, D. C, December 19, 19^1. 
Mr. William W. Lockwood, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., 129 East 52nd Street, New York City^ 
New York. 
Dear Bill : Colonel Bratton's office appreciated most highly the receipt of the 
three publications sent me by you. 

Question : May we keep them, or are they to be returned to your office? 
In addition, Bratton would especially like to have "British Rule in Eastern. 
Asia" and "Malaya in War Time." And, to finish this skimpy letter. Colonel 
Bratton wishes that you would look in on him the next time you come to Wash- 
ington. Come to my office, 3502 Munitions Building, and I will take you 
around to meet him. 

Thanks again. Bill. Arrange to have at least a meal at the house when you: 
hit Washington. 

B. B. McMahon, 
Lieut. Col., General Staff Corps, Coordinating Section. 

(Handwritten :) ED War Dept. 

(Handwritten : ) ED — Would you write Bratton. I think Bill saw him Friday^ 
He intended to. 


Exhibit No. 778 

To: ECC. 
From: WWL. 

In response to your inquiry, here is a little more dope on the organization of the 
Economic Defense Board (now the Board of Economic Warfare). 

Charles Rayner, Assistant Executive Director, is heading the Far Eastern Di- 
vision, at least for the time being. All I know of him is that he was once with 
the Standard Oil at Singapore, but left in 1917. Apparently he has had no more 
recent Far Eastern experience. 

Ralph Turner, formerly of the University of Pittsburgh, is Assistant Chief 
of the Far Eastern Division. He was taken over from the old Office of Export 
Control research unit, where I worked with him last summer. Turner is also 
no Far Eastern specialist. However, he is a fellow of some ability, particularly 
in seeing the larger outlines of a problem. He also knows that he doesn't 
know much about the Far East and is eager for assistance. 

Jim Shoemaker, the third person with Far Eastern responsibility, came to the 
Office of Export Control last summer from Brown University. He spent some 
years teaching in Japan, and has returned there in recent years for occasional 

Slioemaker told me two things in confidence last week : 

1.' There are a half dozen rather highly paid jobs still open in the Far Eastern 
Division. Shoemal^er himself, however, and perhaps the others, too, are re- 
luctant to raid the IPR. (It is interesting that several agencies seemingly take 
this view at present.) He raised tlie question of part-time or short-term con- 
sultative appointments for IPR staff members, and I assured him that of course 
we would do every thing we could to cooperate. 

2. Rupert Emerson may undertake, on behalf of the Board, a sizeable study of 
America's economic stake in the Far East as affected by the war, and post-war 
prospects. Apparently Emerson is restless over the fact that he has been 
given little to do thus far in his present job as expert in the Office of Inter- 
American Affairs. This office — that is its economic section — is closely linked 
with the Board of Economic Warfare. It is possible that Emerson may now be 
shifted to the Far Eastern Division for this special job. If it is undertaken, our 
staff may be asked to make certain contributions. 

Co: WLH 

Exhibit No. 779 

Roger S. Greene, 
348 Lincoln Street, 
Worcester, Massachusetts, January 16, 1942. 
Mr. William W. Lockwood. 
American Council, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street. 'New York. N. T. 

Dear Mr. Lockwood : Before the next annual meeting, that is the 1943 meet- 
ing, will you not consider changing the method of submitting nominations to 
the Board of Trustees of the IPR by presenting a larger number of names than 
the number of vacancies to be filled? The present system gives the members no 
chance to express their preference except by a highly organized electioneering 
process which few if any members would care to undertake. 

For example, while I have had a high opinion of Fred Field's personal char- 
acter, his judgment during the past two years has been so strange that it seemed 
to me that he must be almost in a psychopathic state. If a man like that is to 
be nominated surely one ought to have a chance to pick an alternate instead of 
him. When Chinese of a not particularly conservative type think that too 
many of the IPR staff are too much under Russian Soviet influence, as I know 
that they do, it would appear to be time to be more cautious. I am not objecting 
so much to radical views on political, economic and social subjects, on which 
radical views may be called for, but to the tendency to follow a party line, and 
to flop suddenly from one side to the other in accordance with a party directive. 
The latter habit is the reverse of encouraging to intellectual freedom. 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Roger S. Greene. 


Exhibit No, 780 

February 12, 1942. 
Mr. Arthur H. Dean, 

4S Wall Street, Netc York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Dean : In February 1941, when you last contributed to the American 
Council, the United States was technically at peace with the world. Today we're 
fighting a world war, and initially suffering grave reverses on the vast and little- 
understood Pacific front. 

I think you will agree that the war strikingly confirms a basic thesis of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations — that the Pacific is vital to America. As a member, 
you will be interested in a brief report on the services of the I. P. R. in the war 

Since December 7 the I. P. R. has handled a growing stream of inquiries from 
business houses, publishers, newspai)ers, radio commentators and teachers. There 
have been urgent requests from the Army, Navy, and other government depart- 
ments for special reports and for the loan of I. P. R. studies still in manuscript or 
proof. I. P. R. books will be found in constant use on scores of Washington desks 
today. Large special editions of our pamphlets are being provided at cost to 
meet the Army's urgent need for reliable educational materials in its camps. We 
are also supplying the War Department with basic lectures on the Far East for 
its educational program. 

The importance of the Institute as a training center for Far Eastern experts in 
recent years is also shown by the number of former I. P. R. statf members 
promptly called into important government work. Owen Lattimore, as you know, 
is serving, on the nomination of President Roosevelt, as personal advisor to 
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ; Ch'ao-ting Chi is Secretary-General of the 
A. B. C. Currency Stabilization Board ; others are in a dozen key agencies in 

Government agencies have turned to our staff experts for special studies of the 
Japanese economy and of the carrying capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway. 
United China Relief has drawn extensively on I. P. R. personnel for planning its 
China relief program. The American Council on Eudcation has asked our help 
in extending and improving teaching on the Far East in the schools of America. 

Few persons realize that it would have been impossible for the I. P. R. to 
respond to these national needs so quickly had the Institute not long been 
planning for such an emergency. In our research program, for example, that 
meant launching some years ago a wide-ranging set of long-term inquiries into 
the basic problems and conditions of the Far Eastern countries. Many of these 
studies (see our recent catalog) are just coming off the press as they are vitally 
needed for the war effort of the United Nations. 

Recognizing the importance of Southeast Asia in world politics, the I. P. R. 
five years ago initiated a series of studies on the governments, resources and 
development of those areas. As a result we are now issuing the only up-to-date, 
authoritative books on Thailand, Malaya, Formosa, Burma, as well as new 
studies of Indo-China and the Netherlands Indies. Every one of these urgently 
needed studies would not have to be made under immense difficulties by defense 
agencies if the I. P. R. by its foresight had not done the job. 

Other volumes, too, take on a new war significance. What is the industrial 
staying power of the Japanese Empire and the Japanese-controlled areas of 
China and Indo-China? This question, now so vital to the war effort, has been 
the subject of continuous I. P. R. study. The latest results are now being pub- 
lished in The Industrialization of the Western Pacific, in Japan's Industrial 
Strength, and in Industry in Southeast Asia, not to mention earlier studies of 
the Far Eastern economies. 

What is the strategic and economic importance of the Soviet Far East for 
the war plans of the United States today? The best available information 
on this subject is contained in a forthcoming I. P. R. report on Soviet Policy in 
the Far East, begun in 1939. 

What Russian, Japanese, Chinese, and Dutch maps of the Far East are easily 
available In American libraries? Pacific Area Maps gives the answer. 

What about aviation in the Pacific area after the war with its vast expansion 
of aircraft production capacity? An indispensable preliminary for any such 
inquiry is the I. P. R. monograph just published as Air Transport in the Pacifi,c 
Area, begun eighteen months ago. 

Since Pearl Harbor the demands upon the I. P. R. have doubled and trebled. 
We see an even bigger opportunity ahead. Both nationally and in cooperation 


with its sister Councils in the ABCDR war partnership, the American Council 
ought now to throw all its accumulated resources into the war and postwar 
effort of the United Nations in the Pacific. 

To help meet this opportunity we are asking you to make your 1942 member- 
ship contribution at the present time. If possible, we would greatly appreciate 
your increasing it over the sum of $100 which you gave last February. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood. 
WWL : JL. 

Exhibit No. 781 

(Handwritten:) Joe Jones. M. S. F. What would you think of a "Werner 
pamphlet right away? Return to W W L file. Sent to Carnegie Endownment 
& returned. 

Department of State, 
Washington, March 3, 19Jf2. 
Mr. WiLUAM W. Lockwood, 

American Cotmcil, Institute of Pacfic Relations, 

129 East Fifty-second Street, New York, New York. 

Dear Bill : There is enclosed a copy of a memorandum which I have prepared 
setting forth the most significant conclusions which I drew from the discus- 
sions at Princeton last week end. 

I am not sure how many agree with me, but I was especially impressed with 
Mr. Werner and his contribution. I fear that many who have not read his 
books and who were not, therefore, predisposed in his favor may not have been 
able properly to understand and appreciate him. In my memorandum I have 
tried to place him in his proper setting and to give the essence of his views. So 
many people here have been instantaneously impressed by his views that I 
venture to send you a copy of my memorandum for whatever use you may wish 
to make of it. 

Alger Hiss has suggested that it would be exceedingly useful if you could put 
out a pamphlet on the conference within the next few days or weeks, stressing 
Mr. Werner's contribution, as well as his background and writings. I think 
that might be a very good idea. Meanwhile, I am doing all that I can to popu- 
larize Mr. Werner's views in the Department, elsewhere in the Government, and 
with appropriate Chinese, including T. V. Soong. It doesn't seem to be a very 
diflBcult job either because they have seemed to appeal to everyone as extremely 
sensible. The surprising thing to me is that they are new. Werner is coming 
down to Washington this week and I hope to be able to take him around. 

I want to say again that I found the conference not only enjoyable but exceed- 
ingly useful, and I think that additional conferences of that nature would be of 
considerable usefulness in the near future. All of our ideas are in a state of 
flux as they have never been before and for that reason now as never before a 
group discussion should help clarify our views. I would appreciate it if you 
would convey these views to Mr. Carter. Incidentally I think he did a mag- 
nificent job of running the conference. 

I have used and am using Mr. Werner's name freely in connection with his 
views, while maintaining the rule of secrecy with respect to the views of other 
people at the conference. Mr. Werner being a publicist, and his private views 
being no different from bis public views, I have not thought it necessary to 
follow the conference rule. If you do not agree with me please let me know. 



March 2, 1942. 

The week-end conference at Princeton on February 28 and March 1, held under 
the auspices of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, was 
well attended (a list of those participating is attached) and in my opinion the 
discussions were well conducted and arrived at significant conclusions. Without 
reference to the printed agenda I set forth below the most significant conclusions 
which I drew from the discussions. 

88348— 52— pt. 14- 5 



The principal contribution to the discussions of strategy was made by Mr. Max 
Werner, author of Military Strength of the Powers and Battle for the World. 
Mr. Werner was born in Russia and has lived a considerable part of his life in 
Germany and France and elsewhere on the European Continent. He Is thor- 
oughly familiar with the military literature of the world and writes with great 
logic and brilliance. His most recent book, Battle for the World — The Strategy 
and Diplomacy of the Second Worid War, was published in April 1941 prior to 
the German attack on Russia and. of course, to our entry into the war. This 
book is nevertheless exceedingly fresh when read now, even after the events of 
1941. His judgments and evaluations both in regard to diplomacy and strategy 
have been proved in the year subsequent to the publication of his book nearly 
one hundred percent accurate. He has an understanding of strategy, facts, the 
mentalities of the general staffs and political leaders in the various countries 
in Europe and Asia which is most impressive. His knowledge and interpreta- 
tion of Russian military strength, strategy, and diplomacy is particularly impres- 
sive, and his correctness has been demonstrated by events. His opinions, there- 
fore, in my opinion, merit closest attention. 

I summarize briefly below Mr. Werner's analysis of the current situation and 
his sugtrestions as to policy, with the addition of a few supplementary factors 
brought out by other persons at the Conference which fit into Mr. Werner's 
general plan : 

War between the United States and Japan has traditionally been conceived as 
a naval war where;is in fact the Japanese have employed, in blitzkrieg tempo, 
land armies, using mechanical equipment as far as possible, and supported by 
airplanes. Japan's successes in Southeastern Asia have made it exceedingly 
difficult fdi- us to deal with the situation without confronting the Japanese with 
equivalent or superior land forces using the proper equipment and supported by 
superior air power. The concentration of American industry for the most part 
in tlie eastern regions of the T'nited States, the vast distances between our west 
coast and Southeast Asia, and the shortage of shipping space makes it an 
extremely difficult matter to accomplish tliat end. Japan must be defeated by a 
superior land army using modin-n equipment and air power. Who has in the 
Far East an army equipped with modern weapons and supported by air power? 
The Soviet Union. The Russian Army is strategically situated near vulnerable 
Japanese home bases, is large, well-equipped, and capable of the job of handling 
the Japanese. M^n-eover, war between Japan and the Soviet Union is inevitable 
within the next few weeks, months, or years and both the Japanese Government 
and the Soviet Government realize it. The conflict of interests between Japan 
and the Soviet Union is fundamental and the situation is explosive. 

We must conceive of the present war as a global war and plan our strategy 
along global lines. The Soviet Union is fighting desperately in Europe and it 
must at an indefinite time in the future fight in the Far East. We are at war 
both with Germany and Japan. It would be an economical division of labor, 
which would have great potentialities of reducing the length and cost of the 
war, and if we could induce the Russians to employ their Far Eastern army 
against Japan while we aid Russia in Europe where transportation and supply 
problems are easier for us to solve. Indeed, this may be the only way in which 
we can win the war. 

How can we induce Russia to employ its Far Eastern army in the common 

(1) By opening up a new front in the West (Mr. Werner did not elaborate 
on this point but indicated the front might be in Africa, Italy, or elsewhere, the 
main idea being to engage German troops and equipment. He suggested that 
thirty British Divisions and thirty American Divisions properly equipped could 
handle this matter, with another sixty Divisions in reserve) ; 

(2) By furnishing Soviet armies on the European and Asiatic fronts with 
from two to three thousand planes monthly and from two to three thousand 
tanks monthly (this contribution would be a joint British and American con- 
tribution) ; 

(3) By concentrating air and submarine power in Alaska and the Aleutian 
Islands and coordinating an attack with the Russian attack ; 

(4) By equipping Chinese armies in North China as fully as possible for a 
coordinated attack in North China and Manchuria. 

The foregoing program of course, implies cooperation between the Soviet 
Union and the British and American Governments on a full and frank basis. 


The ConfeTence generally stressed the necessity of such cooperation. It is 
possible to achieve such cooperation. The Russians tried desperately to achieve 
a system of collective security in Europe. After Munich they tried sincerely 
to obtain some binding alliance with France and Great Britain. The British 
and Franch would neither arm themselves adequately against the German 
danger (the strength of the Germans and the pitiful weakness of the British 
and Franch were well-known to the experts) nor would they ally themselves with 
the Soviet Union. Accurately judging German strength, and despairing of 
the British and French, the Russians decided to rely upon themselves alone, 
signed an agreement with the Germans in August 1939 and proceeded to increase 
their armaments as fast as possible and to improve their strategic situation 
by absorbing the small Baltic States and by attacking Finland. The Russians 
will now be impressed and moved not by words but by the strength which we 
are prepared to exert in the common cause. 


It is frequently said that this war is a war of four-fifths of the people of the 
world against one-fifth, that it is a peoples' war, a war for freedom. It is more 
accurate to say, however, that it is a war of one-fifth against one-fifth of the 
world with the remaining three-fifths of the world indifferent. This remaining 
three-fifths of the world consists of Colonial peoples who are insufliciently^ 
interested and prepared to defend their own territories against attack. We have 
seen that the people of Malaya aided the Japanese rather more than they aided 
Britain ; that the Burmese are aiding the attacking enemy ; that the peoples 
of the Netherlands Indies (the action of the people of Java remains to be seen). 
are insufliciently developed, both spiritually and materially, to defend their lands. 
Will the peoples of India aid the British in the defense of India, or will they be 
indifferent, will they aid the attackers? 

How can tlie morale of China be improved further that resistance might be 
continued at the highest possible level? (It was recognized that China was 
not a colonial country and that China has, of course, been defending herself 
with great tenacity ; nevertheless, it was recognized by the Conference that 
there are many things which the United States and Great Britain can do 
in order to strengthen the morale of the Chinese peoples and increase their 
fervor for a continuation of the peoples' war. ) 

With respect to India it was agreed that in the interest of common defense 
and of winning this desperate war the Indians must be given a considerable 
measure of independence, that their nationalism must be aroused and inspired 
to self-defense, and that India's economic war potentialities be fully developed 
with outside aid. 

With respect to China it was suggested that steps be taken to accept China 
fully and frankly as a full-scale partner in this war and accord her a full 
voice in the conduct of the war. She is still being treated as somewhat of an 
outsider. It was suggested that steps should be taken at once, as a part 
of the war effort, to abolish extraterritoriality in China, to return Hong 
Kong to China legally, and to abolish the discrimination against China in our 
immigration law. The cause of the "peoples' war" might be greatly en- 
hanced by taking these steps. 

Australia and New Zealand should be admitted into a fuller participation 
in the conduct of the war. They are at present represented in the Pacific 
War Council in London but they feel that in some way they should be rep- 
resented in the councils at Washington. 

(It was commented upon widely how much greater had been the participation 
of the Philippine people in the war than in other areas where a less liberal colo- 
nial policy had been followed.) 

It was the general feeling in the Conference that the old order in Asia was com- 
pletely gone and would never be restored ; that the peoples of Asia must be per- 
mitted and assisted to become masters in their own houses ; that British and 
American superiority must give way to cooperation on a level ; and that both 
in the conduct of the war and the organization of peace it is imperative that the 
peoples of Asia be given a greater voice. 


This subject was only partially discussed, and no conclusions were reached. It 
was, however, generally recognized as an important problem which merits care- 
ful consideration in tlie future. Considerable dissatisfaction was expressed with 


the existing set-up with a British-American Chiefs of Staff Group functioning in 
Washington and a largely British, largely advisory Pacific War Council oper- 
ating in London. It was felt that the smaller nations were too far removed from 
decisions taken in Washington, although it was recognized that a diversity of 
voices in the Central War Council may lead to confusion. 
SR : Jones : MJK/HNS. 

Exhibit No. 782 

Makch 27, 1942. 
To: KB 
From : WWL. 

The newest government project calling for study of the Far East is a School 
of Military Government being organized under auspices of the War Department. 
This is to be located at the University of "Virginia under the direction of Major H. 
C. Dillard and J. I. Miller. These two gentlemen called on me Tuesday to ask 
the cooperation of the I. P. R. in advice on materials, personnel and curriculum. 
The purpose of this school is to train oflScers in the techniques and problems of 
military government in areas taken over from the enemy. 

As the war progresses, and as the military forces are successful large areas 
will be freed from Axis domination and will require provisional military adminis- 
trations. In many respects the policies followed in this interim period may set 
the mold for long-term postwar economic and political readjustment. 

It is proposed to provide a selected group of officers with general background and 
training for this job. The first course will begin in June and run for approxi- 
mately three months. The curriculum will include elementary training in the 
organization of the Army and the War Department and legal procedural prob- 
lems, and historical experience where it seems applicable. As men are ticketed 
for various areas they will be given intensive background courses in the history, 
geography, resources, economic and political organization of the area in question. 

Dillard and Miller would like our assistance at several points. Immediately 
they would like suggestions on Far Eastern personnel available and competent 
to give instruction, at least for this first summer period. I would be glad to 
have suggestions as to historians, political scientists, geographers, etc. who might 
be considered in this connection. 

In the second place they want help in building up a library of teaching ma- 
terials. On looking over my shelf of recent I. P. R. books, they decided that they 
should have virtually all of our books, periodicals and reports. I am sending 
them a complete list, eliminating only those things that clearly are not useful, 
and in addition including suggestions regarding non-I. P. R. materials. 

The headquarters of the School of Military Government at present are in the 
new Armory Building, 10th and B Streets, SE., Washington, D. O. (War De- 
partment Extension 71951). 

(Handwritten:) ECC. 

(Handwritten:) ECC: MG— return to ECC. 

Exhibit No. 784 

War Department, 
The School of Military Government, 

Washington, April 21, 19^2. 
Mr. William W. Lookwood, 

Secretary, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relatione, 
129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 
Dear Mr. Lockwood : Many thanks for your letter of April 17, which reached 
us prior to the interview with Mr. Holland. 

Mr. Holland made a very favorable impression all around. We are, however, 
definitely troubled by the citizenship business. Indeed it is our understanding 
that present regulations forbid us to employ on our regular stafif a noncitizen. 
The matter is one we are now investigating. 


Even if our tie-up with the I. P. R. does not mature this time, there is of 
course the possibility that it will in the future. Hence I feel that Mr. Hol- 
land's trip was not by any means a fruitless one. 
We deeply appreciate the interest you have shown. 
Yours very sincerely, 

[8] Hardy C. Dillard 
Hardy C. Dillakd, 
Major, AUS, Director of Instruction. 

Exhibit No. 785 

June 15, 1942. 
ECC from WWL : 

In response to your request I have hastily jotted down a number of sugges- 
tions for the American group at the conference. It's a long list, of course, but I 
believe we should add to it considerably, and then get competent advice — say 
that of Currie, Barnes, and Jessup — on elimination. This list runs too much in 
the regular groove as regards non-government people. So far as Washington is 
concerned, we need more intimate knowledge as to who really are in the key 
Government : 

Gruening, Ernest H., Governor, Alaska. 

Bean, Louis, Board of Economic Warfare. 

Perkins, Milo, Board of Economic Warfare. 

Rietler, Winfield, Board of Economic Warfare, 

Shoemaker, James, H., Board of Economic Warfare. 

Stone, W. T., Board of Economic Warfare. 

Wallace, H. A., Vice President, BEW. 

Staley, Eugene, Bureau of the Budget. 

Barnes, Joseph, Coordinator of Information. 

Bunche, Ralph, Coordinator of Information. 

Fahs, C. B., Coordinator of Information. 

Hayden, J. R., Coordinator of Information. 

Wheeler, Leslie, Department of Agriculture. 

Ropes, E. C, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 

Berle, A. A., State Department. 

Davies, Joseph, State Department. 

Grady, Henry, State Department. 

Hiss, Alger, State Department. 

Hornbeck, S. K., State Department. 

Sayre, Francis B., State Department. 

Stinebower, L. D., State Department. 

Vince, Jacob, Treasury Department. 

White, H. D., Treasury Department. 

Gulick, Luther H., National Resources Planning Board. 

Emerson, Rupert, Office of Price Administration. 

Nathan, Robert, War Production Board. 

Currie, Lauchlin, White House. 

Lubin, I., White House. 
Others : 

Bassett, Arthur, American Red Cross. 

Bates, Searle, International Missionary Council. 

Beukema, Col. Herman, West Point. 

Binder, Carroll, Chicago Daily News. 

Clapper, Raymond, Washington Columnist. 

Cowles, Gardner, Des Moines Register & Tribune. 

Dennett, Tyler, Historian. 

Dollard, Charles, Carnegie Corporation. 

Emeny, Brooks, Foreign Affairs Council, Cleveland. 

Field, Frederick V., New York. 

Herod, W. R., International General Electric. 

Jessup, Prof. Philip C, Columbia University. 

Kizer, Benjamin H., Pacific Northwest Regional Planning Commission. 

Lochhead, Archie, Universal Trading Corporation. 


Xiuce, Henry, Time, Inc. 

Jklolyneaux, Peter, Texas Weekly. 

Moore, Harriet L., American Russian Institute. 

Schwellenbacli, Judge Lewis B., U. S. District Court, Spokane, Wash. (ex- 

Sproul, Allan, Federal Reserve Bank, New York. 

Sweetland, Monroe, National CIO Committee for American and Allied War 

Voorhis, Jerry, House of Representatives. 

Wilkie, Wendell, Attorney. 

Willits, Joseph H., Rockefeller Foundation. 

Wilson, C. E., General Electric. 

Yarnell, Admiral H. E., U. 'S. N., retired. 
(Handwritten:) conference. 

Exhibit No. 786 

War Department, 
Services of Supply, 
Office of the Provost Marshal General, 

Washinffton, October 21, 1942. 
Mr. William W. Lockwood, 

Secretary, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., 
129 East 52nd Street, New York City, New York. 

Dear Mr. Lockwood : I appreciate very much your visit yesterday and the 
willingness to cooperate in the War Department's Program for Military Govern- 
ment to which it bore evidence. 

Pursuant to our agreement that I would supplement the statement contained 
in the "Synopsis of War Department Program for Military Government", 
copies of which were furnished you yesterday, the following supplemental state- 
ment is made. 

The reservoir of technical and advisory personnel referred to in the "Synop- 
sis" is the group toward the recruitment of which you have volunteered the serv- 
ices of your organization. There is, of course, no immediate need for this per- 
sonnel ; on the other hand, it will not do to await the need before attempting to 
recurit them. Consequently, it is the intention of the War Department to select 
this group at once and commission them in the Army Specialist Corps in a status 
of leave roithout pay. This will permit these persons to coyitinue in their pres- 
ent useful civilian employment until such time as a need arises for thorn, when 
they tmll not only have been selected, but will be immediately available for 

It is planned, however, after some substantial numbers have been enrolled in 
this reserve to ear-mark them for specific areas and then to send them, in 
groups, to certain colleges and universities for a brief training period, not to ex- 
ceed four weeks, in which they will be given some insight into the principles of 
military government, and some background instructions in the areas for which 
they have been ear-marked. No effort will, of course, be made during this 
training period to instruct anyone in the functional activities for which he has 
been selected since the selection of each will have been premised upon the fact 
that he is already specially qualified in his own profession. Inasmuch as the 
recruitment of this personnel must be accomplished with an eye to the Selective 
Service regulations, no person can be emolled in the Army Specialist Corps un- 
less he is either over forty-five years of age, or if under forty-five, has been classi- 
fied in Class 3 A or in more deferred classifications under the Selective Service 

Your efforts in assisting the War Department in compiling lists of available 
personnel for the foregoing purposes will be greatly appreciated, and some early 
activity in this direction on your part will be most helpful. 

With bi'st wishes, I am, 
Sincerely yours, 

Jesse I. Miller, 
Acting Chief, Military Government Division. 


Exhibit No. 787 

October 21, 1942, 
Robert W. Baknett, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

100 Jackson Place NW., Washington, D. G. 

Dear Bob : The interviews with conference invitees yesterday were quite 
successful on the whole. Remer and Bunch definitely will come unless O. S. S. 
policy prevents. Despres makes the same reservations ; also he is not yet sure 
of being able to get away for that time. Coe and Stone accept tentatively, al- 
though uncertain about whether they can get away for the full period. Emerson 
doubts very much that he can free himself to attend. Coe and Stone have agreed 
to take up the question with Perkins, and have hopes that he will attend for two 
or three days, though no longer than that. Other possibilities developed in dis- 
cussion, and these I'll take up with you later. 

Meanwhile there are one or two specific things I'd like you to do. 

Harry White is in London, I am told, though I didn't call his office. I am 
mailing a formal invitation to him, and suggest that you call his secretary to say 
that this is something about which we should like to talk with White on his 

I also invited Lon De Caux, C. I. O. publicity director and editor of the C. /. O. 
News. He immediately gave his tentative acceptance. I got a vei^y favorable 
impression from conversation with him, and Michael knows him. 

De Caux suggested Bo?'is ^^huski?}, of the A. F. of L., as another good labor 
person for the conference. He is the research director, I believe. If the Nomi- 
nating Committee approves, I'd like you and Michael to see him at the Washing- 
ton headquarters and extend an invitation. Before doing this, however, you had 
better wait lor further word from me. 

In the opinion of Hiss, Coe, and Despres, we ought to try to get Berle or Dean 
Acheson, or both. More about this later, too. 

(Handwritten :) 

One important gap in the present line-up is India. The Washington possibili- 
ties are Paul Ailing, now political adviser and formerly chief of the State De- 
partment's Near Eastern Division; Wallace Murray, present chief; Eric Bee- 
croft, and Norman Brown. From what I learned of the two State Department 
men, neither would be very useful to us. As between Beecroft and Brown, I'd 
like your opinion and Michael's. Despres says that the written work of Brown's 
section is first rate — imaginative and pointed. He doesn't know Brown's quali- 
fications as a conference iiarticipaut. Bremer thinks well of Brown as more 
than the conventional academician. In his favor are not only his position, but 
also his academic standing. Although we are paying little attention to this 
consideration in making up the American group, it would be desirable, other 
things being equal, to include at least one person with senior rank, among schol- 
ars in the Asiatic field. But this shouldn't decide the matter unless on other 
grounds as well Brown is the best nominee. 

Another possibility we might consider is someone from Knox's office or Stlm- 
son's. Coe and Hiss mentioned Adlai Stevens{sic) , one of Knox's special assist- 
ants. Hiss also suggested with some approval Harvey Bundy, former As- 
sistant Secretary of State and now special assistant to Stimson. Then there 
is General Little, a Marine general formerly in China, now retired (?). Also 
General Magruder, whereabouts unknown. Despres suggested Admiral Hart, 
saying that it wouldn't be a bad idea to have someone who would give a pretty 
forthright and orthodox Navy view, as this view will greatly influence the post- 
war settlement. 

Still other suggestions include Robert Sherwood, head of the O. W. I.'s Over- 
seas Section, and Gardner Cowles. 

Ben Kiser probably will write Congressman Coffee a personal letter, and leave 
it to us to follow up with an interview. 

In a day or so I'll send a revised list indicating where we now stand on invi- 
tations and acceptances. 

Reed Hager, by the way, would like very much to see you, and took down your 
telephone number. He has been with Rupert Emerson in the office of the O. P. A. 
Regional Administrator handling Territories and Possessions. Next week he 
probably will shift to the civilian stafT of the Munitions Assignments Board. 
This will put him in a key position, as a member of the group working for Hopkins 
in this field. His home address is 2031 Huidekoper Place. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 


Exhibit No. 788 

November 16, 1942. 


• Barnett writes, apparently quoting Hiss, that Hornbeck warmly supports the 
invitation to Yarnell, but feels that it would be improper for him to take any 
initiative in approaching Secretary Knox, as I suggested he do. Hornbeck's 
opinion apparently is that the best procedure would be for you to write directly 
to Welles. Attached is a carbon of my letter to Hornbeck, in case you Wish 
to use the same form with Welles. 

You may want to tell Welles that the American Council has issued conference 
invitations to Hornbeck, Hamilton, and Pasvolsky. 

Hiss added that Hornbeck and Hamilton would be very glad to have their 
expenses paid. I see no reason for us to do this, and I imagine you will agree. 

Exhibit No. 789 

November 6, 1942. 

Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, 

State Department, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Hornbeck : The American Council is eager to include Admiral Yarnell 
as a member of the American group at the Mont Tremblant Conference in De- 

Admiral Yarnell has expressed a keen interest in attending, and suggested 
that we write the Secretary of the Navy requesting official approval. 

If you think it advisable, we would very much appreciate your taking up 
the question with Secretary Knox, supporting our request and indicating the 
importance of the Conference. 
Sincerely yours, 


Executive Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 790 

November 19, 1942. 
Mr. Benjamin H. Kizer, 

Old National Bank Building, 

Spokane, Washington 

Dear Ben : Things have moved so fast that I haven't been able to keep you 
posted on every development in the assembling of the conference group. In any 
case, I know that you wanted us to go ahead on our own intiative. 

Enclosed is the list as it stands. Everyone on it has given his final O. K. for 
at least part-time attendance. The exception is General Strong, who hopes and 
expects to be present, however. 

We now run the risk of finding ourselves with a larger group than we wanted. 
There are still several people to be heard from — for example, Gideon Seymour, 
a Minneapolis journalist, John B. Cook, a Chicago businessman, John Coffee, 
and Max Hamilton of the State Department. This results from the fact that 
two weeks ago we became alarmed Ijy the lack of response and stepped up the 
number of invitations. In the past few days a number of people have came 

Considering the circumstances, I believe that we have a good group — good in 
the sense that it is diversified and includes a number of able people. The 
problem now will be to produce some degree of unity and coherence in the 
American presentation at Mont Tremblant. Don't you agree that the American 
group as such ought to have a number of meetings of its own ? 
Hastily yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, 


Copies to : Harriet L. Moore 
Philip C. Jessup 


November 19, 1942. 

Partial List of United States Delegation 

Mont Tremblant Conference, December 4-14, 1942 

Institute of Pacific Relations 

Brown, W. Norman, British Empire Section, OflSce of Strategic Services. 

Bunche, Ralph J., British Empire Section, Office of Strategic Services. 

CoE, Frank, Assistant to the Director, Board of Economic Warfare. 

CuRRiE, Lauchlin, Admiinstrative Assistant to he President. 

De Caitx, Len, Publicity Director, Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

Dennett, Tyler, former President, Williams College. 

Desprees, Emile, Chief, Economic Section, Office of Strategic Services. 

Earle, Edward M., Institute for Advanced Study. 

Embree, Edwin R., President, Julius Rosenwald Fund, Chicago. 

Emeny, Brooks, Director, Foreign Affairs Council, Cleveland. 

Field, Frederick V., Chairman, Editorial Board, Amerasia. 

HoRNBECK, Stanley K., Political Adviser, Department of State. 

Johnson, Luther A., Congressman, Sixth District, Texas. 

KizER, Benjamin H., Chairman, Northwest Regional Planning Commission. 

McCoy, General Frank R., President, Foreign Policy Association. 

Moore, Harriet L., Secretary, American Russian Institute. 

Pasvolsky, Leo, Chief, Division of Special Research, Department of State. 

Remer, C. T., Chief, Far Eastern Section, Office of Strategic Services. 

Sohwellenbach, Lewis B., Judge, U. S. District Court of Appeals, Spokane. 

Shiskin, Boris, Research Director, American Federation of Labor. 

Stone, William T., Assistant Director, Board of Economic Warfare. 

Straight. Michael, Editor, The New Republic. 

Strong, Major General George V., Assistant Chief of StafC (G-2), Department 

of War. 
Thomas, Elbert H., Senator from Utah. 
Viner, Jacob, University of Chicago. 

Wilbur, Brayton, President, Wilbur-Ellis Company, importers, San Francisco. 
Yarnell, Admiral Harry E., U. S. N., retired. 

Exhibit No. 791 

(Handwritten:) W. L. H. 

November 19, 1942. 
Mr. W. A. M. Burden, 

Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mn. Burden : I note with interest the press report of your speech the 
other day on air transport in the Arctic. This prompts me to ask your advice 
and assistance on one or two aspects of our present I. P. R. program. 

Early next month the Eighth International Conference of the Institute will 
convene at Mont Tremblant, Quebec. Delegates from Britain, the Dominions, 
India, China, the Netherlands, and other I. P. R. countries are coming together 
for a ten-day round-table session on Wartime and Postivar Cooperation Among 
the United Nations in the Paciflc. A number of studies are being prepared for 
this conference, which in turn will set the stage for a large-scale I. P. R. inquiry 
during the next two or three years into the terms and conditions of postwar 
reconstruction in this vast area. 

One of the key questions, of course, is the potential role of air transport, 
in relation both to military security and to economic development. Although 
this is bound to figure in the Mont Tremblant discussions, we have not yet 
documented the subject in any special I. P. R. paper. 

I wonder whether by any chance you would be willing to prepare a brief 
article on the svibject, with special refei-ence to the North Pacific, for publication 
in the Far Eastern Sm-vei/. In order to make it available for the conference, we 
should have to have the manuscript not later than December 1. Even if this 
were out of the question, we should like very much to publish such an article 
in the f^urrey. 

In the second place, I wonder whether, in your opinion, we ought to endeavor 
to arrange for a more extensive study in this field for later publication — say, in 
pamphlet form. One difficulty, of course, is that much of the new technical 


information necessarily is secret for the time being. If this would not preclude 
our arranging for an interesting and useful report on the future of air transport 
in the Pacific, do you have anyone in mind who might be competent and available 
for the job? 

As you may recall, last year the I. P. R. published a monograph by Sydney B. 
Smith, formerly of the State Department, on At?- Transport in the Pacific Area. 
If you haven't a copy, I'd be glad to send you one. It was a pre-Pearl Harbor 
study, and therefore is now only of historical interest in its account of the prewar 
development of air lines. It might, however, be the basis of a further report 
which would take up the question as of the present date, and would deal some- 
what more speculatively with the future. You may be interested in a conference 
paper on The North Pacific International Planning Project, just issued by the 
American Council. It is a memorandum on the future development of Alaska, 
the Yukon and the Pacific Northwest, by the chairman and staff of Region Nine, 
National Resources Planning Board. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. F. Lockwood, 


WWL: wm 

Exhibit No. 792 

November 27, 1942. 
Lieutenant Colonel John W. Coui-ter. 

Room 2C766, Pentagon Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Colonel Coxtlteb: In response to your letter of November 24 inquiring 
regarding the Eighth International Conference of the Institute of Pacific Re- 
lations, December 4-14, 1942, at Mont Tremblant, Quebec, may I suggest that 
you consult my letter to Major General George V. Strong, dated Nocember 11? 
This letter with its enclosures gave full particulars. 

Mr. Robert W. Barnett, the Institute's Washington representatives, can give 
you further information if you wish it. His office is at 700 Jackson Place (tele- 
phone National 3428). 

Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 793 

Office of Strategic Services, 
Washington, D. C, December 3, 1942. 
Mr. William Lockwood, 

American Council Institute of Pacifie Relations, 
129 East 52nd Street, New York City 
Dear Bill: Mr. Remer thanks you for the copy of Mr. Barnett's interviews 
with Chinese leaders which you sent him on October 22nd. We have much of this 
material on file in the office, so I am returning this copy to you. 
I trust that the Mont Tremblant Conference was highly successful. 
Best regards, 


Robert N. Maghx. 

Exhibit No. 794 

Copies to ECC and WHL. 

December 28, 1942. 
Mr. Lauchlin Cttrrie, 

Room 228, State Department Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Laugh: Enclosed herewith is a staff memorandum on the high points 
of the Mont Tremblant Conference. You may feel free to use the memorandum 
confidentially in any way you wish. 

Brief summaries of this sort never succeed in conveying the color and vi- 
tality of the round table process, but I hope you may nevertheless find this of 
some value. 


The IPR now has the job of building on the foundation of this post war dis- 
cussion. In this connection we ought presumably to establish contracts with 
Governor Lehman's office — both to insure that full use is made of whatever value 
there may be in the Conference documentation and discussion, and also to see 
what further IPR work would be most useful for the purpose of Governor Leh- 
man's program. After the first of the year we would like to discuss this with 

In a few days I will send you under separate cover a new set of IPR school 
books on the countries of Asia. They are just out and are already getting an 
enthusiastic reception. One wishes that the State Department's Cultural Re- 
lations Division and the Office of Education could see their way to assisting sub- 
stantially in developing work of this tyi)e. The Rockefeller Foundation has now 
decided not to go extensively into this field, thus leaving pretty flat for the 
moment the ambitious plans of the IPR and American Council on Education 
for capitalizing on the new interest in the Far East among school authorities. 

One other matter — Wilma Fairbank has just written to say that she does not 
feel that she can accept our offer to her of the Washington IPR secretaryship. 
If you happen to think of anyone who might be a candidate, we would welcome 

Sincerely yours, 

"Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 795 

April 17, 1943. 
Mr. Anthony .Tenkinson, 
16 West 12th Street, 

New York, N. Y. 
Deak Tony : Fred told me the other day that you saw the notice in the paper 
about the film, KNOW TOUR ENEMY. This announcement startled us, too, for 
we are still in the preliminary stages of negotiation. 

We are probably going to cooperate with the Princeton Film Center, how- 
ever, in producing this documentary film on Japan. The producer seized on 
this title as a good one though the film narrative itself Avill be somewhat more 
general in character than the contents of the pamphlet. The Navy has been 
sending us endless forms to sign in connection with the pamphlet order. Once 
the payment comes through we will immediately forward a check to you on 
the arrangement proposed some weeks ago. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, 

cc: TGS 


Exhibit No. 796 

September 16, 1942. 

I understand that W. S. Culbertson, formerly a draft commissioner, is now 
creating an office and program in G-2 with the aim of developing certain general 
studies of a geopolitical character. He is particularly interested in making use 
of the scholarly resources of private research institutes and universities. 


(Handwritten:) Please return to WWL. 
(Handwritten:) WLH ECC RWB 10/19/42. 

Exhibit No. 797 

War Department, 
War Department Generax Staff, 
Military Intelligence Division, G-2, 
Washington, 2431 Munitions Building, October 12, 1942. 
Mr. William W. Lockwood, 

American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., 
129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

Dbvvr Mr. Lockwood : Thank you very much for your letter of the 9th instant. 
It will be entirely satisfactory to me to have the proposed Round Table Confer- 
ence on India postponed until after the tirst of the year. I hardly think we could 
do an adequate job before that time anyway. In the meantime I hope to have 
an opportunity to talk the whole matter over with you and to explain the pro- 
cedure and technique of Round Tables which I have in mind. 
With i)ersonal regards, I am, 
"Very sincerely yours, 

William S. Culbertson, 
Lt. Colonel, OSC, Chief, Geopolitical Section, MIS, 

Exhibit No, 798 

War Department, 
War Department General Staff, 
Military Intelligence Division, G-2, 
Washington, 2431 Munitions Building, October 1, 1942. 
Mr. W. W. Lockwood, 

Secretary, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
129 E. 52nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Lockwood : In part as a result of our conversation a short time ago 
and in part as a result of a conversation which I had with Dr. Earle of Prince- 
ton, I desire to raise the question whether a Round Table group, in line with the 
procedure which I am developing under this Section, might be sponsored by 
the Institute of Pacillc Relations. The suggestion which I have in mind is India. 
If you should think well of this idea, I shall be glad to confer with you or with 
Mr. P>arnett. 

I shall be in New York next Tuesday and continue on to Boston where I 
will be for two or three days. I will be back in Wasliington October 12. 
With personal regards, I am, 
Very sincerely yours, 

William S. Culbertson, 
Lt. Colonel, GSC, Chief, Geopolitical Section, MIS. 

Exhibit No. 799 

c. c. : WLH-ECC, RWB, with copy Culbertson to WWL 10-1^2. 
(Handwritten:) War Dept. 

October 9, 1942. 
Lt. Col. William S. Culbertson, 

Chief, Geopolitical Section, Military Intelligence Division, 0-2, 
General Staff, War Department, Washington, D. C. 
2431 Munitions Building. 

Dear Colonel Culbertson : In reply to your letter of October 1, I wonder if 
you would explain in a little more detail what you have in mind in regard to 
the proposed conference on India. 

Would you like to have the Institute take charge of arrangements for t^e 
meeting, selection of personnel, preparation of the agenda, etc.? Do you have in 
mind a week-end discussion in which both government officials and private indi- 
viduals would take part? 


If it ijiT«1ved a good deal of organizing work for us here, I doubt that we could 
take it on before tlie end of the year. Until that time, we happen to be pretty 
well occupied witla plans and «.rrangements for a big IPR conference to be held 
In Canada in December. 

It wouM be possible now, I fcelieve, to assemble a group of experts, chiefly from 
Washington and the New York area, who together might be able to clarify the 
Imdian picture in a very useful way. At the moment, however, our staff is so 
overloaded with work that we hardly see how we can take on the organizing re- 
sponsibility at present. 
Simcerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 799-A 

(HaEid'writtffli:) File Lockwood. 


Princeton University, 
Princeton, New Jersey, 
School of Public and International Affairs, 

December 29, 1947. 
Mr. MiJxwELL S. Stewart, 

American Omincil, InstUnte of Pacific Relations, Inc., 
1 East SJfth St., Netv York 22, N. Y. 

Dear Max: My reactions to Arthur Bisson's pamphlet manuscript on Japan 
are as follows : 

It is a well-written and clear exposition of the outcome of the postwar elections, 
in terms of the success of the parties and some of the factors influencing their 
soaecess. I learned a lot from it. 

Nevertheless, I feel that its political assumptions and value judgments raise 
the whole issue of IPR pamphlet policy. A pamphlet carries institutional spon- 
sorship of its point of view unless it is one of a number of divergent views pre- 
sented — ^which would not be the case here. The question, therefore, is whether 
the American Council should sponsor strong political judgments on current 
controversial issues. In my own view it should avoid doing so unless in a non- 
partisan round-table fashion. This limitation is implicit in its whole set-up, and 
failure to recognize this clearly is responsible for many present IPR diflSculties. 
It is a real limitation, of course, but it still leaves room for a useful and important 

Accordingly, I would question publication of the manuscript as it stands. Now 
I'll try to be a little more explicit. 

The manuscript defines political progress strictly in terms of the triumph of the 
Communists and left-wing Socialists. The "new democratic forces" are equated 
with the Communist and Socialist parties on p. 26, but earlier the right-wing 
Socialists are excluded from the "true progressives" (p. 24) and are lumped 
with the old guard (p. 13). The latter are blamed for the lack of a united Com- 
munist-Socialist front (p. 12), and to this is ascribed the deplored Liberal-Pro- 
gressive victory in 1946 (p. 14) . 

It happens that I also believe that democracy in Japan is linked with the for- 
tunes of the Social Democrats (though I'm more skeptical about the united front 
with the Communists). But I'm in doubt whether the IPR should argue this 
doctrine on either point, especially when the pamphlet presents no factual evi- 
dence for this definition of democracy or for labelling the Liberals and Democrats 
as the useless and objectionable old guard. A reader is certainly entitled to 
ask what about totalitarianism on the left, what are these Japanese parties 
really after, what kind of political system can Japan with her traditions be ex- 
pected to adopt, etc. Instead, he gets here a very specific standard of judgment, 
assumed ex hypothesi. 

As for SCAP policy, MacArthur is sharply criticized for failure to conduct 
sweeping purges and to do a good many other things, especially in the first six 
months. With some of the criticisms I would certainly agree. But I would make 
more allowances for lack of preparation, shortage of staff, the inevitable confu- 
sion of the earlier period, failure to estimate the depth of the problem, etc. And, 
aside from that, it would seem to me that we have faced a basic dilemma in over- 
all policy which is not recognized here. We were committed to indirect govern- 


ment, probably for good reasons. We were also committed to encouraging self- 
government by democratic procedures, iu a situation wiiere defeat did not itself 
bring revolution. Arthur argues for a policy of sweeping intervention which would 
have run the danger (1) of our having to administer Japan from top to bottom 
and (2) of our installing a set of left-wing puppets lacking real strength in the 
Japan of 1945-47. He has much more confldence than I in the possibilities and 
the desirability of totalitarian (i. e. military) force operating from the outside 
and at the top to democratize Japan. He is therefore more disappointed in the 
outcome to date. 

But again I don't object to the pamphlet because I disagree ; Arthur has a much 
closer knowledge of the facts than I (though I question a few statements like the 
one on p. 17 ascribing Japanese support of the Emperor's retention to SCAP). 
Rather, I question whether the IPR should sponsor what is in a rather summary, 
ex parte judgment on an operation which has been exceedingly delicate in char- 
acter and one where good democrats can honestly differ in evaluating the goals 
and the progress toward them. Most Americans will reject the tests of success 
which he applies and will feel correspondingly less dissatisfied with the Mac- 
Arthur record. 

Perhaps these objections could be overcome by some alterations in balance, em- 
phasis, and phraseology. For example, the conclusions on democratization pre- 
sented by Maki and Steele in recent IPR publications are not open to objection on 
the issue I have raised. For examples of other articles on Japan which are 
valuable and also entirely appropriate for IPR publication, see those by Sansom 
and Ladejinsky in Foreign Affairs for January 1948. 
Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Bill, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, 

Assistant Director. 

Exhibit No. 799-B 
(Handwritten:) Note made HRH. 


MiLiTAKY Intelligence Service, 
Washington, Dccemher 26, 194^. 

Mr. William W. Lockwood, „ t ^• 

Secretary, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
129 East Fifty-second Street, 
New York, New York. 
My Dear Mr. Lockwood: Your letter to Colonel Pettigrew, dated December 
21, has been referred to me during Pettigrew's absence on a rather prolonged 

"our office is very much interested in the proceedings of the IPR conference 
and would like to get at least two and preferably five complete sets. Our Far 
Eastern Group is divided into five branches, and I believe it would be advan- 
tageous for us to have one copy on file with each branch. 

I expect to •'et in touch with Mr. Barnett today and ask him if he could spare 
us some time, with the object of giving us a first-hand picture of the proceed- 
ings. Your kind cooperation is greatly appreciated. 

Sincerly yours, .^ „ _^ 

William Mayeb, 

Colonel, G8C, Acting Chief, Far Eastern Oroup. 

(Handwritten:) original sent to ED. 

December 21, 1942. 

Colonel M. W. Pettigrew, G. S. C, 
Chief, Far Eastern Oroup, 

Military Intelligence Service, 

War Department, Washington, D. C. *• 

Dear Colonel Pettigrew : In answer to the request stated in your letter of 
the third, I believe we can arrange to provide your office with a full set of re- 
ports from the Mont Tremblant IPR Conference. , ^ ^. ^ 
We were sorry that the pressure of affairs in Washington prevented the attend- 
ance of someone in Military Intelligence Service. The Conference proved to 


be a remarkably interesting discussion of almost every phase of the War effort 
and postwar possibilities in the Far East. The British, Chinese, Australians, 
New Zealanders, Indians, Canadians and others were ably represented, and the 
discussion was quite frank and illuminating. If you would like a i)ersonal re- 
port on what went on, may I suggest that you get in touch with Robert W. Bar- 
nett, our Washington representative, who can be reached at 700 Jackson Place 
(National 3428). I believe he could give you a very interesting and informative 
account of the whole proceedings. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 799-C 

Decembeb 2, 1942. 
Mr. Philo W. Pabkeb, 

Standard-Vacuum Oil Company, 

26 Broadway, Netv York City. 

Deab Me. Parkee: The War Department has asked the American Council to 
assist in compiling a list of technical and advisory personnel who might be 
enlisted to take part in its program of military government in occupied areas. 

This is to ask whether you could help us in meeting this important request 
by forwarding to me nominations of persons qualified in your opinion for the 
type of work specified. 

The War Department's specifications and general plans in this field are out- 
lined in the attached letter and memorandum. To facilitate you in scanning 
the material, I have underlined certain passages. 

As you will see, the Department is looking for men experienced in such fields 
as industry, raw materials, banking and fiscal operations, public health and 
sanitation, public utilities and relief administration. 

Candidates must be over 45 years of age or, if under 45, must be in one of the 
deferred classifications of the Selective Service. 

According to the original plan, these men were to be commissioned in the Army 
Specialist Corps. With the abolition of that Corps, recently announced,- they will 
probably be given commissions in the U. S. Army. They will be allowed to con- 
tinue their present civilian employment until called up for service. A brief 
training period, not to exceed four weeks, is envisaged. 

The Council is particularly interested in submitting nominations of persons 
of Far Eastern experience but would be glad to forward suggestions regarding 
other specially qualified personnel. 

Any help you can give us will be greatly appreciated. 
Sincerely yours, 

Wm. W. Lockwood, Secretary. 

Letters of identical text, as the one sent to Mr. Philo W. Parker, Standard- 
Vacuum Oil Company, 26 Broadway, New York City, were sent to the following: 
Mr. Boies C. Hart. National City Bank, .55 Wall Street, New York City 
Mr. Randall Gould, Starr, Park and Freeman, Inc., 101 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Dr. Henry Heleney, 60 Gramercy Park North, New York City 
Ml'. Joe Mickle, International Missionary Council, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Mr. W. S. Roberson, American and Foreign Power Company, Two Rector Street, 

New York City 
Mr. Julian Arnold, 262 Arlington Avenue, Berkeley, California 
Mr. William P. Hunt, Hunt Engineering Company, 150 Broadway, New York City 
Dean Robert Calkins, "School of Business, Columbia University, New York City 
President Everett N. Case, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York 
Mr. Lennig Sweet, United China Relief, 1790 Broadway, New York City 
Dr. Eugene L. Opie, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, York Avenue 

and 66th Street, New York City 
Dr. Reginald Atwater, American Public Health Association, 1790 Broadway, 

New York City 
Mr. G. Ellsworth Juggins, 79 Worth Street, New York City 
Mr. George R. Coleman, 50 Church Street. New York City 
Mr. E. E. Barnett, Y. M. C. A., 347 Madison Avenue, New York City 



Exhibit No. 800 


Programs for Mr. W. 

Holland's stay 
(office memo) 

IPR Staff Members 

E. C. Carter 


E. C. Carter 

W. W. Lock wood 




Carl F. Remer 

W. L. Holland 

Maj. G. A. Lincoln 

Qeo.H. Kerr 

Wm. Holland 

Wm. Holland -. 

Wm. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

Wm. T. Stone 

W. L. Holland 

WLH KM.. -. 

(Attached : Back- 
ground Information — 
The Strength of the 
Muslim League in In- 
dia, Mr. Jinnah's posi- 
tion— 164/No. 4/2/1/1.3. 

Hugh Borton 

Mr. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

Free distribution list for 
"Korean industry and 
transport by A.TG: 

Preface, Grajdanzev 

Hilda Austern 

Owen Lattimore 

Wilma Fairbank 

W. T. Holland 

Dr. Wm. T. Holland.... 

Wm. T. Holland 

Wm. Holland 

Lauchlin Currie 

Wm. Holland 

T. A. Bisson 

Wilma Fairbank . 

Prof. Schuyler Wallace. 

Wm. L. Holland 

Wm. Holland 

Schuyler C. Wallace 

Wm. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

W. L. Holland (note 

Irving Friedman 

Wm. L. Holland 

Alice B. Foy .. . 

W. L. Holland 

Eleanor Lattimore 

W. L. Holland 

W. L.Holland 

Douglas MacLennan 

W. L.Holland 

Edvv. C. Carter 

E. Herbert Norman 


W. L.Holland 

Charles Loomis 

Sir George Sansom 


Dean Rusk 

II it 

Pacific Council Officers (at- 
tachment) . 
Justice Wm. O. Douglas 

S. B. Thomas 

V. G.Tseng 

Geo. J. Beal (2 attach.).. 

W. L. Holland 

Edw. C. Carter 






All years... _.. 

Research Secretary. 

W. L. Holland 


Research Secretary. 



W. L. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

James P. Baxter 

W. L.Holland 

W. L. Holland 

Geo. H. Kerr 

Chester R. Vail 

Philip C. Jessnp 

Wm. T. Stone 

W. L. Holland 

Wm. T. Johnstone.. 




W. L. Holland. 
A. Grajdanzev. 

W. L.Holland 

W. L. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

Edward L. Barlow. 

W. L. Holland 

Mrs. Wilma Fairbank. 

W. L. Holland. 

Schulyer _ . 

Schuyler C. Wallace.. 

W. L. Holland 

Schuyler C. Wallace.. 

Philip C. Jesup 

Irving S. Friedman 

W. L. Holland. 

Alice B. Foy 

W. L.Holland 

Lt. L. H. Chamberlain 

W. L.Holland 

Louis Dolivet 

Douglas A. MacLennan. 

Wm. L. Holland. 

PhiHp J. Jaffe 

Wm. L. Holland 

Wm. L. Holland 


E. H. Norman. _ 

W. L. Holland 

Wm. L. Holland 


Wm. L. Holland 

Wm. L. Holland. 

V. G. Tseng. 

Wm. L. Holland. 
Wm. L. Holland. 

Geo. J. Beal 

Wm. L. Holland 




4/30/48 -. 
1/25/50- - 
1/ 5/50.- 
2/13/50- - 
5/17/50- . 
7/ 6/35 . 

2/ 1/50.... 


4/ 5/51..-- 


4/10/51... . 

Type of Doc- 








Original. .- 






Original. .- 
Original. .- 







Original. -- 











131B. 11 

105. 95 
100. 48 
100. 157 
191. 258 
191. 89 

104. 52 
100. 384 
119. 123 
119. 24 
131B. 165 
119. 29 

131B. 160 

119. 15 



191. 57 

131B. 10 

191. 13 

131B. 23 







109. 10 


112. 50 
100. 46 
500. 10 
100. 354 

500. 12 
500. 14 


500. 16 









Exhibit No. SOO-A 

8S34S— uli — pt. 14 — —6 


Exhibit No. 800-A — Continued 



Exhibit No. 801 

Pacific Council, Institute of Pacific Relations — Staff members, 19S6-1943 

Note. — This list includes paid personnel only. No regular record is available as to volunteer assistance. 
Personnel serving in clerical capacity for a few months only are not all listed. Years listed do not neces- 
sarily indicate that individual was a member of the staff during the entire year. 








)> Hi-.; 


Edward C. Carter 

Hilda Austern 

Joseph Barber, Jr.. 

Annette Blumenthal 

Chen Han-seng 

Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley 

William L. Holland 

Owen Lattimore 

Liu Yu-wan 

Kate L. Mitchell 

Harriet L. Moore 

Catherine Porter 

Richard L. Pyke 

Charlotte Tyler 

Elizabeth Downing 

Eleanor Fabyan 

F. Max 

Nagaharu Yasuo 

Hugh Borton 

Rilma Buckman 

Ruth D. Carter 

Ch'ao-ting Chi 

Irv ng S. Friedman 

Helen Kellogg 

Philip E. LiUenthal 

Elodie Moerman 

Ehzabeth Raymond. .- 

Jack Shepherd 

Katrine Parsons --. 

M. Young 

F. Mangahas 

Barbara Messer 

Patricia Glover... 

Mar jorie Austern 

John Leaning... 

Percy E. Corbett 

Vera Dodds 

M. Matsuo 

Michael Minarovich 

Lillian Pefler 

Russell G. Shiman 

Ellen van Zyll de Jong. 

Kurt Bloch 

John De Francis 

Andrew J. Grajdanzev. 
Michael Qreenberg 

C. Y. Hsiaug... 


Isabel Ward 

Robert W. Barnett 

Winnifred Clark 

Mary F. Healy 

Bruno Lasker 

Renee Stern 

T. A. Bisson 

Edith Bykofsky 

Grace Caravello 

Frances Friedman ... 

Augusta Jay 

Harriet Levin thai 

Laura Mayer 

Ehzabeth Neal 

Betty Skrefstad 

R. Winslow 

Clara Spidell 

1936, 1937, 193S, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943_. 
1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943.. 


1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942 

1936, 1937, 1938, 1939 

1936, 1937, 1938, 1939 

1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 

1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941 


1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 

1936, 1937 

1936, 1937, 1938. 

1936, 1937, 1938 

19.36, 1937 

1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942. 



1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 

1938, 1939 


1937, 1938 1938, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 

1938, 1939, 1940 

1938, 1939 


1938, 1939, 1940, 1942 

1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942 


1938, 1939, 1940, 1941 

1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943-.- 

1939, 1940, 1941 


1939, 1940, 1941 

1939, 1940 


1939, 1940, 1941.. 


1940, 1941, 1942 

1940, 1941 

1940, 1941, 1942 , 

1940, 1941 

1940, 1941 

1940, 1941 



1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943 

1941, 1942 


1941, 1942, 1943. 

1941, 1942 


1942, 1943 

1942, 1943 


1942, 1943 












Assistant Treasurer. 
Distribution Manager. 
Research Associate. 
Assistant to Secretary- 
Research Secretary. 
Editor, Pacific ASairs. 

.\ssistant to Secretary- 

Research Associate. 

Managing Editor, Pa 
cific ASairs. 

Publications Secy. 

Research Associate. 

Secretary and Publi- 


Research Associate. 

Research .Associate. 

Research Associate. 



Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 


Editorialand Research. 



Research Associate. 



Research Associate. 





Research Associate. 


Research Associate. 

Shipping clerk. 

Research -Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Managing Editor, Pa 
cific Affairs. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 


Research .\.ssociate. 



Research Associate. 


Research Associate. 













American Council, Institute of PacifiG Relations — Staif members, 1937-19^3 

[See note at end of table] 




1929 on 



1935?... . 


Frederick V. Field.. . 

Helen Wiss 

HikH Austern 

Katlileen Barnes 

Annette Blumenthal. 

Elodie Shinkle 

Mary E. Harrell 

Catherine Porter 

Ernest Hauser 

Anita Archer 

Ruth Earnshaw 

Bruno Lasker 

Jeanette Randolph... 

Joseph Barber, Jr 

Inez Campbell 

Josephine Metcalf 

J. Murphv 

B. P. Schoyer 

Mrr^aret Taylor 

Isibel Ward 

Russell Q. Shiman 

William W. Lock- 
Miriam S. Farley 

Michael Minarovich.. 

John Stewart. __ , 

Emily Twaddell 

Katrine R. C. Greene 
Elizabeth Raymond.. 

Kurt Bloch-.- 

E. Todd 

Frances Rifchin 

Aim Warson 

M. Taussig 

Robert W. Barnett... 

Rose Landres 

TillieG. Shahn 

Janet Leifert 

Elizabeth Downing.. 

Nancy Wilder 

A. Holtman 

Mary Rolfe 

Dorothy Borg 

Vera Dodds 

Rose Yardumian 

Wilson Morris 

Rita Zagon 

Harriet Holmes 

Judith Daniel. 

Theresa Oerathy 

Mildred Gilliam 

Harold J. Greenberg... 

Josephine Owen 

Roberta Powell _. 

J. O. M. Briek.. 

Homer H. Dubs 

AVilya Gdlus 

D'irothy Israel 

Alice Jayson 

Willi im C. Johnstone 

Mildred Klein 

Rosamund Lee 

Harriet Levinthal 

Dorcithy Miyo 

Frances Moldauer 
(until 1946, Sharpe). 

Harriet L. Moore 


1937, 1938, 19.39, 1940 

1937, 193S, 1939 

19.37, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941.. 

19.37, 1938, 1939, 1940 

1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942. 

19.37, 1938 


1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 

1937, 1938 



1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1943. 

1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 





19.38, 1941. 1942 

1938, 1939, 1940 

1938 1939 

1937^ 1938, 'm9,'im^ 'mi. 

1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 

1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. 


1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943 

1939, 1940 


1940, 1941, 1942, 1943 

1940, 1941, 1942. 






1942, 1943. 


1942, 1943. 

1941, 1942, 1943.. 

1941, 1942 

1941, 1942, 1943.. 

1941, 1942 

1942, 1943 

1942, 1943 


1942, 1943 

1942, 1943 








Assistant Treasurer. 

Rese-rch associate. 

Subscription manager, Far 
Eastern Survey. 



Secretary, research associ- 
ate editor. Far Eastern 

Research associate. 

Research associate. 



Membership and radio. 

Membership and finance. 


Editor, Far Eastern Sur- 

Research secretary and 

Research associate and 
pamphlet Editor. 

Shipping clerk. 

Research associate. 




Research associate. 

Research associate. 
Assistant treasurer. 
Assistant treasurer. 

Membership and Publica- 


Education secretary. 
Secretary, library. 

Secretary, Washington of- 
Secretary, Special Project. 

Special project. 

Public relations. 
Director, Washington 

Promotion secretary. 
Switchboard operator. 

Superintendent public dis- 
tribution (1 week Decem- 
ber 1948 as typist). 

Acting Executive Secre- 



American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations — Staff members, 1937-19Jf3 — Con. 

[Se€ note at end of table] 






Frieda Neugebauer 


Maggie Smith 

Marguerite Stewart.. 

Elnora Walker 

1943 - - . 




Acting hbrarian. 


1943 . . 

School secretary; adminis- 
trative secretary. 

Note.— The above list includes paid personnel only, and a few clerical workers who served for 1 or 2 
months only may not be listed. A list of volunteers is not available. Years do not necessarily mean that 
individual worked for the Institute for the entire year. If 1 month only, year is enclosed in parentheses 
( ). Personnel employed locally by regional offices are not listed. 

American Institute of Pacific Relations 
[Staff members, 1944-1951] 

Note. — This list includes paid personnel only, and a few clerical workers who served for one or two months 
•only may not be listed. A list of volunteers is not available. Years do not necessarily mean that individual 
worked for the Institute for the entire year. If one month only, year is enclosed in parentheses ( ) . 



Nina Balfour 

Edythe M. Banks 

Beatrice Benjuya 

Mary .Tane Bowen 

J. O. M. Broek 

Esther Brown 

Jewerl Carroll 

Mi-iam Chesman 

Lillian Cunningham 

Raymond Dennett 

Homer H. Dubs 

Miriam S. Farley 

Margaret Fischl 

Wilya Gallus 

Marie Godby 

Josephine Golembosti 

Rose Oreenberg 

Dorothy Ts'ael 

Alice Jayson 

Louise Jenkins 

Shirley Jenkins 

William C. Johnstone 

Caroljni A. Kizer 

Mildred Klein 

Beatrice Krasnow 

Bruno Lasker 

Eleanor Lattimore 

Ruth Lazarus Turbin 

Use Lederer 

RosatTiund Lee 

Harriet Levinthal 

Rhoda Lewis 

Dorothy S. Ludwig 

Adrienne Maurer 

Jean May 

Dorothy Mayo 

Harriet Mills 

Frances Sharpe Moldauer 

Harriet L. Moore. 

Betty Morita 

Marion Morris 

HUton Morselcy 

Frieda Neugebauer 

Harry A. Nelson 

David Soyer 

Clara Nerenberg 

Helen E. Nitka 

Zelda Ormont 

Sallie Omitz 

Harriet H. Parker 

Catherine Porter 

Ruth Resnick..- 

Rhoda Rothrran.. 

Laurence E. Salisbury 

Sophie Schneer 

TillieO. Shahn 

Rita Shavelson 

Maggie Smith 


1944, 1945, 1946.. 


1944, 1945 



(1944, 1945) 

1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951 

1944, 1945, 1946, 1947 








1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948 

1944, 1945 


1944 : 


1944, 1945, 1946 

1944, 1945, 1946, 1947 

1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945 

1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948 





1944, 1945, 1946, 1947 





1944, 1949 

(1944) - 

1944, 1945 

1944, 1945 

(1944, 1945) 



1944, 1945 

1944 -. -. 


1944, 1945, 1946, 1947.. 

1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948... 

1 944 

1 944,' V945', 1946," 1947^ 1948", 1949,' 1950, 195l' 


1944, 1945, 1946 

(?) Clerical. 


(?) Clerical. 

Library consultant (pttime). 

Research project. 

(?) Cleri. al. 

(?) Clerical. 

Subscription clerk. 

(?) Clerical. 

Executive Secretary. 

Research (?). 

Research Assoc; Pamphlet 
Editor; Ed., F. E. Survey. 



(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 


Public Relations. 

(?) Clerical. 

Research Assoc; Assoc. Ed- 
itor, F. E. Survey. 

Director, Wash, office. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

Research Associate. 

Research Associate, 


(?) Clerical. 

Promotion Secretary. 

Switchboard operator. 

(?) Clerical. 

Asst. Bookkeeper. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

Administrative Asst. 

Publications Distribution. 

Acting Exec. Secretary. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 


(?) Clerical. 

Clerical Asst. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 



Editor, F. E. Survey. 

(?) Clerical. 

Billing clerk. 

Editor, F. E. Survey, 

(?) Clerical. 

Assistant Treasurer. 

(?) Clerical. 

Acting Librarian. 



American Institute of Pacific Relations — Continued 
[Staff members, 1944-1951] 


Maxim Snyder 

Marguerite Stewart.. 
Masha Switzer Wise- 
Marie Talkington 

Frances Tendetnick.. 

Janet Taylor _. 

Elnora Walker 

Henrietta Wentholt.. 

Nancy Wilder 

Caroline Woods 

Rose Yardumian 

Marguerite E. Bear.. 

Robert S. Bialos-- 

Jeanne Chalfin 

Mike Coffey 

Elizabeth A. Converse 

Salvatore De Leonardis 

Jean Elson 

Ethel E. Ewlng 

Rita Frucht 

Lillie Gerber 

Rita Kahane - - 

Dorothea Keil 

Hiroyo Kiyaba 

Bernice Kennedy 

Ellen B. Levy 

Miyaho Matsuo 

Michael E. Minarovitch__. 

Wilson Morris 

Eugene Newman 

Sylvia Rosenfeld 

Rima S. Rocers_ 

Jerome Shishko 

Elizabeth Ussachevsky 

Lola Brice 

Ruth D. Carter 

Melvin A. Conant, Jr 

Lillian Covelle 

Elizabeth Crawford 

Sonja Dahl 

Lionel C. Delgado 

Helen Dimitry - 

Elba Aileen Dodson 

Florence Englander 

Dorothy M. Freist 

Bernice Fischman 

Gloria Gordon 

Renee J. Quthman 

Sally R. Hawkins 

Callie M. Hickey 

Sonia Kramer 

Betty Lee 

Sony Lipton 

Regina Marks 

Abe J. Millman 

Benjamin Millman 

Angelina Morrison 

Frank Pelan 

John A. Pollard 

Jane Radom 

Gwendolyn Robertson. 

Constance Root 

Barbara B. Smith 

Louise B. Serot 

Rhoda Serot 

Louise H. Schatz 

Maxwell S. Stewart 

Esther Taylor 

Yoshi Uchida 

Dolores Van Buren 

Ella S. Waller 

Abraham Barnett 

Pearl C. Christian 

Daniel F. Doyle 

Margaret M. Dunn 

Rhoda Goldenberg 

Deborah Grigsby. 

Marguerite F. Hill 

Gerard P. Kok 

Pao-Ch'cn Lee 

Celestine G. Mott 



1944, 1945, 1946, 1947. 

1944, 1945, 1946 



(1944), (1946) 










1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951. 

1945, 1946- 


1945, 1946, 1947 


1945, 1946 







1945, 1946. 
1945, 1946. 





1945, 1946 


1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951- 


1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950- 



1946, 1947 




1946, 1947 


1946, 1947 

1946, 1947 

1946, 1947 

1946. 1947 



1946, 1947 




1946, 1947 


(1946) ---- 

1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951- 

1946, 1947 




1946. 1947 

1946, 1947, 1948 

1946, 1947 

1946, 1947 - 




1947, 1948, 1949, 1950 


1947, 1948... -. 



(1947) — 



1947, 1948- 


(?) Clerical. 

School Secy.; Admin. Secy» 


(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 


(?) Clerical. 

(?) Clerical. 

Secy; Editorial Asst. 


Secy; Librarian; Secy.^ 

Washington Office. 
Shipping Clerk. 
(?) Clerical. 
(?) Clerical. 

Asst. Editor, F. E. Survey.. 
Shipping Clerk. 

School Secretary. 
(?) Clerical. 
(?) Clerical. 
Temporary Secretary. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Asst. Editor-Pamphlets. 
(?) Clerical. 

Seev-Wasliington Office. 
Secy.; Admin. Asst. 
Research .'^.ssistant. 
Washington Office. 
Switchboard Operator. 
Los Angeles Office. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Secretary (Wash. Office). 
Acting Librarian. 
Branch Secretary, "VV ashmg- 

ton Office. 
Secretary, Wash. Office. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Director. Wash. Office. 
Subscription Clerk. 
Promotion Assistant. 
(?) Clerical. 
Promotion Secretary. 
Pamphlet Editor. 
Membership Clerk. 
Shipping Clerk. 

Shipping Clcik. x 


Chinese Language Iiistr. 
Asst. Chinese Lang. Instr.. 
Secretary (Executive). 



American Institute of Pacific Relations — Continued 
[Staff members, 1944-1951] 


Belzy M. Parker. 

Anna Reinhold 

Marjorie Baum 

Charles Cherubin 

Gladys Edwards 

Katrine E.G. Greene 

Rosalind Greenwald 

Patricia Hochschild 

Clayton Lane 

Philip E. Lilienthal 

Hilda Mayer 

Lawrence K. Rosinger — 
Francis Dick M'andermaa 

Chia-ling Bumgardner 

Elaine Douglas- 

Irene Conley Chang 

Lolita W. Smith 

Lucrecia Suguitan 

Elizabeth Yates 

Anita Ehrlich 

"Wei-ta Pons 

Ruth V. Stein.... 

Sadie AVinston 

Betty E. Buchsbaum 

Robert Hasse 

Ora Leak 

Gladys Nusbaum 

Leslie Morgan 

Arm Stopp 

Melvin Anderson 

Robert Bruce 

Edward A. Fujima 

Jack Gerson 

George Kawata 

Marjorie Montana 

Edward C. Carter 

William L. Holland 

1947 --. 





1948, 1949, 1950, 1951 

1948, 1949, 1950 

1948, 1949 

1948, 1949, 1950 


(1948, 1949) 

1948, 1949, 1950 

1948 ...-■- 

(1949, 1950) 



(1949) -. 


1949, 1950 


1950, 1951 

1950, 1951 














1946,1947, 1948 



Stenographer. . 


(?) Clerical. 

Shipping Clerk. 

(?) Clerical. 

Assistant Secretary. 


Acting Librarian. 

Executive Secretary. 

Acting Editor, F. E. Survey. 


Research Associate. 




Acting Librarian. 



Acting Librarian. 


Acting Librarian. 







Editorial Assistant. 


Shipping clerk. 

Shipping clerk.. 

Acting librarian. 


Asst. Librarian 


E.xecutive Vice Chairman. 

Executive Vice Chairman. 

The above list includes only persormel paid by the national office, 
locally by regional offices. 

It does not include personnel employed 

Pacific Council, Institute of Pacific Relations — Staff members, 1944-1951 

Note. — This list includes paid persoimel only. No regular record is available as to volunteer assistance. 
Persormel serving in clerical capacity for a few montbs only are not all listed. Years listed do not necessarily 
indicate that individual was a member of the staff during the entire year. If one month only, year is enclosed 
in parentheses ( ). 

Hilda Austem 

Horace Belshaw... 

T. A. Bisson 

Joan Bramley 

Grace Leah Butts 

Edith Bykofsky 

Frances Pietrowski Capps. 

Grace CaraveUo 

Edward C. Carter.... 

Ruth D. Carter 

Olga Field 

Frances Friedman 

Andrew J. Grajdanzev 

Augusta Jay .. 

Virginia Mack... 

William L. Holland 

Yung Ying Hsu 

WDhelmina Masselman 

Elizabeth Neal 

Ruth M. Parsons 

Rose Pietrowski 

Laura Rosenthal 

Florence E. Sanderg. 

Betty Skrefstad 

Clara Spidell 

Elizabeth Ussachevsky 

Robert Vernon, Jr 

Nellie Wright 

Joyce Wagner 

Michi Yasumura. 

1944, 1945 

1944, 1945, 1946 -. 

1944, 1945 

1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945, 1946 

1944, 1945, 1946 

1944, 1945, 1946, 1949 

1944, 1945 





1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951 

1944, 1945 



1944, 1945, 1946 


1944, 1945. 1946 


1014, 1947 

1V4-'. 1!I1- 

1944,1945 -- 

1944. 1945 


1944, 1945-. 

1944, 1945 .- 

Asst. Treasurer. 

Research Secretary. 

Research Associate. 


Clerical, Wash, office. 

Subscription clerk. 

Bookkeeping Asst. 




Research Associate. 


Research Associate. 


Washington office. 


Research Associate. 










Shipping clerk. 



Asst. Librarian. 



Pacific Council, Institute of Pacific Relations- 

-Staff viembers, 19U-1951— 




Elizabeth A. Bates.. 

Helen E. Russell 

Rae Solomon 

Elaine Annall 

Elizabeth Bryant 

Donald Fine 

Mary F. Healy 

Anne O. Hooker 

Anita Issen 

Mary J. Kilpatriek.- 
Philip E. Lilienthal. 

Ruth Marcusson 

Gloria Mitchell 

Helen Schneider. 

Alice M. Togo 

Rose Alflno 

Marguerite Anderson 

Edward Bicrman 

Thelma Chargar 

Charles Cherubin 

Stanley Ferber 

Filmore Gluck 

Martin Gluck 

Ruth Gorgas- 

James Green 

Raymond Greenberg 

Gertrude Greenidge 

Robert Haulsey 

Ayaka Murota — 

Joan St. George 

Gladys H. Edward 

Rosaline Greenwald 

Deborah Grigsby 

Wei-ta Pons 

TillieG. Shahn 

Ruth A. Velleman 

Aminadau Aloric 

Kazuko Kay Fujii 

Barbara Harrison 

Kathr jTi Hayes — 

Martha T. Henderson.. 

Frances P . Landau 

Chiya Oshima 

Unsoon Park 

Lillian Rosberg 

Lolita Smith 

Evelyn M. Darrow 

Myra M. Jordan 

Mary A. McCrimmons. 

Kazu Oka 

Marjorie Ota 

Albert A. Weidon 

Melvin T. Anderson 

Robert Bruce 

Edward A. Fujima 

Jack Gerson 

George Kawata 

Marjorie Montana 

Mary C. Spillum.. 

1945, 1946. 1947, 1948, 1949 

1945, 1946, 1947 



1946. 1947 


1946. 1947, 1948. 1949, 1950, 1951. 


1946, 1947^ 

1946, 1947 . 

1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951. 


1946, 1947, 1948. 1949, 1950, 1951. 

1946, 1947, 1948, 1949^ 





1947, 1948. 1949 

1947. 1948, 1949, 1950. 







1947. 1948, 1949 



1947, 1948 



1948, 1949 


1948, 1949, 1950, 1951. 



1949. 1950 

1949, 1950 




1949, 1950, 1951 


1949, 1950, 1951 





1950. 1951. 


1950. 1951- 








Distribution Mgr. 


Shipping clerk. 



Shipping Clerk. 

Publications Secy. 



Assistant Treasurer. 

Editor, Pacific Affairs. 


Receptionist, Bookkeeper, 

Business Manager, Pacific 

Shipping clerk. 
Billing clerk. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Shipping Clerk. 

Shipping Clerk. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Asst. Treasurer. 
Shipping Clerk. 
Distribution Mgr. 
Subscription clerk. 







Shipping Clerk. 

Shipping Clerk. 

Shipping Clerk. 

Asst. Librarian. 


Asst. Librarian. 





IPR staff members 
[Submitted by W. L. Holland, 10/10/51] 


Alflno, Rose. 

Aloric, Aminadau 

Anderson, Marguerite 

Anderson, Melvin T 

Armall, Elaine 

Austern, Hilda 

Balfour, Nina 

Banks, Edythe M 

Barnett, Abraham 

Bates, Elizabeth 

Baum, Mariorie 

Bear, Marguerite E 

Belshaw, Horace 

Belshaw, Michael 

Benjuya, Beatrice 

Bialos, Roberts 

Bierman, Edward 

Bisson, T. A 


Bowen, Mary Jane 

Bramley, Joan _-- 

Brice, Lola 

Broek, J. O. M 

Brown, Esther 

Bruce, Robert 

Bryant, Elizabeth 

Buchsbaum, Betty E 

Bumgardner, Chia-Ling 

Burt, Virginia 

Butts, Grace Leah 

Bykofsky, Edith 

Capps, Frances Pietrowski 

Caravello, Grace 

Carroll, Jewerl 

Carter, Edward C 

Carter, Ruth D 

Chalfin, Jeaime 

Chang, Irene Conley. 

Chargar, Thelma 

Cherubin, Charles. .. 

Chesman, Miriam 

Christian, Pearl C 

Clark, Winifred H 


Conant, Melvin A., Jr... 
Converse, Elizabeth A... 

Coville, Lilian 

Crawford, Elizabeth 


Curtis, Aileen 

Pahl, Sonja 

Darrow, Evelyn M 

Day, Augusta 

De I^eonardis, Salvatore. 
Delgado, Lionel C 

Dennett, Raymond.. 
Dickinson, Edna C. 

Dimitry, Helen 

Dodson, Elba Aileen. 

Dorglas, Elaine. 

Doyle, Daniel F 

Dubs, Homer H 

Dimn, Margaret M.. 
Edward, Gladys H... 

Ehrlich, Anita 

Ison, Jean 

Englander, Florence. 

Ewing, Ethel 

Farley, Miriam S 

Ferber, Stanlev 

Field, Olga -..'..... 

Fine, Donald..' 

Fischl, Margaret 

Fischraan, Bemice. 
Freidman, Frances. 
Freist, Dorothy M. 





















1/51 . . 
9/46. . 
9/51 . . 






















12/44 -. 


2/46 ---. 








11/46 -. 










11/34 to 1/46. 


.■'''6 --- 






3/47.- -- 









6/49 -.- 



11/45-7/46- — 



12/45- - 





6/46 — . 












1/45 -.. 






9/45 .- 


4/49 -_.. 

12/48 , 









3/50- -. 



9/46- -. 


8/44 , 














4/45 --- 



12/48 to pres- 





10/47 - 


9/46 - 



Shipping clerk -- 


Sh. elk 

Recep. -typist---. 
Asst. Treasurer- 


Shipping clerk — 
Distribution mgr- 

Research Sec'y- 
Shipping clerk - 

Shipping clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Research Associate 


Library consultant part time- 

Clk-typ -- 

Clerk -typist 

Special research project-- 

Sh. elk ; 





Subscrip. clerk 

Bookkeeping asst- 

Sec'y General 




Administrative Ass't- 


Billing clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Shipping clerk --- 

Subscription clerk 


Temp, secretary 

Temporary clerk 

Research Assistant 

Assistant Editor FES-. 

Washington Office 

Switchboard Operator. 


Los Angeles Office. - . 



Shipping clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Executive Secretary. 


Secretary (Wash. Office) - 


Shipping clerk 



Clerk -typist 



School secretary- . 

Res. Assoc; Pamphlet Editor; 
Editor, Far Eastern Survey. 

Sh. elk 

Research assoe 

Shipping clerk 


Acting librarian 










IPR staff members — Continued 
[Submitted by W. L. Holland, 10/10/51] 






Frncht, Rita 

Fujii, Kazuke Kay 

Fnijima. Edward A 

Oallus, Wilya 

Qerber, Lillie 

Qerson, Jack 

Gibson, Eulalie 

Oluck, Filmore 


Oodby, Marie 

Goldenberg, Rhoda 

Golembosti, Josephine. 

Gordon, Gloria 

Qorgas, Ruth 

Grajdanzev, Andrew... 

Green, James 

Greenberg, Raymond. 

Qreenberg, Rose 

Greene, Katrine R. C_ 
Greenidge, Gertrude.. 
Greenwald, Ro'^alin., 
Greenwald, Rosalind.. 
Grigs by, Deborah 

Qutlman, Renee J. 

Harrison, Barbara 

Hasse, Robert 

Haulsey, Robert 

Hawkins, Sally R 

Hayes, Kathryn 

Healy, Mary 

Henderson, Martha T. 

Hickey, Callie M 

Hill, Marguerite F 

Hochschild, Patrick — 
Holland, W. L 

Hooker, Anne O 

Hsu, Ying Yung 

Israel, Dorothy ... 

Issen, Anita -... 

Jayson, Alice 

Jenkins, Louise 

Johnstone, William C. 

Jordan, Myra M 

Kahane, Rita 

Kawata, George 

Keil, Dorothea 

Kennedy, Bernice 

Kilpatrick, Mary J 

Kiyaba, Hiroyo.. 

Kizer, Carolyn A 

Klein, Mildred 

Kok, Gerard P 

Kramer, Sonia 

Krasnow, Beatrice 

Landau, Frances P 

Lane, Clayton 

Lasker, Bruno 

Lattimore, Eleanor. 

Lazarus, Ruth J 

(As: Ruth Turbin). 

Leak, Ora 

Lederor, Use 

Lee, Betty 

Lee, Pao-Ch'en 

Lee, Rosamund 

Levinthal, Harriet. . 

Levy, Ellen B 

Lewis, Rhoda 

Lilicnthal, Philip E. 

Lipton, Sony 

Ludwig, Dorothy S 

Mack, Virginia 

Marks, Regina. 

Masselman, Wilhelmina. 
Marcusson, Ruth 


/148 ■. 
5/46. . 











1931-32, 1933 






3/51 -. 
1/46. . 

1/49- . 

5/44. . 

1/46. . 
9/46- . 
2/47. . 

2/44- . 
1/46. . 
9/46. . 
4/46. . 






Present . 



















































5/47. - 

8/46. - 













(?) - 





Research Associate. 

Research Associate. 

Shipi)ing clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Assistant Secretary. 




Temporary secretary 


Branch secretary (Washington 


Shipping clerk 

Shipping clerk 

Secretary (Washington Office) 

Temp, typ 

Publications sec'y 

Temp, sec'y 


Temporary secretary 

Librarian . 

Research sec'y 

Editor, Pacific afifairs 

Sec'y general 


Res Assoc 



Public relations 

Director, Washington office. 






Asst. treas 


Chinese Language Instructor. 


E.\ecutive Secretary 

Research Associate 

Research Associate. 

Research .\ssociate (Washington 







.4ss't Chinese Language Instruc- 

Promotion secretary 

Switchboard operator 

Temporary secretary 

Editor, Far Eastern Survey- 
Editor, Pacific Affairs 


Asst. Bookkeeper 



Res - 

Secretary -.. 




IPR staft members — Continued 
[Submitted by W. L. Hollaud, 10/10/51] 


Matsuo, Miyaho 

Maurer, Adriemie 

May, Jean 

Mayer, Hilda 

Mayer, Laura 

Mayo, Dorothy 

McCrimmons, Mary A. 

Millman, Abe J 

MUlman, Benjamin 

Mills, Harriet 

Mitchell, Gloria 

Minavouitch, Michael E,.. 
Moldauer, Frances (untO 
1946— Sharps). 

Montana, Marjorle 

Moore, Harriet L 

Morgan, Leslie 

Morita, Betty 

Morris, Marion 

Morris, Wilson 

Morrison, Angelina 

Morseley, Hilton 

Mott, Celestine G 

Murota, Ayaka 

Neal, Elizabeth 

Nelson, Harry A 

Nerenberg, Clara 

Neugebauer, Frieda 

Newman, Eugene 

Nitka, Helen E 

Nusbaum, Gladys 

Oka, Kazu 

Ormont, Zelda 

Ornitz, Sallie 

Oshima, Chiye 

Ota, Marjorie 

Park, Unsoon 

Parker, Belzy M 

Parker, Harriet H 

Parsons, Katrine 

Parsons, Ruth M 

Pelan, Frank 

Pietrowski, Rose 

Pollard, John A 

Pons, "\Vei-ta 

Porter, Catherine. 

Radoni, Jane 

Reinliold, Anna 

Resnick, Ruth 

Robertson, Gwendolyn- 
Rogers, Rima S 

Root, Constance 

Rosberg, Lilian 

Rosenfcld, Sylvia 

Rosenthal, Lanra 

Rosinger, Lawrence K.. 

Rothmau. Rhoda 

Russell, Helen E 

St. George, Joan 

Salisbury, Laurence E.. 

Sanders, Flarence E- 

Sehneer, Sophie 

Schneider, Helen 

Sebatz, Louise, H__. 

Serot, Louise B 

Serot, Rhoda 

Shahn, Tillie G 

ShavelsDn, Rita 

Shishko, Jerome 

Skrefstad, Betty 

Smith, B.irbaraB- 
Smith, Lolita W_. 

Smith, Maggie 

Snyder, Maxim 

Solomon, Rae 

Soyer, David 

Spidell, Clara 

Spillum, Mary C 

Stein, Ruth V 

Stewart, Marguerite. 


5/45. . 

7/50- . 




8/50- . 



2/45- . 
9/48. . 


4/46- - 
1/46- . 
1/45- - 
3/44- - 
9/45. . 
8/50. . 



5/46. . 

present - 


present - 





12/44. . - 



























































Temp, typ 



Administrative Asst 


.A.sst. bookkeeper; scty 

Shipping clerk 

Supur. pub. distrib. (1 wk. 12/48 as 


Acting E.xec. Secretary 

E ditorial assist 

Assistant Editor— Pamphlets - 

Executive secretary. 




Clerical assistant. 



Distr. IMgr 


Temp, typ 





Shipoing clerk 


Director, Washington Office 


Assistant librarian 

Res. Assoc; Editor, Far Eastern 


Temporary secretary 


Subscription clerk 


Promotion Assistant- 
Subscript, clerk 


Research Associate 

Billing clerk 




Secretary 1... 


Bus. Manager 

Promotion Secretary. 

Asst. Treas- 

Clerical assistant. . 





Temporary typist- 
Acting librarian.- - 

Shipping clerk 

Clerical asst 




School scty; admin, sec'y. 




IPR staff memhers — Continued 
[Submitted by W. L. Holland, 10/10/51] 


Stewart, Maxwell S.. 

Stopp, Ann 

Su^iitan, Lucrecia... 
Talkington, Marie... 
Tandetnick, Frances. 

Taylor, Esther 

Taylor, Janet 

Togo, Alice M 

Uchida, Yoshi 

Ussachevsky, Elizabeth 

Van Buren, Dolores 

Velleman, Ruth A 

Vernon, Robert Jr 

Wagner, Joyce 

Walker, Elnora.. 

Waller, Ella S 

Wanderman, Francis Dick- 

Weidom, Albert A 

Wentholt, Henrietta 

Wilder, Nancy 

Winston, Sadei 

Wise, Masha Switzer 

Woods, Caroline 

Wright, Nellie 

Yardumlan, Rose 

Yasumuva, Michi. 
Yates, Elizabeth... 


2/46. . 
6/49. . 
1/44. . 
2/46. . 
1/46- - 
9/46. . 
9/45. . 
3/46. . 
4/48. . 



































Pamphlet Editor. 





Membership clerk 


Secretary, Washington Office. 



Shi'iping clerk 




Sh. elk 

Sec'y-'. edit, assistant 





Sec'y.; librarian; sec'y., Washing- 
ton office. 

Asst. librarian , 

Acting librarian 


Exhibit No. 802 

September 26, 1934. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York. 

Dear Mr. Carter: I was greatly interested in reading a copy of your letter 
to Wellington Liu inquiring whether there was any jwsibility of securing the 
services of Chen Han-seng for permanent work in the I. P. R. It is an excellent 
suggestion and I hope you will keep pushing it. Chen is a first-class researcher 
with the good knowledge of Ru.ssian, French, German, and English as well as 
one or two Chinese dialects and reading knowledge of .Japanese. He is a hard 
worker and one of the few Chinese researchers whose eyes are not blinded to 
the real conditions of rural China. While of course he could render great service 
to the China Council as a colleague working with Liu, I believe from many 
points of view it would be worth your while appointing him to the Secretariat 
as my colleague. I shall certainly be glad to make drasdc economies in my own 
budget in order to secure Chen. 

As you probably know by now, Chen is living here in Tokyo completing a 
study of rural conditions in South China and also working over some materials 
on Chinese economic history at the Oriental Library in Tokyo. He has taken 
a house here with his wife and will return here again in December after making 
a short trip back to China in order to get field work started on his I. P. R. study 
of standards of living in tobacco-producing regions in China. 

One reason why I think it is worth your while to push the question still 
further is that Chen's relations with the Sun Yat-sen Institute and especially 
with Academia Sinica are not very happy. He is much too close to the radical 
elements in China to suit the Nanking authorities and I understand that for 
the time being it is better for Chen's political health to be out of China. I shall 
be seeing him in a day or two before he goes back to Shanghai and I shall en- 
deavour to sound him out as discreetly as possible on his views about working 
for the I. P. R. 

Sincerely yours, 

, Research Secretary. 


Copy to Mr. Loomis. 

Copy to Mr. Liu. 


Exhibit No. 804 
Memorandum W. L. Holland to E. C. Carter 

October 4, 1935. 

With reference to Harriet Moore's list of discussion questions of Soviet na- 
tional policy, I suggest that we write to all the other Ck)uncils immediately after 
the Lee Conference, making it clear that "national policy" is being used in a 
very different sense in the Round Table on Soviet Policy. I would strongly 
support Harriet's plea for changing the word from "national" to "nationality." 

All this is assuming that we would want to limit the Soviet Round Table to the 
two questions of economic development and policy towards minor nationalities 
and dependent peoples. There ought to be rather careful discussion of this point 
to make sure first of all how much of a limitation this really is, and, second 
whether the Soviet Council would be unwilling to broaden the discussion pro- 
gram to include more general and political aspects of Soviet policy in the Far 

As you know, I would like to have the broader interpretation so that the 
Round Table would be more in line with the other Round Tables on Japanese, 
American, and Chinese national policy. While the Soviet policy towards minor 
nationiilities in its Far Eastern territories is certainly a major element in the 
total Soviet Far Eastern policy, it would be unfortunate if the discussion went 
too deeply into the details of cultural autonomy, the language question, et cetera, 
when there will be nothing comparable in the discussions on other questions, and 
when most of the other delegates will no the in a position to participate in the 
discussion for want of detailed knowledge. (Incidentally, I wonder if you have 
thought of suggesting to Crawford afe the University of Hawaii that you and 
Keesing might invite a Soviet expert to the Conference on Government and 
Education in Dependent Territories. A Russian could make a real contribu- 
tion, and would certainly throw a lot of monkey wrenches which ought to be 
thrown. ) 

W. L. H. 

Exhibit No. 805 

CJopy to F. 

129 East 52nd Street, 
tiew York City, March 28, 1939. 

Dear Bill: I apologize for not having sent you an earlier answer to your 
letter of March 13th. In the meantime, however, I have sent formal invitations 
to Miss Dietrich and Hayden for the Secretariat Inquiry monographs. After 
consultation with Carter I decided to offer Hayden $150 and to give him the 
opportunity to make the report 20,000 to 25,000 words. I have asked Fred to 
send on to you copies of both letters. 

I also took up with Carter the question of having authors' names printed 
on the cover and title page of Inquiry reports and he has now agreed to make 
this a general practice. 

I am glad to have the news about Riesenfeld and have told Fred that I certainly 
approve paying him the necessary $50. In fact, I should be prepared to pay 
$75 if necessary. To avoid complicating our bookkeeping I have suggested to 
Fred that this amount should be paid out of the available funds which the 
American Council now has and that any necessary additional payments irom 
the International Research Fund should be made later this year. 

In Washington I had quite a long talk with Saugstad who was extremely 
cooperative. The reason for the slightly mysterious tone in his letter to 
you was that the person he recommends for the shipping study is Mr. Henry 
L. Deimel, Jr., Assistant Chief in the Division of Trade Agreements (private 
address 4414 Macomb Street NW., Washington). Deimel, whom I met briefly, 
has apparently done a good deal of work on shipping and has at various times 
worked in association with Henry Grady who, incidentally, is his father-in-law. 
The reason for Saugstad's mysterious phraseology is that (confidentially) Sayre 
is probably being sent out soon to the Philippines as High Commissioner, and 
Deimel is being asked to go as his economic advisor. There would be a possibil- 
ity, however, that Deimel would get leave of absence for about four or five 
months during the summer before going out to Manila, and during this period 
he would be willing and in a very good position to prepare a report for the 
I. P. R. 


The State Department would raise no objections to such a procedure and 
Deimel would also be willing to collect additional information on the way out to 
Manila. In the meantime he would be able to get access to a great deal of more 
or less confidential information in Washington. 

Deimel impressed me as a capable and well informed person, but I have too 
little evidence to judge whether he is the best possible person we could get. On 
the whole, however, I am inclined to offer him the job partly because it might 
be an extremely valuable way of making use of State Department and other 
governmental material, and incidentally of working in closely with the State 
Department. I emphasized to Deimel the fact that the report would have to be 
of an international character and not merely present American policy and point 
of view. 

In the meantime I should be glad to have your comments on the scheme, and 
also any other information about Deimel or about the shipping project generally. 
I shall not make any move until I hear from you. 

Meanwhile Hubbard has just sent you a copy of the Imperial Shipping Com- 
mittee's report on British Shipping in the Orient which is being sent to you. 
It is better than I had expected and provides a good deal of the information we 
should want. It is obvious, however, that there is still room for a great deal 
of work along the lines of more systematic analysis of the problems from an in- 
ternational point of view and quite certain that we should go ahead with the 
I. P. R. study. 

I did not call on Gates in the Civil Aeronautics Commission, chiefly because 
Saugstad had already warned me off him because Gates apparently, being a fight- 
ing young lawyer, has become identified with an anti-Pan-American group and 
is interested in nothing but ways of reducing the monopolistic power of Pan- 
American. It also appears that the State* Department which has to handle most 
of the foreign negotiations has more or less unconsciously found itself lined up 
against Gates as an advocate of Pan-American. Saugstad also emphasized the 
fact that the State Department has all the information available to the Civil 
Aeronautics Commission, and in fact is better informed on the international 
aspects. His recommendation was, therefore, that if we wanted to get any 
profitable cooperation from people in Washington, it would be much better to do 
it through the State Department, and he said that he would be prepared to see 
that we did get the necessary cooperation. Apparently they already have one or 
two capable young men working on the problem. Obviously there is a little 
bureaucratic jealously here, but I think there is a good deal in what Saugstad 
says, and unless we find strong evidence to the contrary, I should be inclined 
to take his advice. Here, again, however, I should be glad to have a word from 
you before I write again to Saugstad. 

With best regards. 
Sincerely yours, 

, Research Secretary. 

W. W. LocKwooD Esq. 

Exhibit No. 806 
Institute of Pacific Rbi^tions 

Amsterdam— London — Manila — Moscow — New York — Paris — Shanghai — Sydney — Tokyo — 

Toronto — Wellington 


GiANNiNi Foundation, 
University of California, 
Berkeley, Calif., Mfly 10, 1940. 
ECC from WLH : 

I was somewhat startled to receive your wire saying that Andrew Ross was 
waiting for me to write him about a supplementary chapter to Levy's report, but 
on looking through my files I find a slip of paper with the name Andrew Roth of 
3150 Rochambeau Avenue, written on it. So I am afraid I have clearly been 
negligent in forgetting all about him. I enclose herewith a note which you 
might send on to him if it seems suitable. The amount of writing to be done 
cannot be very great and if Levy's manuscript is only just going to the press 
there need be no delay in its final appearance. If you or Kate or Jack have 


any doubts about tbe present letter, don't hesitate to scrap it and write Roth di- 
rectly. (Incidentally you had better find out whether his name is really Ross or 
Roth.) I apologize sincerely for having slipped up on this matter. 

I should not think it was necessary to get Levy's formal permission for this 
supplementary chapter, but presumably you ought at least to notify him that 
we are getting it done. 

I note that no Inquiry funds will be available for Lockwood's suggested study 
by Quigley on the Open Door. The study is not within the present field of the 
International Research Committee and I don't think it would interest Lockwood's 
committee, although a related study of the Open Door as a cardinal factor in 
American policy might. I would not regard the suggested Quigley study as of 
major importance, though it might come on the list of new studies to be under- 
taken if we get additional Inquiry funds. The subject might be better treated as 
one chapter of a larger study of new diplomatic machinery for the Far East. 
How would it be to consult two or three i)eople like Blakeslee, Willoughby, Horn- 
beck and Quincy Wright, as well as Quigley, about the possible scope and impor- 
tance of the study? It might also be possible to have the subject treated in a 
Pacific Affaiks article and expanded later if it seemed worthwhile. 

I agree with so much of what you say in your letter of May 8 about Japanese 
Trojan Horses in the bosoms of various influential people (a vastly intriguing 
metaphor when you consider what would have to be done to let the soldiers 
escape from the Trojan Horse) that I don't propose to do anything further about 
a possible visit by Alsberg to Japan, particularly as Galen Fisher's visit will be 
a sufficient goodwill gesture. 

If it is convenient I should like to look at "Contemporary International Poli- 
tics" by Sharp and Kirk, the latter of whom is doing an American Council study 
on electrical communications in the Pacific. If it seems worthwhile, I shall 
write a brief review on the Far Eastern sections of the book. Among your sug- 
gested reviewers for Morgan Young's book, "The Rise of a Pagan State," I 
should be inclined to mention Colegrove, but we had probably better not bother 
him until he finishes his present assignment for us. Would you also send me 
Lowe's "Japan's Economic Offensive in China," as I may want to review this 
myself or, perhaps, ask George Taylor to do it. 

I am very interested to hear that the Japan Council have translated "Agrarian 
China." I am delighted that they have done so but so far as I remember this, 
is the first we have been told of it, although it is a Secretariat book. I should 
like to have two of the copies, if possible. The book should be listed under its 
Japanese title in the next issue of Pacific Affaiks, but I don't think it need be 
reviewed separately. To the best of my recollection we have not yet reviewed 
"Agrarian China" in Pacific Affairs but you might check on this ; and if I am 
right you might get Wittfogel or Cressey or Rossiter of the Department of Agri- 
culture to write about 300 words. 

W. L. H. 

Exhibit No. 807 

May 10, 1940. 
WLH from ECC: 

Jessup rang up just now and says that he fears it was you rather than he who^ 
slipped the cog with reference to the Levy supplement. He has just checked with 
Peflfei- and I have condensed his message into the following Day Letter : 

"Regarding Levy supplement Jessup says he, Peffer, arranged for Andrew Ross 
see you, that Ross says you promised write him. He is eager and ready and 
according to PelTer anxious and qualified to go ahead and has been awaiting 
daily your letter." 

I explained to Jessup how terribly rushed you were with a million things just 
before your departure. Under the circumstances, I assume that you will want 
to go ahead and have Ross go to work, though I suppose you are still free to 
cancel your tentative proposal to Ross. 

Somehow or other both Jessup and Peffer have the idea that Ross saw you 
before you left New York. His address is : care the Chinese Department at 

In the view of Jessup and Peffer his knowledge of French and of France and 
of the Far East qualify him to do a good job. 


Exhibit No. 808 

Berkeley, July 5, 1940. 

Dear Phii- Gaffe : The Hollands are duly touched and awed that our offspring 
should have made such an impact on 129 E. 52nd St. If you want to indicate 
that Amer and Asia are separated by an ever-renewed body of water, then 
Patricia is certainly an apt symbol. Photographs a priori and a posteriori will 
be forthcoming soon. 

I should have no objections to putting Owen's article in Amerasia and in some 
ways I think it would be better to print it immediately rather than have it 
delayed. It's a difficult topic and I think Owen has made a gallant effort, but I 
have a slight feeling that he has tried to find too many historical roots for the 
current, and obviously important, connection between Germany and Japan. 
Moreover there is singularly little account of the role the U. S. has played and 
of the fears of the U. S. S. R. regarding the intentions of both Germany and 
Britain. I should like to see the article end with a more outright plea that only 
by direct pressure on Japan from the U. S. and by a rapprochement between the 
U. S. and the U. S. S. R. can the Axis powers now be checked. 

I hope Amerasia will have a blast against the latest wave of appeasement 
and Lippmannism favouring a deal with Japan. 

My regards to Kate and the rest of the Amerasia bunch. 

W. L. Holland. 

Copy to GEE, I mean ECC. 

Exhibit No. 809 

Copy for ECO 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York, N. Y., December 1, 1941. 
Mr. Carl F. Remer, 

Office of the Coordinator of Information, 

Library of Congress Annex, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Remer; You have probably already heard of this matter through l^'ans 
or Fairbank, but I understand that the publishers of the Japanese magazine 
Chuo Koron wrote sometime ago that they had had to discontinue mailing the 
periodical to the United States as the United States atuhorities had been con- 
fiscating it as propagandist literature. The United States action may have been 
quite .justified in some cases, but it seems very probable that the Customs au- 
thorities have acted as precipitately here as they did formerly with important 
Soviet magazines which were urgently needed by libraries and research in- 
stitutions in this country. 

If the matter has not alreadly been attended to, it might be worth while for 
your group to communicate, perhaps through Archibald MacLeish or Mortimer 
Graves, with the Customs authorities to see that confiscations are handled in- 
telligently and not to the detriment of legitimate research institutions and 
I enclose a circular in Japanese from Chug Koron. 
Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland, Research Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 810 

Coordinator of Information, 
Washington., D. C, March 18, 19^2. 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relatione, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y. 
My Dear Mr. Holland : The research work of the Institute of Pacific Relations 
has been directly useful to the OflSce of the Coordinator of Information in its 
efforts to meet the urgent demands created by the war. Certain unpublished 
studies of the Institute have been made available to us during the preparation 
of reports and you have, yourself, found time to serve as consultant and adviser 
to our sections dealing with the British Empire and the Far East. 


I am sending this brief acknowledgment in the hope that it may be useful to 
you in making plans and securing funds for the coming year. I think you will 
agree with me that full informal cooperation must be the basis of the effective 
use of the limited number of persons with adequate research training to deal 
with the Far East. The OflBce of the Coordinator of Information is looking 
forward to the continuance of such cooperation. 
Sincerely yours, 

James P. Baxter, 3rd, 

Deputy Coordinator. 

Exhibit No 811 

(Pencilled initials) NLH 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y., 

April 2nd, 1942. 
Major G. A. Lincoln, 

Director of Orientation Course, 

Bureau of PuMic Relations, War Department, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Major Lincoln: Since I have a certain general responsibility for the 
publication program of the Institute of Pacific Relations, I have had occasion to 
learn from Miss Downing your sudden decision to cancel the War Department's 
order for 10,000 copies of An Atlas of Far Eastern Politics. I want to reinforce 
Miss Downing's reply to you by saying that this Institute has acted in all good 
faith and has in fact gone to considerable trouble to meet the request originally 
made by Colonel Beukema, e. g., in getting paper especially manufactured and 
having the maps rephotographed, etc. 

Your action in announcing your dissatisfaction with parts of the book and 
cancelling the order at this late date without giving us any previous warning 
comes as a considerable shock, particularly as nothing in our correspondence 
indicated that your office would require further revisions. Had you mentioned 
this problem some weeks ago when we were waiting for the paper to be manu- 
factured we should, of course, have done our best to meet your wishes. 

I therefore hope that you will carefully consider Miss Downing's suggestion 
of having a revised edition even now. If you cannot accept this suggestion I hope 
that you will at least indicate a procedure whereby we can be compensated for 
the losses we shall srffer through your failure to notify us soon. The direct losses 
will probably total about $1,600, and we have not included in this figure any 
charge for tlie considerable amount of time which the office staff here has devoted 
to the problem. 

We are genuinely anxious to assist you in your important work. We would 

therefore like to be given an opportunity to provide the kind of material you 

want. The only thing we ask is that you give us reasonable notice in the sudden 

changes of your plans. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 812 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y., 

April 3rd, 1H2. 

Mr. George H. Kerr, 

Military Intelligence Division, War Department, 

Room 2628, Munitions Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Kerr : Thank you for your letter of April 2nd about Grajdanzev's 
report on Formosa. Under separate cover I am sending you an advance copy of 
the book which is now being bound. I have already sent copies to Remer in the 
Office of the Coordinator of Information, and to Bisson on the Board of Eco- 
nomic Warfare. , .„ ,, 

Both Grajdanzev and I would be glad to have your comments and if there are 
any points which you think should definitely be corrected I would suggest that 
you let me know in the next day or two as we may want to insert an errata slip 
in the book. The book itself is unfortunately a makeshift piece of manufacturing 
because we had to work with an incomplete and unsatisfactory set of proofs. 

Sincerely yours, ,„ -r ^^ 

W. L. Holland. 

88348— 52— pt. 14- 


Exhibit No. 813 

War Department, 
War Department General Staff, 
Military Intelligence Division G-2, 

Rm 2628, Munitions Building, 

Washington, Aj)ril 2, 19^2. 

Mr. William Holland, 

J29 East 52nd Street, New York, New York. 

Mt Dear Mr. Holland : I regret that my sudden coming to Washington in 
February precluded further talks with you about Formosa, to say nothing of 
further writing. 

Some weeks ago there came to our M. I. D. files — and my Formosa section — 
a set of galley sheets of Dr. Gra.idanzev's extraordinary good work, which 
I first saw briefly in your office and now have read thoroughly. No covering 
letter came with it to me and so It is not clear whether this is a loan or a final 
gift to our files. If It is not a loan I shall be free to divide it according to 
subjects and distribute it among my folders. If it is a loan I shall keep it 
Intact and forward it to you as soon as some of the statistical material can be 
digested. We live very largely on loans these days. 

Please tell Professor Grajdanzev that it will give me great pleasure some 
day to talk with him. His work is certainly excellent. There are only a few 
minor suggestions I might make, none of first importance. 

Have the added chapter or chapters on strategy been set up? I would not 
be free to add anything attributable to my sources here, but I would be glad 
to read through the chapter again to make sure that some errors in judgment 
have not crept in. Needless to say, such checking must be done anonymously. 

With every goood wish. 

My residence address : 2700 Wisconsin Ave., NW. 

[s] George H. Kerr. 
George H. Kerr. 

Exhibit No. 814 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
Washington, D. C, July 25, 1942. 
In reply refer to : 0W-6-RHS. 

Mr. Wii LiAM Holland, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mk. Holland : Thank you for sending us the article on the organization 
of tlie Chinese Government, which will be most useful to our Far Eastern 

Very sincerely yours, 

[s] C. R. Vail, 

Chester R. Vail, 
Acting Chief, Economic Intelligence Division. 

Exhibit No. 815 

Joseph P. Chamberlain, Chairman, Professor of Public Law ; Lyman Bryson, Professor of 
Education ; Carter Goodrich, Professor of Economics, Chairman, Governing Body, I. L. O. ; 
Luther H. Gulicli, Eaton Profe.^sor of Municipal Science and Administration ; Carlton 
J. H. Hayes, Seth Low Professor of History : Cliarles Cheney Hyde, Hamilton Fish 
Professor "ot International Law and Diplomacy : Huger W. Jervey, Director, Institute 
of International Affairs. Professor of Comparative Law ; Philip C. Jessup, Professor of 
International Law ; Grayson Kirlj, Associate professor of Government ; Arthur W. 
Macmahon, Professor of Public Administration ; Wesley C. Mitchell, Professor of 
Economics ; Nathaniel Pefifer, Associate Professor of International Relations ; Lindsay 
Rogers, Burger Professor of I'uhlic Law, Assistant Director, I. L. O. ; J. Kussell »Suiith, 
Professor of Economic Geography ; James T. Shotwell, Boyce Professor of the History 
of International Relations 

Consultants : Dr. Prank G. Boudreau, Director, Mulbank Memorial Fund ; Joseph Hyman, 
Executive Vice Chairman, Joint Distribution Committee ; General Frank R. McCoy, 
President, Foreign Policy Association ; Clarence E. Pickett, Executive Secretary, Ameri- 
can Friends Service Committee : George L. Warren, Executive Secretary, President's 
Advisory Committee on Political Regugees 



Committee on Emebgency Pr<^gram of Tkaining in International 


Professor Schuyler C. Wallace, Director 
Room 513 Fayerweather Hall 
UNiversity 4-3200, Ext. 188 

July 31, 1942. 

Mr. William Holland, 

129 Eaat 52nd Street, New York, Neiv YorJc. 

Dear Bill: Our arran.cements for the course are coming along. Broek wiU 
arrive on the 20th of August for the six weeks period. I told him in my letter 
that you and Lockwood had waived the I. P. R. claims for those six weeks, and 
that arrangements with the Rockefeller people were feasible. Can you take the 
initiati\e with the Rockefeller people, or will he do that, or can I help? 

Keesing will come up from the Offl -e of Strategic Services in a consultative 
capacity one day a week for the first six weeks. 

We want very much to have you come up for a few introductory lectures. 
What we thought you might be willing to do would be to come on August 
IS, 19, and 20 to give three one-hour lectures, which would do the following: 

1. Provide a general introductic-n to the Pacific area, just touching the high 
spots as to the divisions of the region, the peoples, etc. Some of the men will be 
well informed, others may be quite blank about it. 

2. A bibliography lecture on materials bearing on the Pacific and Far East, 
which would include a description of the inquiry series. 

3. A talk on the available sources in the New York area, so that the men 
would know where to go after we assigned tliem research projects. This would 
include an indication of what you have at the I. P. R., and references to such 
other places as the American Museum, the Geographical tBociety, etc. 

We can offer you the modest honorarium of $150.00 for this series of lectures. 

In addition, we hope that you would be willing to contribute some of your 

time to sitting in with a committee which we are forming on the Pacific area, 

to plan out our whole curriculum. The committee will include Keesing, Broek, 

Clare Holt, and Arthur Schiller. 

I hope that we can count on your help in these ways. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] Phil. 

Philip C. Jessltp. 
PCJ : es. 

Exhibit No. 816 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
Washington, D. C, Sep. 2, 191,2. 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 East 52nd Street, 

New York, New York. 

Dear Bill: I think you will be interested in seeing the enclosed copy of an 
article by the Vice President on "Economic Warfare — The War Behind the War," 
which appears in the current issue of the Army and Navy Journal. It is the first 
broad public statement about the work of the Board of Economic Warfare. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] Bill 

William T. Stone, Assistant Director. 

Exhibit No. 817 

July 6, 1942. 
Mr. William T. Stone, 

Board of Econotnic Warfare, 

Department of Economic Warfare, 

Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Bill : You may be interested in these reports of Stein's. 
Sincerely yours, 



Exhibit No. 818 

BoABD OF Economic Warfare. 
Washington, D. C, July 11, 1942. 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Institnte of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Bill: Many thanks for your note of July 6, enclosing the radio letter 
from Guenther Stein. This service is most interesting, and the Board will 
appreciate receiving the reports regularly as they come in. 
Do look me up the next time you are in Washington. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] Bill 

William T. Stone, Assistant Director. 

Exhibit No. 819 

March 1, 1943. 
KM from ECC 

The private document prepared in Washington on the Strength of the Muslim 
League has come into my hands. It is not available for quotations, nor should 
any reference be made to it. I thought, however, that you might be interested in 
seeing it, so I have had copies made. I don't think that it covers the ground, 
but it does contain one or two interesting points. 

164/No. 4/2/1/43 
Background information 


Mr. Jinnah's Position 

Mr. Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League has recently been carrying on a 
vigorous political drive. 

His visit to the Punjab showed the extent to which he has secured contact 
with the Muslim masses. It can no longer be argued that because at the General 
Elections it was not able to secure a majority of the Muslim votes in any Prov- 
ince, the Muslim League has no following among the masses. Since 1937, ac- 
cession to the Muslim League's and Mr. Jinnah's strength has been tremendous. 
Almost every bye-election in Muslim constitu.encies has been won by the League 
and the number of Muslim League members in the various Pi'ovincial Legisla- 
tures has increased manifold. 

The number of Muslim Ministers who now owe allegiance to the League is 
considerable. The latest accession has come from Sind. Sir Ghulam Hussain 
Hidayatullah, who succeeded Mr. Allah Bux, has joined the League and his 
example lias since been followed by all the Sind Muslim Ministers. Here is a 
survey of the Muslim League position in the Muslim majority Provinces : 


The total number of Muslim members in the Punjab Legislative Assembly is 
89. Only one out of these was elected on Muslim League ticket in the General 
Elections of 1937. The number of Muslims elected on Unionist tickets was 
77. All Muslim members of the Unionist Party are, however, now members of 
the Muslim League under what is known as the Sikander-Jinnah Pact of 1938. 
The main terras of the Pact were that the Unionist Party's leader, the late Sir 
Sikander Hyat Khan, with all his Muslim followers in the Assembly should join 
the League and promise support to it in all Indian constitutional questions. Mr. 
Jinnah agreed on his part that the Muslim members of the Unionist Party would 
have freedom in Provincial matters and would be free to pursue the Unionist 
Party program. 

The political complexion of the Punjab made it necessary for the late Sir Si- 
kander Hyat Khan, the Punjab Prime Minister, not to form a Muslim League 
Government but a Unionist Government in coalition with Hindu and Sikh groups. 
In all Provincial matters he pursued a more or less independent line and, though 
professing allegiance to the League and ]\Ir. Jinnah, his policy on all-Indian 
questions was at times embarrassingly independent of the League. On the other 


hand. Sir Sikander never openly flouted any League mandate and he resigned 
from the National Defence Council when required by the League. 

The Civil and Military Gazette of Lahore recently wrote: "What is con- 
sistently ignored is the fact that Mr. Jinnah and Sir Sikander are mutually 
dependent ; their common fundamental purpose must over-ride differences aris- 
ing from the admitted diversity of their 'spheres of influence.' Whatever their 
personal predilections, circumstances must force the Muslim League President 
and the Premier of the Punjab (so long as he is a Muslim) to run in double 
harness until India's future is hammered out; and that Constitution may con- 
ceivably elfect even closer cooperation between them." 

Mr. Jinnah's recent Punjab tour monopolised public attention, not only be- 
cause of his public utterances on topical questions, but also because of the object 
underlying his visit. Recent attempts made by the Punjab Premier to settle the 
communal problem in that part of the country on a Provincial basis irrespective 
of an all-Indian agi'eement, must doubtless have caused anxiety to Mr. Jinnah. 
The formula favored by Sir Sikander, according to most reports conceded self- 
determination to the Hindu and Sikh minorities in the event of a Muslim plebi- 
scite deciding in favor of secession in a post war settlement. The minorities 
may form a sepaiate State or join the main Indian Union. Negotiations went 
on for some time amongst the various parties but ultimately broke down or were 
adiourned because it was said that he Hindus wished to consult the Mahasabha. 

Soon after, Mr. Jinnah arrived in the Punjab and in his first public utterance 
made a pointed reference to the main basis of the scheme without naming it and 
condemned the move to give the right of self-determination to "Sub-National" 
groups like the Hindus and the Sikhs in the Punjab and the Muslims in the 
United Provinces. He further tried to win over the Sikhs to his conception of 
Pakistan by reassuring them that their interests would be safe under a Muslim 
State. This failed, but Mr. Jinnah succeeded in scotching the "mischievious 
idea, as he described it, of a purely Provincial settlement of the communal 
problem and laid down that "no settlement is worth the paper on which it is 
written either in the Punjab or elsewhere, so far as Muslims are concerned, ex- 
cept with the Muslim League." 

Later, Mr. Jinnah in another speech said that he had not referred to the 
Sikander formula, which he had not even studied in his earlier speech. This 
enabled Sir Sikander Hyat Khan to make a rapprochement with Mr. Jinnah 
and declare himself to be a loyal supporter of the Muslim League. If there were 
any differences between Sir Sikander and Mr. Jinnah, it was explained, they 
related more to the method than to the policy and program of the Muslim 
League and were intended soley to further its aims and ideals. 

Attempts have lately been made to show that the Sikander formula is in 
accordance with the League's resolution on Pakistan which visualised territorial 
adjustments. The formula allowed this in accordance with the desires of the 
communities concerned and to that extent unintentionally conceded the right of 
self-determination to the Hindues and the Sikhs. However, the problem is no 
more a live issue. Mr. Jinnah has applied the damper and as a result of his visit 
to the Punjab he is back again in the position he occupied prior to Sir Sikander's 

The death of Sir Sikander Hyat Khan on December 26th was regarded by the 
New York Times correspondent (N. T. T., Dec. 29) as considerably strengthen- 
ing Mr. Jinnah's position by removing the only Muslim figure important enough 
to challenge him. 


Out of a total of 123 Muslim members in the Bengal Assembly and 30 in the 
Legislative Council, 43 and 11 members, respectively, follow the Muslim League. 

Mr. Fazlul Haq. the Premier of Bengal, who had been a member of the Muslim 
League since 1918, resigned in 1940 when disciplinary action was threatened 
against him for accepting membership of the National Defence Council, from 
which, however, he resigned. The Muslim League expelled him on Desember 11, 
1941, for having formed a coalition Ministry in Bengal without its sanction. 

Some unconfirmed reports have appeared in the press that Mr. Fazlul Haq 
had met Mr. .Jinnah recently in Delhi. Another report said that Mr. Haq had 
rejoined the Muslim League. On this the Bengal Premier made the following 
statement: "The news published by Independent India (Mr. M. N. Roy's Delhi 
paper) about my rejoining the Muslim League raises an irrelevant issue. I 
maintain I was never out of the League, I am still in the League. Therefore, 



the question of my rejoining does not arise. As regards Mr. Jinnah, I have never 
been at war with him, nor do I intend to be so. I am not at war with anybody. 
I am at war with untruths." 


Out of 35 Muslim members in the Sind Assembly, only 13 were elected on 
Muslim League ticket. With the return of Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah as 
Premier of the Province in October last, a number of M. L. A.'s have joined the 
League. Sir Ghulam and all his Muslim Ministers are now members of the 
League, and the strength of the League party is now 26 out of 35. 

Sir Ghulam resigned from the Muslim League when Mr. Allah Bux took him 
into his Cabinet two years ago. His rejoining the League has been prompted 
by a desire to strengthen the Ministry that he formed on Mr, AUah Bus's 


Out of 34 Muslim members in the Assam Assembly, originally only 3 were 
elected on Muslim League ticket. But, a few months after the General Elections 
30 members signed on as a Muslim League Party. The Premier, Sir Mohammad 
Saadullah Khan, has been strictly following Muslim League discipline. He re- 
signed from the National Defence Council when required by the League to do 
so. On recently assuming office he claimed that his Cabinet was representative 
of Assam's people. No mention was made of the party affiliations of the Muslim 
members of his Cabinet. In all his public utterances since assuming office, he 
has refrained from mentioning the Muslim League. 


Out of 38 members in the N.-W.F. Province Legislative Assembly, only 12 
belong to the League Party. The only sign of a weakening of the Congress 
Party in the Province has been the resignation of Arbab Alidul Ghafoor Khan, 
M. L. A., ex-Parliamentary Secretary, from the Congress Party and the Red Shirts, 
but he did not join the Muslim League. He formed a new organisation called 
the Pashtoon Jirga. It aims at an independent Pathan State, run in accordance 
with the laws of the Shariat. In a statement, Arbab Abdul Ghafoor Khan said 
that an alliance with the Congress was harmful as the Pathans were gradually 
losing their identity and drifting away from religion. 

Total Muslim 
Members of leg- 

Total Muslim 
League members 




2 30 






Sind . -. 


Assam .... . . . .. 


North West 

Frontier Province .. . . . . . 







CO. 45 

' Lower House. 
« Upper House. 

IMPORTANT NOTE. — It is important to remember in using the above figures 
that they show the strength of the Muslim League among the Muslim members 
of the Legislatures of Muslim majority provinces ; they do not show Muslim 
League strength in Hindu majority provinces (these figures will be released later 
when available). 
JH : MC. 


Exhibit No. 820 

(Pencilled note) Same letter to Bisson, Moser, Shoemaker, Bloch, Orchard, 
Kemer, Fahs. 

Dr. Hugh Borton, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Hugh : Under separate cover I am sending you a copy of "Korean Indus- 
try and Transport" by Grajdanzev. We would appreciate having your comments 
on this. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 821 

(Handwritten letter.) 

Grajdanzev, Sunday, Jan. 17, 1943. 

Dear Mr. Holland: Since Tuesday I am working in the B. of E. W. on 
Japanese materials and will finish work on Tuesday, 5 : 30 p. m., so that I shall 
be back in the office Wednesday morning. I believe that my stay here is useful, 
because I think I shall be able to prepare 3 articles — 

(1) Japan after December 7, political 

(2) Japan after December 7, economic 

(3) Japanese policy in the occupied areas. 

Of course, the picture is far from complete, but I believe that those who do 
not have access to special sources of information will be glad to read my story. 
Whether you will approve all these three articles and whether to publish them 
in the F. E. fe. or elsewhere — it will be, of course, up to you. I shall prepare 
the articles in the shortest possible time, let us say — the first one may be ready 
in one week after my return. 
Yours sincerely, 

[s] A. Grajdanzev. 

P. S. But I may stay here even Wednesday, if not all will be finished. 

(Handwritten letter) 

Exhibit No. 822 

A. Grajdanzev, 

July 22, 1942. 
To the Secretary of Research, 
I. P. R., 
W. L. Holland 

Dear IMr. Holland : I read the letter of Mr. Norman's and the outline of the 
research project on industrialization of the Soviet Asia, prepared by A. Yugon. 

I have to make the following comments on this project. 

(1) I do not know whether it is good for the Institute to finance the work of a 
person who is a noted political figure, so long as the Institute has the Soviet 
Union council as a member and so long as the Soviet Union government is not 
over thrown by German and Japanese arms. 

As you may see from the curriculum Vital he was the editor and head of the 
ec. department of Sotsialistichemyi vestnik since 1923 — a magazine of Russian 
Men'sheviki, published abroad, and his part, so far as I know, was larger than 
that. The Soviet representatives may not protest now, when they are hard 
pressed ; but they may have a certain feeling about that. 

If the Institute finds that such work is a necessity, why not entrust it to such 
a person as, say, Mandel of the A. R. I., who is able, acquainted with Russian 
literature and language, and, probably, would be acceptable for the Soviet and 
American circles? 

(2)1 have no honor of being acquainted with Mr. Yugon ; but I read his books 
and I think that all of them are superficial, including his last one, Russia's Eco- 
nomic Front for AVar and Peace. Of course, this is my personal opinion and 
it is worth just so much. 

(3) I was of the opinion that we have no materials and studies enough for 
a serious book on the Soviet Asiatic regions. I am of the same opinion now. 
But in so far as many stupid and empty books on this or other regions are 


written (an example, "Russia and Japan," by Maurice Hindus )^ I think a fairly 
tolerable booli of that type can be written and be reasonably informative. 

(4) The sources presented by Mr. Yugon are not new to those who study 
Russia ; it is clear that they do not go much beyond 1937 or even 1936, though the 
chief ec. development took place in Siberia after that date. 

(5) Some of the points of the outline are bordering on nonsense. 

"(a) Superindustrialization as the fundamental idea of the Five-year 
plan." Superindustrialization was not the fundamental idea of any of the 
Five-year plans. 

B 4, c — "Forest industries of Buryat-Mongolia." That is the only place 
in outline on Western and Eastern Siberia where forest industries are men- 
tioned, though it is not in Buryat-Mongolia primarily (which contains so 
much of the steppe) that forest industry is developed in Siberia. 

B 5, f — "Hunting of fur-bearing animals" under the general title the indus- 
trialization of Soviet Asia ! 

(6) Distortion and mutilations of Russian words go beyond the permissible 
misprints. Could not Mr. Yugon spend a few minutes in going over these names 
and giving us something actual instead of mythical "Sahalimsk" and many other 
places like that? 

(7) In the sources I see many books included presumably for the increase of 
the number of titles. 

What relation can have "Stenographic Report of the Shakhtinskyi trial, 1935"? 
The trial was related to Don. Cas. production, and not to Siberia. Why then 
are omitted recent trials? 

What is there useful for this book in Tugan-Bavanovsky, The Russian Factory, 
where there is nothing about Siberia, 

The hook of Kabo about Tannu-Tuva republic? , 

Miller's History of Siberia, which ends, as far as I remember, in the seventeenth 
or eighteenth century? 

Shulpin — Sea hunting? 

Sergeyer, The Soviet Pacific Islands? 

Gapanovich, Russia in Northeast Asia? 

Burthold, Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion, bibliography ! ! ! 
and other not less striking examples. 

The decision is, of course, up to you. I only point out to certain things which 
deserve your attention. 
Yours sincerely, 

[s] A. Geajdanzbv. 

ExHiBrr No. 823 
Free Distribution List for "Korean Industry and Transport" by AJG 

For Comment (with the Compliments of WLH) : 

Hugb Borton, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

T. a. Bisson, 353 Willard Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 

Dr. C. K. Moser, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C. (Far Eastern 

James Shoemaker, Board of Economic Warfare. Washington, D. C. 

Kurt Bloch. Fortune Magazine, Time and Life Bldg., Rockefeller Center, N. Y. 

Mrs. Dorothy Orchard, Board of Economic Warfare, Walshington, D. C. 

Carl Remer, Office of Strategic Services, Library of Congress Annex, Wash- 

Charles B. Fahs, Office of Strategic Services, Library of Congress Annex, 
With the Compliments of WLH : 

G. Nye Steiger, Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 

George Taylor, Room 3313, Social Security Bldg., 4th & Independence Ave., 

Owen Lattimore, Office of War Information, 111 Sutter Street, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

American Council (3 copies) 

Margaret Cleeve, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Square, London, S. W. 1, 
England (2 copies) 

W. D. Berrie, Australian Institute of International Affairs, 369 George Street, 


F. L(. W. Wood, Victoria University College, Wellington, W. 1, New Zealand 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 700 Jackson Place, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Kilsoo Haan 

Food Research Institute, Stanford University, California 

Ben Dorfman, Tariff Commission, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Vera M. Dean, Foreign Policy Association, 22 East 38th Street, New 

Col. M. W. Pettigrew, Chief, Far Eastern Unit, Military Intelligence Service, 

War Department, Washington 
J. B. Condliffe, Carnegie Endowment, 405 West 117th Street, New York 
League of Nations Secretariat, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N. J. 
International Labor Office, 3480 University Street, Montreal, Canada 

G. E. Voitinsky, Institute of World Economics & Politics, Academy of Science, 
Moscow, U. S. S. R. 

Sir George Sansom, British Embassy, Washington 

Douglas MacLennan, Canadian Institute for International Affairs, 230 Bloor 

St., West Toronto, Canada 
Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
Shannon McCune, BEW, 2501 Q Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

ExHiBrr No. 824 


This preliminary report is part of a lai-ger study on Modern Korea to be 
published later by the International Secretariat of the IPR. Other sections of 
this book were submitted as documents for the Mont Tremblant Conference of 
the Institute of Pacific Relations in December 1942, one entitled "Memorandum 
on Korea's Agriculture and Resources" and the other "Memorandum on Politics 
and Government in Korea." 

The author and the IPR Secretariat will welcome readers' comments and 
suggestions for improvements to be made in the final version of the book. The 
author alone is responsible for statements of fact or opinion expressed in this 

For convenience in following the author's references herein to other chapters 
in the hook, some of which are included in the above-mentioned memoranda 
and some are still only in manuscript, the following table of contents of the whole 
book may be useful. 

I. Introduction (partly included in Agriculture and Resources) 
II. General Information (partly included herein) 

III. Historical Sketch 

IV. Population (included in AgTiculture and Resources) 
V. Agriculture (included in Agriculture and Resources) 

VI. Forestry and Fishing (included in Agriculture and Resources) 

VII. Power and Mineral Resources (included in Agriculture and Resources) 
VIII. Industry (included herein) 

IX. Communications and Transport (included herein) 
X. Money and Banking 

XI. Public Finance 
XII. External Trade 

XIII. Government (included in Politics and Government) 

XIV. Courts, Prisons, and Police 
XV. Health, Education, and Religion 

XVI. Problems of Korean Independence (Included in Politics and Government) 
Statistical Appendix Bibliography 

W. L. Holland, 
Research Secretary. 
New York, April 1943 


Exhibit No. 825 

May 19, 1943. 
Miss Hilda Austern, 

Assistant Treasurer's Office. 
Dear Hilda: This will be .vour authority to remit the sum of $183 by cable 
through the bank of China to Mr. Guenther Stein in Chungking (c/o Press 
Hostel). This is an advance payment for reports he is to send by radio and mail 
on current developments in Free China. This should be charged under the above 
title to reserve fund in the current International Research Budget. 
Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 826 

July 20, 1943. 
Mr. Owen Lattimore, 

Office of War Information, 

111 Sutter Street, New York City. 

Dear Owen : The enclosed extract from my letter to Norine about his book 
on Sinkiang is self-explanatory. I would greatly appreciate it if you would do 
what you can to interest the University of California Press in publishing it for us. 

I was sorry that you could not find time to do the review of the Russian book, 
but I realize that it is a considerable chore. We will definitely count on it for 
our December issue, and I suggest that you make it into a review article in 
essay form. I hope you can complete the job by the middle of September at 
the latest. 

What do you think about Bisson's article on China in the current Far Eastern 
Survey? As you can imagine, it has caused a considerable storm among some of 
the official Chinese here. While I disagree with some of Bisson's terminology 
I think the article is fundamentally sound and says a lot of things that many 
people feel ought to have been said before this. I suspect it would have been 
better tactics to emphasize the possibilities of reform within the Kuomintang 
and under the leadership of the Generalissimo and the younger members of the 
party rather than to play up the contrast with the Communist areas. C. L. Hsia 
is of course very angry and says it will seriously harm the IPR both here and in 
China. We have offered them an opportunity to reply or submit another article, 
but I am not sure whether they will accept. 

Carter and I have been told to be ready to leave around the end of this month, 
although there is still no assurance that we will get our priorities. If you are 
going to be in Washington about that time, please be sure to let us know, as we 
would both very much like to get your advice on whom to see and how generally 
to behave in China. 

All the best. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 827 

February 21, 1944. 
Mrs. Wilma Fatrbank, 

Division of Cultural Relations, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

De/h Wilma: Under separate cover and at John's request, I am sending you 
a package of Chinese manuscripts which were erroneously sent here with some 
other materia! which John brought back from China. They seem to have been 
sent by Lowdermilk for somebody in the library of Congress. I told John 
about them on Friday and he asked me to return them to you. 

\^'ith reference to your note to Art Bisson with reference to Chien's article 
on local government in China, you have probably noticed that it was published 
in the December 1943 issue of Pacific Affairs. At Chien's instructions, I have 
paid the fee to Professor Pei in this country together with an additional $200 
representing part payment for the larger study of China's Government and 
Politics which Chien is now doing for us. I am anxious to find some way of 
remitting another $400 to him during the next few months. I would greatly 


appreciate it if you could suggest some way of doing this. I have already sent 
a message to Bob Darnett requesting his help, but I doubt if he can manage more 
than about $200 for the present. Incidentally, I should greatly appreciate if it 
you could let me know privately, perhaps through Rose Yardumian at our Wash- 
ington office, when John Da vies is likely to be going back. I have one or two 
pei-sonal messages which I should like him to take. 
Best wishes. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 828 


December 7, 1943. 

Dr. William T. Holland, 

Rcscarcli Director of the International Council Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 5I,t1i Street, Neiv York, N. Y. 
Dear Dr. Holland : The material which you were so kind as to loan to this 
office has been most helpful. Thank you for putting it at our disposal for the 
last week. 

The address by Chou En Lai at Yenan, the disposition of Japanese and puppet 
troops in China, and the Report from Yenan on Communist and Kuomintang 
effiti-t in the War are being returned at this time. The "Situation in China" 
and An Answer to Chinese Comments, by V. Rogev are being used at the present 
time. They will be returned to you this week if that is agreeable to you. 

Thank you again for allowing this office to make use of the timely and valuable 
reports listed above. 

[s] E L Barlow, 

Edward L. Barlow, 
Lt. Colonel, O. S. C, Chief, NY Office, MID. 

Exhibit No. 829 

8th Floor 

1270 Sixth Avenue 

New York, N. Y. 

Telephone: Circle 6-4250 

December 6, 1943. 
In reply refer to : KKA :sms 

Dr. William T. Holland, 

Research Director, International Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 5-'ith Street, Fourth Floor, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Mk. Holland: The enclosed report on "The Situation in China," by Mr. 
V. Rogev, has aided the work of this office. Thank you for your cooperation in 
making this report available. 

"The Situation in China" and "An Answer to Chinese Criticisms", by Mr. V. 
Rogev, are being returned at this time. 

[s] E. L. Barlow, 

Edward L. Barlow, 
Lt. Col, G. 8. C, Chief, N. Y. Office, MID. 
Enclosures : 2 Reports 


Exhibit No. 830 

8th Floor 

1270 Sixth Avenue 

New York, N. Y. 
Telephone: Circle 6-4250 
In reply refer to : AAL : med December 1, 1943. 

Dr. William T. Holland, 

Research Director of the International Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 5/f Street, New York, N. T. 
Dear Mr. Holland : This is to acknowledge receipt of material, which you 
turned over to Miss Francis of this office, as follows : 

1. "Situation in China." By V. Rogev. (Translation from the Russian journal 
War and the Working Class.) 

2. Answer to Chinese Comments. By V. Rogev. (Translation from the Russian 
journal War and the Working Class, September 1943.) 

3. Address by Chou En Lai at Yenan. 

4. Disposition of Japanese and puppet troops in China. (Original with some 
Chinese characters and partial carbon copy without Chinese characters.) 

5. Report from Yenan on Communist and Kuomiutang effort in the war. 
This material will be returned to you at the end of this week. 

Thank you for your assistance in making these documents available to this 


[s] E. L. Barlow, , 

Edward L. Barlow, 
Lt. Colonel, G. 8. C, Chief, N. Y. Office, MID. 

Exhibit No. 831 

8th Floor 

New York, N. Y. 

1270 Sixth Avenue 
In Reply Telephone : Circle 6-4250 

Refer To 

December 3, 1943. 

Mr. William Holland, 

1 East 54th Street, New York City, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Holland : We are returning herewith the following material which 
you so kindly loaned to this office : 

The Progress of Indian Industries during the War, by D. N. Ghose, No. 10295. 

2 Issues of the People's War, newspaper of Indian Communist Party, No. 10295. 

2 Issues of The Student, journal of the All India Students' Federation, 

No. 10295. 

2 Pamphlets from Oxford Pamphlets on Indian Affairs, series. No. 10295. 

4 Pamphlets, publ. by Peoples Publishing House, Bombay, No. 10295. 

5 Pamphlets, publ. by the New Inflia Planning Groups, No. 10295. 

Your kind cooperation and interest in making this available is greatly appre- 

Sincerely yours, 

/s/ E. L. Barlow, 

Edward L. Barlow, 

Lt. Colonel, G. S. C. 

By hand 
1(5 items 


Exhibit No. 832 

Makch 2, 1944. 

Dr. Laughlin Currie, 

The White House, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Dr. Currie : This is just to let you know that I have filed my application 
for final citizenship papers. The application is dated March 1 and the Serial 
Number of my first papers (Declaration of Intention) is D22-108175. The appli- 
cation has been filed at the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 70 Columbus 
Avenue, Neve York 23. 

Admiral Yarnell has written my draft board supporting Carter's application 
for my deferment on occupational grounds. Apparently President Wilbur, of 
Stanford, and President Sproul, of the University of California, have also written 
in similar vein. I have told Carter, however, that even if he gets deferment for 
me I shall want to take a Government job which is more directly connected with 
the war, and that I shall stay on only for three or four months until Carter can 
find a successor to me. 

At the moment the most promising openings in Washington seem to be a Navy 
job in the Bureau of Occupied Areas, where there seems to be some hope of my 
getting a Commission, or a job in O. S. S. The latter would probably be more to 
my taste, as it would be concerned with the India-China-Burma theater. How- 
ever, it is almost impossible to get a deferment for a civilian job in O. S. S., and 
it is therefore a question of whether O. S. S. can also get a Navy commission for 
me, since Army commissions are now practically unobtainable. 

I should be most grateful if you cnn do anything to speed up my naturalization, 
I apologize for inflicting this chore on you when you are so busy, but I don't 
know anyone else who would be in a position to help me in this way. 

Best wishes. 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 883 

Department of State, 
Washington, March 11, 194^. 

Mr. William Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East 54 Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Holland : With reference to your letter of February 21, 1944, I am 
glad to hear that Chien's article on Local Government in China was published 
in the December 1943 issue of Pacific AlTairs. For my records, and because the 
manuscript was transmitted through the Department, would you let me know 
what the fee on this was and to whom it was paid [penciled: Yes $100.] (Chou, 
Pei-yuan?) Are there reprints of this article for Chien? We might be able to 
send two or three to him by pouch. In the case of other manuscripts placed 
here through our office we have also offered to distribute reprints to a list of 
persons in this country to be designated by the author. 

I trust that Rose gave you my message regarding John Davies' departure and 
the transmission of funds. 
Sincerely yours, • 

Wilma Fairbank. 
(Mrs.) Wilma Fairbank. 

Exhibit No. 834 

Department of State, 
Washington, February 18, 1944- 
Mr. T. A. Bisson. 

American Council, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East Fifty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Art: On October 19, 1943 I wrote to you about T. S. Chien's article 
Wartime Local Government in China which Harriet had told me would probably 
appear in the December issue of Pacific Affairs. 


Can you tell me whether the article has appeared, If there is any honorarium, 
and if tliere will be any reprints for him? 
With best regards. 

Sincerely yours. 

/s/ Wilmn F. 
(Mrs.) WiLMA Fairbank. 

Exhibit No. 835 

1 East 54 Stbeet, March 20, 19U. 
Mrs. Welma Fairbank, 

Division of Cultural Relations 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
Dear : With reference to your l«4ter of March 11, I confirm the fact 
that we paid Professor Chien $100 for his article on Local Goveinment in China. 
Ihis was in accordance with the arrangement I had made with him when I re- 
quested the article several months earlier. On Chien's request, the payment was 
made to Professor Chou in this country. We are not supplying reprints of 
articles, but I am sending you two copies of the majiazine in the hope tlmt you 
can either send these complete to Chien or tear out the pages containing his 

Incidentally, if you ever have promising articles on China's social, political, or 
economic pioblems, please let me know as we may occasionally be able to use 
them in Pacific Affairs. As a general rule, we don't pay for articles and the 
payment to Cliien was regarded as an advance payment on the larger book he is 
doing for us. However, we sometimes are able to make modest payments in 
special cases. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 836 

March 22, 1944. 
Professor Schuyler Wallace 
Coltimbin Universiti/, 

JfSl West in Street, New York 27, N. Y. 

Dear Schuyler : As you may know, Andrew J. Grajdanzev, one of our Research 
Associates and our principal expei't in the Japanese language, is temporarily on 
leave getting some teaching experience at Oregon State College. We hope to 
get him back heie in the summer, but Carter and I have promised to find a part- 
time academic post for him in or near New York. Because of your possible need 
for people who are pretty well-informed on Japanese laniiuape sources and on the 
economic and social problems of Japan, Ivorea and Formosa, I wonder whether 
there is any likelihood of your using him on a part-time basis at the Navy School. 

As you may know from Phil Jessup and Nat Pt ffer, Giajdanzev is apt to be 
excessively polemical. Moreover, his spoken English, though fluent and pungent, 
is not always elegant or idiomatic. I am certain, however, that bis expeiience 
in teaching will have greatly diminished these two faults. He would be particu- 
larly useful in lectures to seminars on rather specific and even technical problems 
relating to industry, trade, transport, shipping, banking and agriculture in the 
Japanese empire. He is perhaps more intimately acquainted than any other 
research worker outside Washington with the Ja] auese materials on these topics. 
We shall shortly be publishing his big book on Modern Korea and be is now work- 
ing on a detailed study of Japanese Agriculture. As you probably know, he took 
his Ph. I), in E onomics at Columbia and the K'rea book was submitted as the 
dissertation. I'effer was rightly ciitical of the lantiuage and aggressive style of 
much of it, but we are editing it pretty severely for publication. 

Gra.idanzev will probably come back in June and I imagine he would be pre- 
paivd to do some teaching during the summer if necessary. He is an Assistant 
Professor at the moment. Let me know if you see any prospect of using him. 

As you may have heard, my draft boa id relented and gave me a six-month 
deierment, only till about the end of .August. I may take a part-time Government 
job before that time but my main job will still be here. 
Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 


Exhibit No, 837 

Columbia Univeksity in the City of New York, 
Naval School of Military Government and Administration, 

March 23, WU- 

Mr. William L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East 54th Street, 'New York, New York. 

Dear Bill: Could I hold off giving you a definite answer on Grajdanzev for 
another week or two insofar as summer work is concerned. I am quite sure that 
we will be very much interested in making use of him on a part-time basis in 
the fall. 

I am deliffhted indeed that your draft board has given you a six months' 
deferment and definitely hope that they will renew it at a later period. It seems 
uttei-ly ridiculous to force you into uniform when you are doing more effective 
work where you are. 

Cordially yours, 


ECC (handwritten) Encouraging, ECC. 

Exhibit No. 838 

Columbia University in the City of New York, 

April IJf, 19U' 
Mr. William Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East 5!,tli Street, New York 22, Neic York. 
Dear Bill : We are scheduling your lectures for Tuesday mornings beginning 
with May 2nd as you suggest. 

1 am leaving in about an hour for a two weeks' holiday and have not yet begun 
to \xnrk on tie summer schedule. The moi-e I think about it, I doubt very much 
whether we will want to have Mr. Grajdanzev do any lecturing during the 
suinmer. We niis/lit conceivably use hiui as a consultant in connection with some 
of the projects if he can be cleared by the Office of Naval Intelligence. I will 
leave a note asking .Jessup to start the machinery going to get such clearance if 
Mr. Grajdanzev is willing to have the investigation started on the basis of a 
possibility, not a certainty. 
Cordially yours, . 


Schuyler C. Wallace. 

Exhibit No. 839 

April 12, 1944. 
Prof. SCHUYI.ER C. Wallace, 
Coliimhin JJiiivcrsit}/, 

JiSl West in Street, New York 27, N. Y. 

Dear Schuyler: Thanks for your note of April 8. If it's not inconvenient, I 
should prefer Tuesday morning presumably beginning May 2. 

Is there any likelihood of your beinii able to reach and decision in the near 
future about employing Andrew Gi'ajdnn/.ev? May we assume that you will 
certainly not require his services for the Summer Session? I ask simply because 
he has asked us to arrange some lectures before he returns from Oregon. 
Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 


Exhibit No. 840 

Columbia University in the Citt of New Yokk, 
Naval School of Military Government and Administration, 

New York 27, N. Y., April 8, 19U. 
Mr. William Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East SJfth Street, New York, New York. 
Dear Bill : After lookins over the schedule it appears that we can run your 
series of lectures on either Monday or Tuesday a. m. or Monday at 4 : 00 p. m. It 
does not make much difference to us which hour you prefer. If anything, I think 
Monday morning would be slightly preferable, but only slightly so. 
Cordially yours, 


Schuyler C. Wallace. 

Exhibit No. 841 

Columbia University 
in the City of New York, 
Department op Public Law and Government, 

March 27, 19U- 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East 54th Street, New York 22, N. Y. 

Dear Bill : Since you say so, I agree that I undertook to draft some outline 
for the Far East security organization but I am appalled at the thought. There 
are dozens of schemes running around and I have been participating in one or 
two groups that have been dealing with some of them. I think the one to which 
Bill Johnstone refers must be that which is being developed by a little committee 
tinder Phil Nash. I have a recent text of their draft. There is also a draft 
prepared by the former League of Nations group in London which I also have. 
I am not sure whether at this stage any particular draft should be selected for 
the kind of criticism you suggest unless it be the London draft which has a 
certain authority because of its signatories. I shall turn the matter over in my 
mind and we can talk about it a little later. 

I shall keep in touch with you about the question of your taking another job. 
Sincerely yours, 


Philip C. Jessup. 

Exhibit No. 842 

Washington, D. C, April 10, 1944- 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Pacific Affairs, 

1 East 54 Street, Neiv York, Neiv York. 

Dear Bill: I am inclosing for the information of yourself and Mr. Carter 
excerpt from letter which I have just received from Adler. 

I would appreciate, for obvious reasons, your not showing this around and 
your not disclosing your source of this information. 


Irving S. Friedman. 

Do you see the I. P. R crowd no\vada>s? If you do, you might inform them 
that they have completely bafflod decent people here by appointing Wellington 
Liu to the Secretariat of the forthcoming I. P. R. Conference and by allotting 
him US$10,000 for research? For scmie reason or other they don't want to- 
believe what is common knowledge here, namely that Liu is a pretty highly 
placed member of Tai Li's outfit. I had a talk with Holland on the subject 
last summer and he se<^med to require written evidence to establish Liu's mem- 
bership in the Secret Service. Since then I have received further evidence — 
not written but satisfactory to anyone but an ostrich — that such is the case. 
Of course he will be very well placed from his point of view in the I. P. R. 


Exhibit No. 842-A 

May 1, 1944. 
Mr. Irving Friedman, 

United States Treasury, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Irving : I have been meaning to call on you in Washington to acknowledge 
your note of April 10 with the excei'pt from Adler's letter but 1 don't seem able 
to escape from O. S. S. where I am now working every Thursday. 

I appreciate knowing about Adler's comment although it contains nothing new. 
Adler has got things a bit twisted about the I. P. R. research grant, most of which 
is to be kept here for publication purposes. Another grant of US.$10,000 was 
made by a Chinese in New York partly for the relief of selected Chinese scholars. 

Adler's account of my alleged blindness to Liu's connections with Tai is not 
very fair. I talked about the matter with him at some length in Calcutta. I 
would rather you did not pass the information on but the situation is that Liu 
has a number of personal friends in Tai's organization and he came to the atten- 
ton of Tai himself some years ago because of his friendship for a Shanghai 
engineer who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate Wang Ching-wei. Liu has 
talked to me really frankly about the whole business and gave a very convincing 
story though I have no means, of course, of proving it. Liu says he had been 
repeatedly asked by Tai Li to work for him but has always refused largely 
because his wife and friends have urged him not to accept. One of Liu's closest 
friends in this country says he is quite certain that Liu is not working for Tai. 

Even if the allegation were true, there is not much that Carter or I could do 
about it as Liu is employed by the China I. P. R., not by us. He is probably 
coming to New York this summer to put a number of research reports through 
the press in preparation for our January conference. 

One of the incidental advantages of the rumors of Liu's connection with Tai 
is that it has thus far saved the China I. P. R. from suffering the fate of all 
similar organizations in China, namely being swallowed up by Kung. To the 
best of my belief, the funds which the China I. P. R. has recently succeeded in 
raising have been obtained because of the personal interest expressed by the 
Generalissimo. What bank or agency actually turned over the funds I don't 
know but I am pretty sure it was not the usual handout from Kung. 

Let's try to have lunch sometime soon. There are several things I want to 
discuss with you. 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 843 

Office of Strategic Services, 
Washington, D. C, 12 April 1944- 
Mr. William L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East Fifty-fourth Street, Netv York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Holland : Will you be good enough to fill out the enclosed form and 
return it to me. We have put through a request for your appointment as a WOC 
Consultant. You will get $10 per diem in lieu of subsistence, and your railroad 
fare. I have told Personnel that you will be here on April 20. 

/s/ Alice B. Foy 
Alice B. Foy, 
Administrative Office, Planning Staff. 

88348^52— pt. 14 8 


Exhibit No. 844 

April 17, 1944. 
Miss Alice B. Foy, 

Office of Strategic Services, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Miss Foy: Thank you for your letter of April 12 enclosing the Federal 
Employment form which I return herewith. You will see that I have filled out 
only some of the questions. Having wasted a great deal of time already filling 
in a twelve ptige application form for O. S. S., I am not disposed to repeat the 
process. Your office is at liberty to answer the remaining questions on the basis 
of what I have already submitted. If this is done, I should be prepared to con- 
sider signing tlie application form, 

If this procedure is likely to prevent your office from employing me on April 
20, perhaps you would be good enough to let me and also Dr. Norman Brown know. 
1 am sorry to appear uncooperative but there is a limit to the number of forms I 
can bring myself to fill in for the Government. 
Sincerely yours, 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 845 

Columbia University in the City of New York, 
Naval School of Military Government and Administration, 

New York 21, N. Y., April 25, 19U- 
Mr. Wm L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East Fifty-fourth Street, New York, New York. 

Dear Mr. Holland : As you perhaps know, Mr. AVallace has been out of town 
for a few days. Before his departure, he indicated that you had requested that 
if possible, your class be scheduled on Tuesday mornings. Accordingly, we have 
made the following arrangements: 

Your lecture series on South East Asia will come on May 2, 9, 16 and 23rd, 
from 9 to 11 in the morning, in Room 302, Fayerweather Hall. 
I hope that this arrangement is satisfactory. 
Very truly yours, 

L. H. Chamberlain 
L. H. Chamberlain, 
Lieut, (jg) VSNR, Academic Aide. 

Exhibit No. 846 

May 17, 1944. 
Mrs. Eleanor Lattimore, 

Institvfe of Pacific Relations, 

7Jf.'/ Jackson Place, N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Dear Eleanor : I enclose three letters to people in Chungking which I should 
very much like to have delivered by Owen if it's not too inconvenient for him. I 
know it's a bit of an imposition as he will probably be asked to cari-y dozens 
of other messages, but if he can manage to take them I shall be extremely 
grateful. I certainly wish I were going along. It will be a most interesting 
and probably critical time in Chungking. 

I am just starting to read the first draft of the Wallace pamphlet which 
looks like a very interesting job. 

I am glad you can review the book on the Gobi desert. 

"W. L. Holland. 
encs. 3. 


Exhibit No. 847 


Free World House, 144 Bleeckeb St., New York 12, N. Y. 
Telephone : ALgonqdin 4-0722. Cable Address : FREEWORLD NEWYORK 

June 19, 1944. 
Mr. William L. Holland, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East o.'iih Street, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Holland : It gives me great pleasure to send you under separate 
cover, a copy of the April 1944 issue of our Mexican edition, Mundo Libue. 

In this edition is a reprint of the Round Table Conference, "What to do 
with Japan," in which you participated and which was originally published 
in the March 1944 edition of Free World magazine. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Louis DoLI^'ET. 
Louis Dolivet. 
LD: NB. 

Exhibit No. 848 

Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 

National Secretariat, 
230 Bloor Street West, Toronto 5, March 23, 1946. 
W. L. Holland, Esq., 

Secretary-General, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 5J,th Street, New York 22, N. Y. 
Dear Bill: You may not have heard that Fred Poland has been held for 
weeks in connection with the spy round-up in Ottawa. I enclose a page from the 
local morning paper. 

The C. 1. I. A. is ignoring the publicity ; our stand is that our membership 
includes all political parties for purposes of good discussion at meetings, and that 
the branches can enlist any persons they wish. 

Poland has been held without benetlt of counsel and his wife is seeking habeas 
corpus. We have no idea of whether Fred is guilty ; I have known about his 
being held since the third day after the story broke, or thereabouts but I had 
no proof to substantiate my suspicions until the recent announcement (under- 
line is pencilled). 

Yours sincerely, 

DAM : bm 

Copy to Mr. E. C. Carter. 

Douglas A. MacLennan, National Secretary. 

Exhibit No. 849 

25th March 1946. 
Douglas MacLennan, Esq., 

Canadian Institute of Intei'national Affairs, 
230 Bloor Street, West, Toronto 5. 

Dear Douglas : I am grateful to you for your note of March 23rd enclosing the 
clipping on Fred Poland. I had seen a brief reference to the matter in the 
New York Times and got the impression that the habeas corpus request would 
probably succeed. The whole procedure adopted by the goverimient seems very 
curious and I should imagine there may be a considerable protest about it in 
Parliament. I should appreciate it if you would keep me informed of what 
develops and particularly of any further references to the Canadian Institute 
or the I PR. 

You may be interested to know that Dr. Chen Nan-sang and his wife have just 
arrived here from India. Chen will be teaching for the next few months at the 
University of Washington and during the summer may be doing some work for 
the II'R. For the past three years he has been working in New Delhi at the 
British Ministry of Information and during the past four months has travelled 


widely in India studying tlie agricultural situation. Although there will not 
be time for him to visit Canada before he goes to Seattle, it occurs to me that 
your Victoria and Vancouver branches might want to invite him to speak before 
them during the next few months. 

J. P. Simon of your Victoria branch has asked Carter or me to participate in 
the annual joint conference of the IPR and the Canadian Institute in Victoria 
on May 10 to 12. I am inclined to accept this invitation as I may have to visit 
the Pacific coast about that time. If so I would probably plan to visit Vancouver 
as well. 

With best wishes, 
Sincerely yours, 

WiixiAM L. Holland, 


Exhibit No. 850 

Philip J. Jaffe, 
225 Fifth Avenue, New York 10, N. Y., April 29, 1948. 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Acting Executive Vice Chairman, American Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 5/,th Street, New York 22, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Holland : For some time now, I bave been one of those that believed' 
that in the coming years the most important area in the Far East will be Japan. 
Up to the present, no detailed study of developments in postwar Japan has 
appeared in print. I feel strongly that such a study is needed, and that the 
Institute of Pacific Relations is the appropriate organization to direct it. If you 
feel that this is the right time to undertake such a study, and if you have a 
competent person available for this project, I would be very happy to make a 
financial contribution towards that end. 

"Would you be kind enough to let me know whether you feel that this project 
is worthwhile and whether you have the right person available for it ; and, if so, 
approximately how large a contribution would be required from me to make it 

Cordially yours, 

PhtLip J. Jaffe. 
(signed) Philip J. Jaffe. 

Exhibit No. 851 

Amekican Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., 
Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, D. C, 

1 East 54th Street, New York 22, N. Y., 30th April, 194S. 
ELdorado 5-1759 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Consultant, ECAFE Secretariat, 

106 Whangpoo Road, Shanghai, China. 
Dear Mr. Carter : With reference to the attached letter from Jaffe of April 29, 
I miglit add that he has now decided it would be better for Bisson to continue 
working on his research project under IPR auspices and hopes that the American 
IPR will be willing to receive a donation of $3,000 which can be used to pay 
Bisson for a continuation of his current IPR research project on the impact of 
SCAP on Japanese life. We trust tlie Executive Committee will not object to 
receiving the money. It will ease Phil's tax problem. 


William L. Holland, 
Acting Executive Vice Chairman. 

P. S. — C. D. Jackson of Time, Inc., phoned Emeny this morning to check on 
the IPR. Jackson is a member of the Board of Independent Aid, and apparently 
the Board is seriously considering the IPR's appeal. Emeny took the opportunity 
to inquire of Jackson what the possibilities of a renewal of Time's contribution 
would be, and apparently didn't get a negative response. So we shall wait and 

(Penciled:) Rec'd, May 7, 1948. 

(Penciled:) Brooks has now retracted his earlier strong criticism of Ros- 
singer and now recommends him to me in the most glowing terms. 


Exhibit No. 852 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 54th Street, Neiv York 22, New York, January 25, 1950. 
Dr. E. Herbert Noraian, 

Canadidn Liajaon Mission, c/o Foreign Liaison Section 0-2, 

GHQ, AFPAC, APO 500, c/o Postmaster, San Francisco, California. 

Dear Herb : I was delighted to find your letter of January 5th awaiting me 
on my return to New York and even more pleased to see a copy of your book. 
It is an excellent production job despite the unattractive cover and title page. I 
took the liberty of sending it immediately to Sansom, who tells me that he is 
reading it with very great interest and admiration — so much so that he is going 
to write you directly about a number of specific points including probably some 
disagreements. He has also agreed to review it for Pacific Affairs, comment- 
ing mainly on the broader social and economic implications of your analysis of 
Japanese feudalism. At a later date he is keen to write a more detailed and 
longer review for one of the professional .iournals, such as the Far Eastern 
Quarterly. I shall try to send you a copy of his Pacific Affairs review as soon 
as we receive the manuscript, probably some time within the next three or four 

If you have another copy to spare, I do hope you will send it to Miriam Farley 
for review in the Far Eastern Survey. I know she would appreciate seeing it. 
She has just written a rather long and interesting review article on Sansom's 
book, The Western World and Japan, which we may print in the next Pacific 

Mary Healy has sent yon a copy of Sansom's book which I hope you will ad- 
mii'e as much as I do. Won't you try to write a review of it for one of the Eng- 
lish-language publications in Japan and let me have a copy of your manuscript. 

I think there is a good chance that under the joint auspices of the Japan IPR 
and the Tokyo National University and with some Rockefeller Foundation help 
Sansom will be able to visit Japan next fall and give a series of eight or ten 
lectures, which will subsequently form the basis for a book to be published 
under IPR auspices. In many ways I think it is likely to be a kind of projec- 
tion of the ideas in his present book into the problems of contempoi-ary Japan. 
Sansom tells me that he is now planning to work on his "swan song", a rather 
general book on eighteenth century Japan with numerous incidental compari- 
sons with eighteenth century Europe. 

I do hope you are making some headway on your volume, "Essays on Japanese 
Politics and Society." Knowing how you are apt to be interrupted by the pres- 
sure of other work I hope you will try to finish each chapter one by one and 
send along the revised manuscript as soon as possible rather than keeping the 
whole book until all the revisions and additional chapters have been completed. 
Why not make a start with the principal chapters in the earlier mimeographed 
report? Incidentally let me know if it would facilitate things if I can send you 
an advance payment of say $200.00, which you can use to cover incidental clerical 
or research expenses. 

You may be interested to know that Bob Fearey, who is still in the Northeast 
Asia Division of the State Department, has just completed a 50,000 word supple- 
ment to Ed Martin's earlier IPR book. The Allied Occupation of Japan. We 
hope to produce the revised and enlarged edition within the next four months 
or so. 

I would be most grateful to have any news from you on research developments 
in the Japan IPR. Perhaps you can get Okubo to tell you what is happening 
and also to remind Matsuo to write me soon about the new projects which I 
discussed with the Japan IPR people. 

All good wishes to Irene and yourself. 

William L. Holland, Secretary-General. 

cc: PEL. 


Exhibit No. 853 

Canadian Liaison Mission, 

Tokyo, 5th January, 1950. 
W. L. Holland, Esq., 

Sc&y, Pacific Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1 East 54th Street, 
New York 2, N. Y. 

Dear Bill : I presume you have returned to New York by now from your world 
jaunt. I would very much like to have an opportunity of seeing some of your 
observations on the countries you visited. I trust that you will write up some 
aspects of your trip in one of the I. P. R. publications. 

I am sending you by the same mail a copy of my work on Ando Shoeki, which 
was finally published last month. I think Kenkyusha did a respectable job 
oi printing, although I must say that the Asiatic Society format is not the most 
attractive in the world. On the first day after publication, I hastily picked up 
some of the misprints I noticed and the printer obligingly struck off a page of 
errata, which is enclosed with the copy. One or two which I missed I shall 
take the liberty of correcting marginally. The work, I fear, shows signs of com- 
position at different periods of time but, since it is after all a rather enlarged 
essay, it may not affect the argument too seriously. I know I shall be open to 
the criticism that I have magnified the subject out of its proper proportion making 
Shoeki appear a more orginial or incisive figure than some might think he de- 
serves. I should be happy to have your frank opinion on this subject and on- 
any other feature of the work on which you feel like commenting. Although 
I am sending this book to you personally, I should be grateful if you would 
make use of it by reviewing it yourself or, if you are too busy, have someone- 
else on yrur staff review it for an I. P .R. publication — preferable Pacific Affairs. 
I am asking the editor of the Asiatic Society, who is for the current year Doa 
Brown, Civil Information and Education Section, General Headquarters, to mail 
a few copies to the institutions or publications on Far Eastern subjects. 

As you may have noticed, our Secretary of State for External Affairs, Mr. 
Pearson, is coming with a large delegation to Japan at the end of this month 
after the Cole mbo Conference and will stay for about four days. Naturally, 
things will be quite hectic for a while before and after the visit but, unless I am 
in the very near future given another assignment, which is always possible 
after the length of time I have been here, I intend to get down to some work on 
the series of essays which we discussed on Japanese political and biographical 

With all good wishes for the coming year to both Doreen and you, 
Yours sincerely, 


Exhibit No. 854 

Canadian Liaison Mission, 

Tokyo, February 13, 1950. 
Mr. W. L. Holland, 

Secretary-Oeneral, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 E. 5Jfth Street, New York 22, New York. 
Deiar Bill : Many thanks for your letter of January 25 in which you acknowl- 
edge receipt of my book. I am delighted, of course, to know that Sansom is re- 
viewing it and he wrote me a very kind letter about it. I still have not received 
his book, "The Western World and Japan," but am naturally looking forward to 
it keenly. I would be honoured to review it, although I would like to take my 
time and do as thorough a job as possible. 

I must confess that I haven't made much headway on my "Essays on Japanese 
politics and society," except to continue accumulating fresh material for other 
sections. It is very thoughtful of you to suggest making an advance of $200 to 
assist in clerical and research expenses. For the present, I think I had better 
decline this kind offer, but may I take a rain check on it so that, when I feel the 
work is making real progress, then I would have less scruples about taking it? 
At the present, that time is a little remote although my intention to go on is 
Still as strong as ever. 

I have remembered you to the IPR people here. 
With kind regards from both Irene and myself. 
Yours sincerely, 


E. H. Norman. 


Exhibit No. 853 

April 26, 1950. 
Mr. Charles Loomis, 

American Institute of Pacific Relations, Dillingham Building Annex, 
Halekamvila Street, Honolulu 16, T. H. 

Dear Charles : Thanks for your personal note of April 24 enclosing a copy of 
your note to Clayton Lane. Needless to say there are bound to be some adverse 
effects on the IPR from all the McCarthy and Budenz charges. On the other 
hand, it seems pretty clear from the categorical refutations of Budenz which 
Bella Dodd and Browder are making that the myth about the IPR as a communist 
organization will be pretty well exploded. While the next 2 months are going to 
be very difficult for the American IPR, I am confident that it will weather the 
storm and that the IPR's prospects will then be pretty bright. For your strictly 
confidential information, I may tell you that the Rockefeller Foundation ofiicers 
are going to recommend that a special and very exceptional grant be made to 
both the American IPR and the Pacific Council at the June meeting of the 
Foundation. Again for your personal information alone, I can tell you that 
there is a good prospect that the Ford Foundation (which officially has not yet 
begun to operate) will make a special preliminary grant to the Pacific Council 
for research on Southeast Asia. I know that our appeal to the Ford Foundation 
has had the specific and enthusiastic backing of Arthur Bean, Sir George San- 
som, Phil Jessup, Dean Rusk, and Huntington Gilchrist. 

As you probably know we have had some excellent publicity, notably in the 
Washington Post, where Alfred Friendly ran a very long article exposing Kohl- 
berg and enthusiastically supporting the IPR (Sunday issue of April 23). 

There is always, of course, the chance that Foundation trustees may be 
panicked by some new spectacular development, but my own guess is that this 
will not happen and that there is a good chance that the IPR can even benefit in 
the long run from the present attacks upon it. So I certainly hope you will go 
ahead vigorously with your Pacific House scheme. I think it is wonderful that 
you have been able to put this over so well at a time like this, and I only wish 
the New York office could point to an achievement like yours. 

All good wishes. 

Yours sincerely, 

William L. Holland, 

Secret ary-Oeneral. 

Exhibit No. 856 

May 17, 1950 
Sir George Sanson, 

Chnndos Lodge, Eye, Suffolk, England. 

Dear Sir George : As you know, the various charges by Senator McCarthy and 
Louis Budens against Owen Lattimore have included references to the I. P. R. 
as a pro-communist organization or as harboring a communist "cell" in past 
years. Despite the statements issued by Lane, President Raymond Allen, myself 
and others, these insinuations are likely to continue as long as the attack on 
the State Department's Far Eastern policy is kept up. They are being made 
continually by certain newspaper columnists, notably George Sokolsky in the 
Hearst press. The latest blast comes from a sheet called "Counterattack" which 
asserts that the IPR is still employing communists and publishing communist 
reports. Specifically they complain about the following items in our current 
international research program: "The Impact of SCAP on Japanese Life" by 
T. A. Bisson ; "Documents on Soviet Far Eastern Policy Since Yalta" by William 
Mandel ; "Philippine Nationalism" by Abraham Chapman ; "Notes on Labor 
Problems in Nationalist China During the War" by Israel Epstein (this last 
having been published in mimeographed form last year). 

These studies are all under the auspices of the International Secretariat, 
not the American IPR. Two of them, those by Epstein and by Chapman, were 
originally started (in 1943 and 1946) by the American IPR with funds given 
by the American People's Fund (Fred Field's money). After the American 
IPR Executive Committee, on my recommendation, had appointed Clayton 
Lane to be Executive Secretary, I explained the background of these two projects 
to him. Because the projects did not directly concern American policy, and 
because I wanted him to be free to operate as he wished without being hampered 


by any past commitments involving such a controversial figure as Field, I 
suggested that the two studies be put under the auspices of the International 
Secretariat. This was done and the unspent portion of the funds was returned 
to Field. 

After some delay Epstein completed his manuscript. After being read and 
criticized by Lattimore, Fairbank and me, it was edited and somewhat shortened 
by Lillienthal and then issued in mineographed form last year. It's a factual 
study of limited historical interest and has not aroused criticism from reviewers. 
Any way it's over the dam. 

The Chapman study has also been delayed. He promised to submit the com- 
plete manuscript at the end of 1949. I phoned him the other day and he told 
me that the report is about 90 percent finished and that he will definitely submit 
the whole manuscript before the middle of Jvme. It's quality is hard to predict 
but I expect it will contain (besides historical background) a great deal of 
accurate and hitherto not generally available information on Philippine politics 
and parties. He knows a lot about the Philippine political situation. 

Chapman is under attack because, as he readily states, he was elected In 1945 
as a member of the New York State Committee of the Communist Party. I think 
it is almost certain that he is still a communist. As far as I know this is the 
only case in the IPR research program involving a study by a communist party 
member. It thus constitutes a good test case of whether we should follow our 
traditional practice of judging a study on its merits, in the light of comments 
from qualified critics, or of deciding in advance whether to accept or reject it in 
the light of the author's communist party membership. My own past policy, and 
the one I would still recommend despite its unpopularity these days, is to decide 
on the basis of the manuscript. I've .so informed Chapman and have also told 
him that the manuscript will undoubtedly be read with a very critical eye and 
that I can give him no assurance it will be accepted for publication. To me it 
would seem absurd and cowardly at this late date for us to disown the study in 
advance after it's been on our lists for several years. 

My idea would be to have the manuscript read by such people as Claude Buss 
(Stanford University), Laurence Salisbury, one person on the Philippine desk 
in the Research Division of the State Department, one qualified Filipino, and one 
qualified businessman with knowledge of the contemporary Philippine scene. If 
the comments are generally adverse, and if on the basis of them I conclude that 
it would not be feasible to get the study satisfactorily revised, I presume we shall 
drop any idea of publication. If the comments are generally favorable, then I 
would like your advice on how to proceed. One possibility would be to go ahead 
with such editorial revision as seems justified in the light of the readers' com- 
ments but to postpone final publication arrangements until the matter of policy 
has been decided by the International Research Committee and the Pacific Coun- 
cil at the Lucknow Conference. Another possibility would be to issue the study 
in a mimeographed edition for restricted circulation to national councils and 
research institutions, with a preface mentioning the author's communist party 
membership, and perhaps including the comments of those who read the first 

Admittedly it will be easier to form an opinion on this after we see a few 
sample chapters, which I may receive in about two weeks. However, the ques- 
tion is complicated by the fact that last January, the American I. P. R. at Clay- 
ton Lane's strong insistence rejected (but paid for) an article by Chapman on 
Philippine politics today, which had previously been requested by the editor 
of the Far Eastern Survey, and which in quality and essential accuracy was 
judged by all who read it, including Mr. Lane, as acceptable. The ground given 
for rejection, was Chapman's membership on the executive committee of the 
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, New York, an organization 
which was listed as "subversive" last year by the Attorney General. The Survey 
editor was unaware of this fact when she originally requested the article. The 
American I. P. R. Executive Committee which was asked to rule on this point 
of policy was divided in its views, but left it to Mr. Lane to decide. 

Mr. Lane still feels that no manuscript should be accepted by the I. P. R. 
(either American or International Secretariat) from a writer who is a Commu- 
nist or a member of a policy committee of an organization listed as subversive 
by the Attorney General. (The list is a very extensive one, including the Amer- 
ican-Russian Institute of which Mr. Carter and Harriet Moore Gelfan have been 
leading members, but not the American I. P. R.). Undoubtedly several other 
members of the American I. P. R. Board of Trustees share Mr. Lane's view, 


though the matter has never been put to a vote. Mr. Lane and they would of 
course respect the views of the international officers and other members of the 
Pacific Council, but would probably point out that since Chapman is an Amer- 
ican, and since the study began under American I. P. R. auspices with a grant 
from Field's American People's Fund, the publication of the report, even under 
International Secretariat auspices, would provide further ammunition to those 
who are already attacking the I. P. R. On the other hand it seems to me un- 
likely that cancellation of the project now and suppression of the report would 
do much to make our critics end their attacks, especially when the project has 
been included on our lists for the last five years, and when both Pacific Affairs 
and Far Eastern Survey have previously (in 1946) published articles by Chap- 

As for Bisson, he is now teaching at the University of California and carrying 
on his study of industrial deconcentration in Japan with the aid of a direct grant 
from the Rockefeller Foundation. He is not receiving any grant from the I. P. R. 
but we are committed to helping in the eventual publication of his book. To sug- 
gest that, after publishing several of his earlier books and making several grants 
to him over the past ten years, we should now become apologetic about him or 
try to dissociate ourselves from him would be ridiculous. 

Mandel's project is simply a collection of official Soviet diplomatic documents 
and Soviet editorial comments. It is now almost finished and in order to make 
it more useful, I've written to Max Beloff at Oxford asking if he would write an 
introductory chapter analyzing Soviet Far Eastern policy since 1945, largely 
by expanding the excellent article he has written on this topic for the June issue 
of Pacific Affairs. Mandel, you will recall, is the author of the Inquiry Series 
volume on The Soviet Far East and Central Asia. 

I'm sorry to inflict all this on you. If it were not for the fact that the Amer- 
ican I. P. R., in the public mind, is almost indistinguishable from the Interna- 
tional Secretariat, I would say that we should proceed in our traditional way, 
judging the research manuscrips on their merits, and pay no attention to the 
McCarthy and similar attacks. What do you advise? I shall await your reply 
before sending copies of the correspondence to Gilchrist and other Pacific Council 

All good wishes. 

WnxiAM L. Holland, 


3 Moskou 2720 28 5 17 10 CHO 
Holland Inspacrel Tokyo 

Exhibit No. 857 

Motylev cabled Carter suggesting meet you Vladivostock July eighteenth Stop 
No reply Stop Cable whether coming ; if yes, which Soviet consulate to issue 


Jul. 6 AM 5 54. 

Exhibit No. 858 

W. L. Holland, 
1 East 54th St. {5th floor), Neio York 22, N. T., 

Sevtetnber 12, 1950 [6.S0 p. m.]. 
Night letter. 

Dean Rusk, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Urgent could you kindly cable Supreme Commander urging him favorably 
consider permitting Japanese delegation attend IPR conference Lucknow Octo- 
ber third to fifteenth? I am advised that influential Washington recommenda- 
tion is needed to assure clearances. Please phone or wire me collect if you 
wish. Is there anything more I can do regarding Kahins passport? Urgently 
need him at Lucknow. Can you now give me names of special American dele- 
gates you would like attend Lucknow? 

William L. Holland. 


Exhibit No. 859 

September 16, 1950. 

The Hon. Dean Rusk, 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Dear De:.\n : I was sorry not to reach you on the phone in New York as I 
wanted to ask whether you had found any well qualified Americans whom you 
might especially wish to attend the Lucknow conference of the IPR as members 
of the American delegation. I do hoi>e you'll let me know soon if you have any 
special candidates. I'm sorry that Sen. Graham couldn't accept our invitation, 
but I'm hoping now that W. W. Waymack will accept the offer of a grant from the 
Carnegie Endowment to enable him to go to Lucknow. 

Ordinarily we don't include government officials in the American delegation 
to an IPR conference, but Lane previously wrote Loy Henderson asking him to 
consider sending someone not in a policy-making position and preferably not 
a regular foreign service officer. Henderson declined, saying that he disliked 
making any such distinctions in his staff. I've told him, however, that I'd like 
to discuss the matter further with him in New Delhi, as it might be possible for 
us to include one or two specialists, such as cultural or agricultural or informa- 
tion officers of the Embassy in the delegation if you thought it desirable. I'd 
like your advice on the matter, as it sometimes raises touchy questions with the 
other delegations. In spite of all we say, I suspect that the Indian delegation, 
and possibly some of the other groups too, may include people who are at least 
mainly if not wholly government officials. 

May I make an urgent and probably irregular appeal to you to lend your 
weightiest support to the double IPR financial appeal which is to be considered 
by the Rockefeller Foundation on September 22. As a Foundation trustee, you 
probably know better than I that one or two members of the Foundation's 
Executive Committee have been worried about all the McCarthy and Budenz 
charges against the IPR. The officers of the Foundation have given us very 
solid support, but it has been suggested to me that in this abnormal situotion, 
their hand would be strengthened if an impressive body of outside testimony 
and recommendations wei-e sent to President Barnard, including letters from 
former Foundations officers and trustees. I have accordingly asked such people 
as Raymond Fosdick, Robert G. Sproul, Stacy May and Sydnor Walker if they 
would submit letters, and have also asked General Marshall, as an IPR trustee, 
to do likewise if possible before he officially assumes his new job. Your own 
position in this question is peculiarly important and Mr. Swope and I would 
therefore appreciate it greatly if you could see your way to indicate your belief 
in the importance of the IPR at this time. Your words of support for us to the 
Ford Foundation were very influential, even though action on that grant has 
been postponed pending the forthcoming appointment of a director for the 

W. L. Holland. 

Exhibit No. 860 

12-12-50 — Pacific Council Officers 

Chairman — Arthur H. Dean, partner, Sullivan & Cromwell, attorneys. New York. 
Vice-Chairmen — Edgar Mclnnis (Canada), Professor of History, University of 
Paul Emile Naggiar (France), former French Ambassador to 

the United States. 
S. Kitadai (Japan), former President, Reconstruction Finance 

A. B. A. Haleem (Pakistan) , President, Sind University. 
Manuel Elizalde (Philippines), Elizalde &, Co., Manila. 
Chairman, Research Committee — Sir George Sanson, Director, East Asian 

Institute, Columbia University, New York. 
Chairman, Finance Committee — Laurence Heyworth, Lever Brothers, London. 
Chairman, Program Committee — D. R. Gadgil, Director, Gokhale Institute of 

Economics and Politics, Poona. 
Secretary General — W. L. Holland. 

National Councils 



Australian Institute of International Affairs 

369 George Street, Sydney, Australia 

Norman Cowper George Caiger 

Canadian Institute of International Affairs 

230 Bloor Street West, Toronto 5, Canada 

R. G. Cavell Douglas MacLennan 

Comite d'Etudes des Problemes du Pacifique 

54 rue de Varenne, Paris VII, France 

Paul Emile Naggiar 

H. N. Kunzru 

S. Kitadai 

R. O. McGechan 
A. B. A. Haleem 
Manuel Elizalde 
Eugene Zhukov 

Indian Council of World Affairs 

Kashi House, Connaught Place 

New Delhi, India 

Roger Levy 

A. Appadorai 

Nihon Taiheiyo Mondai Chosakai 

Room 602, Mitsui Sango Kan 

No. 1, 2-chome, Muromachi 

Nihombaslii, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 

M. Matsuo 
New Zealand Institute of International Affairs 
9 Himalaya Crescent, Khandallah 
Wellington, New Zealand 

J. F. Northey 
Pakistan Institute of International Affairs 
Frere Hall, Karachi, Pakistan 

K. Sarwar Hasan 
Philippine Council, I. P. R. 
State Building, Rizal Avenue, Manila, P. I. 

Quirino Gregorio 
U. S. S. R. Council of the I. P. R. 
Volhonka 14, Moscow, U. S. S. R. 

Arthur Creech Jones 

Royal Institute of International Affairs 

10, St. Jame's Square 

London, S. W. 1, England 

Edward C. Carter 

American Institute of Pacific Relations 

1 East 54th Street 

New York 22, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Ivison S. Macadam 

K. R. C. Greene 

Asst. Secretary 


New York, N. Y. 

Exhibit No. 861 

1 February 1951. 
Justice William O. Douglas, 
Supreme Court, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Justice Douglas : I am sending you an advance copy of a preliminary 
report on the Lucknow Conference, entitled : Asian Nationalism and Western 
Policies, containing the rapporteurs' summaries of the discussions and the 
opening speech by Prime Minister Nehru. I think you will be interested in many 
of the points brought out in the discussions. 

In view of the widespread publicity which the Lucknow Conference evoked in 
the press of India, Pakistan, Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and 
the United States, you will be interested to see the enclosed copy of some of 
the Soviet news dispatches and radio broadcasts on the Conference. 

The IPR is now also distributing copies of the recently published volume 
Indian-American Relations which summarizes the discussions at the India- 
America Conference held in Delhi in December 1949 under the auspices of the 
American Institute of Pacific Relations and the Indian Council of World 


Affairs. Many passages in this volume have an important bearing on the present 
day relationships between India and the United States. The volume also pro- 
vides a useful companion study to the American IPR's previously published book, 
India and the United States by L. K. Rosinger. 
Sincerely yours, 

William L. Holland, 
Executive Vice Chairman. 

Exhibit No. 862 

Ref. PA132 

(Penciled:) WLH 

Foreign Languages Press, 
26, Kuo Hui Chieh, Peking, China, Mar. 22, 1951. 
Mr. S. B. Thomas, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 E 5/fth St., New York 22, U. 8. A. 
Dear Sir: Your letter addressed to the China Information Bureau has been 
forwarded to this Press. We noted that you asked for quite a voluminious set 
of documentary materials pertaining to the local administration of the Republic 
of China, and also its people's representative organs. As you probably know, 
this Press has published a lot of those documents in English and other foreign 
languages and your library has acquired a copy of more of each of these publica- 
tions. Undoubtedly these cannot meet all your requirements ; but we can hardly 
contribute anything more from our own sources. Of course we will be glad 
to help you in this connection, but we have to be furnished first with an official 
letter from your Institute signed by the Secretary-General with which we can 
more conveniently approach other organisations on your behalf. 
Hoping to hear from you again, 
Yours sincerely, 

V. G. Tseng, 
V. G. Tseng, 
Circulation Department, Foreign Languages Press. 

Exhibit No. 863 

The Institute of Pacific Relations, 
1 East 54th Street, New York 22, N. Y., April 5, 1951. 
Mr. V. G. Tseng, 

Circulation Department, Foreign Languages Press, 

26, Kuo Hui Chieh, Peking, China. 

Dear Mr. Tseng : In reference to your letter of March 22 to Mr. S. B. Thomas,^ 
of the staff of the Institute of Pacific Relations, I would like to repeat his request 
for documentary material on local government in the People's Republic of China. 
I would be most grateful if you could arrange to send us the texts of important 
documents (other than those contained in the publications you have already 
sent us) on the organization, status, and function of organs of local govern- 
ment on the county, municipal, and provincial level. 

If the relevant documents have been translated into English or one of the 
other western languages, we would of course be happy to secure the translated 
version, but, if not, would very much appreciate procuring the Chinese texts. 

Thank you very much for your assistance. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Wiluam L. Holland, 

WLH :abs Secretary General. 


Exhibit No. 864 

April 12, 1951. 
Mr. George J. Beal, 

Office of the Comptroller, The Rockefeller Foundation, 

49 West J,9th Street, New York 20, N. Y. 
Deab Mb. Beal: This is to acknowledge with cordial thanks your letter of 
April 10 enclosing a check for $10,000 for the budget of the Pacific Council of 
the I. P. R. 

In accordance with your request I am enclosing a budget for the American 
I. P. R. for the period October 1, 1950, to September 30, 1951. Since tlie 
American I. P. R. budget is normally made up on a calendar year basis, you will 
understand that we have had to estimate the enclosed statement by taking the 
actual figures for the last three months of 1950 and combining them with pro 
rated budget figures for the first nine months of 1951. 
"Very truly yours, 

William L. Holland, 

Secretary General. 
WLH :abs 
Enc. 2 

American Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc. 

Budget — Calendar Year 1951 

Cash Balance, January 1, 1951 $16, 330. 93 


Foundations 22, 500. 00 

Membership Contributions 44, 394. 00 

Other Income 400. 00 

Far Eastern Survey, subscriptions 7, 000. 00 

Royalties 500.00 

Total $91, 124. 93 


Administration $26, 202. 00 

Grant to Pacific Council 9, 000. 00 

Far Eastern Survey 18, 885. 00 

Library 1, 650. 00 

Research 6, 400. 00 

Publications 5, 150. 00 

Conferences & Meetings 3, 900. 00 

Services to Members - 4, 435. 00 

Promotion 2, 000. 00 

Total $77, 622. 00 

Balance to be carried forward 12/31/51 13, 502. 93 

$91, 124. 93 



American Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc. 
Budget — Receipts and Expenditures, October 1, 1950-8eptemier SO, 1951** 

Rec & Exp 



Budget Jan- 
Sept 1951 

Tot9l re- 
ceipts & Ex- 

Cash Balance, October 1, 1950 


Foundations.. - 

Membership contributions 

Other Income 

Far Eastern Survey, subscriptions- 
Royalties - 

$5, 946. 51 

»15, 000. 00 

10, 635. 00 


2, 374. 42 

164. 38 

$16, 875. 00 

33, 295 50 

300. 00 

5, 250. 00 

375. 00 

$5, 946. 51 


43, 930. 50 

310 05 

7, 624. 42 

539. 38 


,$34, 130. 36 

$56, 095. 50 

$90, 225. 86 



Grand to Pacific Council - 


Conferences & Meetings.. 

Library . 

Services to Members 


Far Eastern Survey 


$5, 844. 62 

4, 000. 00 


1, 285. 07 

325 02 

739. 56 

155. 00 

3, 751. 76 


6, 750. 00 
4, 800. 00 
2, 925. 00 
1, 237. 50 
3, 326. 25 
3, 862. 50 
14, 163. 75 

$25, 496. 12 
10, 750. 00 
6, 444. 73 
1, 562, 52 
4, 065, 81 
4. 017. 50 
1, ,553. 67 

Cash Balance, December 31, 1950 

Septembei 30, 1951 (to be carried forward) . 


$17, 799, 43 
*16, 330. 93 

$58, 216. 50 

$76, 015. 93 

$34, 130. 36 

$58, 216. 50 

0, 225, 86 

•$7,500 of this amount earmarked for 1951. 

**Oct. 1, 19.50 -December 31, 1950, receipts and expenditures based on actual figures. 
Jan. 1, 1951-Sept. 30, 1951 prorated on basis of budget for the year 1951. 

Exhibit No. 865 

The Rockefeller Foundation, 
49 West 49th Street, Netv York 20, April 10, 1951. 
Mr. William L. Holland, 

Secretary General, Institute of Pacific Relations, 
One East 54th Street, New York 22, New York. 
Dear Mr. Holland : We are enclosing herewith our check for $10,000, cover- 
ing the balance available for the period ending December 31, 1951, under appro- 
priation RF 50092 to the Pacific Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, 
toward the general budget. 

We note that the budget for the year 1951 under our appropriation RF 50090 
to the American Institute of Pacific Relations totals $77,622.00. Before making 
further payments under this grant, we would appreciate receiving a budget for 
the year beginning October 1, 1950. In connection with your requirements for 
this period, a check in the amount of $15,000 was forwarded to you in accordance 
with the request in your letter of October 3, 1950, 
Very truly yours, 

George J. Beal. 


Enclosure — 1 Check 

Exhibit No. 866 

August 14, 1951. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 
The Dodge Hotel, 

20 E Street NW., Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. ( 'arter : To refresh your memory for the hearing on Thursday, here 
is my recollection of the memo I wrote you on September 1940 from Berkeley 
about Phil's forthcoming trip to Shanghai. The Phil, of course, is Phil Lilien- 
thal, at that time my research assistant working with me in Berkeley. We sent 
him out to Shanghai to supervise the publication of a large number of IPR 



studies which we planned to have printed in Shanghai by Kelly & Walsh. In 
my memo, I was obviously telling you about the manuscripts he would be taking 
with him. 

Morris possibly thinks Phil is either Jessup or JafCe, 

If you are asked why I said secret messages should be sent to Lilienthal in 
care of Herb Norman in Tokyo, I hope you will say it was a perfectly normal 
thing and meant only that there might be some question (e. g., relating to the 
China IPR or to the Inquiry Series) which we didn't want to come to the 
attention of the Japanese IPR office, which was Lilienthal's ordinary mailing 
address in Tokyo. At that time, the Japanese were opposing our plan to go ahead 
with the Inquiry Series and were also criticizing the Secretariat as being too 

William L. Holland, 
Executive Vice Chairman. 
WLH : abs 

Exhibit No. 889 


State of New York, 
County of New York, ss: 

I have examined the documents described in the list annexed hereto as 
Exhibit Z. While I have a present recollection of only a few of them, I am 
satisfied that these documents, subject to the comments noted below, are letters 
or memoranda received by me or photostatic copies thereof, or copies of letters 
or memoranda sent by me to others or photostatic copies of such copies : 


Atomic Energy and U. S. Int. 
Policy. Summary of a Round- 
table Conf. under joint auspices 
of IPR and S. F. International 
Center. JAN. 1946. File No. 

Harriet Moore, Edward C. Carter. 
March 2, 1943. File No. 500.38. 

9. W. L. Holland, Edward C. Carter. 
March 26, 1943. File No. 100.402. 

16. Invitation list of May 8 meeting 

46. Raymond Dennett (Return to). 

Report on Washington Office Dec. 
1943-March 1945. File No. 

47. MAS RY (Report) April 16, 1945. 

File No. 122.37. 

was not present at the meeting de- 
scribed in this document, nor do I 
know by whom this document was 

The second page of this document is a 
memorandum to me from HM. This 
memorandum appears to have no re- 
lation to the first page of this docu- 

The second memorandum set forth on 
this document appears to be incom- 

The date of the meeting referred to is 
May 6. 

I do not know whether or not I have 
seen these documents before. Neither 
of them was prepared by me or ad- 
dressed to me. 

Edward C. Carter. 

Sworn to before me this 9th day of May, 1952. 

[seal] Irene R. Donohue, 

Notary Public, State of New York. 

Qualified in Queens County No. 41-6061300. Certs, filed with Queens, Kings, 
New York, and Bronx County Clerks and Regs. Offices, Westchester & Nassau 
Co. Clerks Offices. Commission Expires March 30, 1954. 

(The documents referred to by Mr. Carter are exhibits Xos. 901, 
907, 909, 916, 946, and 947.) 



Exhibit No. 900 




1m umber 


Atomic Energy and U. S. Int. Policy. 
Summary of a Roundtable Conf. under 
joint auspices of IPR and S. F. Inter- 
national Center. 

Frederick V. Field 

Edgar J. Tarr 

W. L. Holland and Background informa- 
tion "The Strength of the Muslim 
League in India." 

Misses Carter 

Harriet Moore 

W. L. Holland 

W. L. Holland 

Mabel Carter 

Richard J. Walsh 

Henry C. Alexander 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

■Capt. John L. Christian 

Invitation list of May 8 meeting 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Col. Truman M. Martin 

W. W. Lockwood 

E. C. Carter 

Mortimer Graves 

Lauchlin Currie 

Lauchlin Currie 

Invitation list of 3rd Collective Security 
Meeting in the Paciflc and Far East 
and list of those invited with notations. 

Milo Perkins 

E. C. Carter 

Milo Perkins — draft to 

Lauchlin Currie 

Constantine Oumansky 

Constantino Oumansky 

John A. Carter 

Mr. & Mrs. Constantine Oumansky 

Mrs. Maxim Litvinofl 

Eugene D. Kisselev _ 

Lauchlin Currie 

Lauchlin Currie 

E. C. Carter 

William D. Carter 

Dr. Robt. J. Kerner 

Misses Carter 

Andrew Grajdanzev 

John Carter 

Kate Mitchell 

Raymond Dennett (Return to Report on 
Washington Office, Dec. 1943-March 


Andrews J. Grajdanzev 

Secretary, Lithuanian Legation 

E. C. Carter 

Selective Service Board #53 

Notes for Cleveland Speech 

Speech "Soviet Russia's Contribution to 

E. C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore 

Owen Lattimore . 

E. C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore.. 

E. C. Carter 

Ray Dennett 

Ray Dennett 

Notes on Mr. Carter's finances of trip 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter. 
E. C. Carter. 
E. C. Carter. 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

John L. Christian. 
M. W. Pettigrew.. 
E. C. Carter 

M. W. Pettigrew 

Alger Hiss. 

Truman M. Martin. 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Wm. C. Johnstone.. 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter. 
MOo Perkins. 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter.. 

E. C. Carter's secretary. 

E. C. Carter.. 

W. D."Bill" Carter.... 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

RY (Report). 
E. C. Carter. 
E. C. Carter. 

K. C. Li 

K. C. Li 



Ray Dennett 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Ray Dennett 

E. C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore. 

E. C. Carter 


Ray Dennett. 

Jan. 1946 

2/ 3/43 
3/ 1/43 

3/ 1/43 
3/ 2/43 
4/ 1/43 
4/ 1/43 
4/- 5/43 

5/ 1/43 
5/ 4/43 
6/ 7/43 
6/ 9/43 









8/ 4/43 

8/ 1/43 



11/ 4/43 

11/ 8/43 




3/ 7/44 
3/ 7/44 

1/ 7/45 
6/ 6/45 

122. 41 

500. 34 



100. 186 
500. 38 
119. 78 
100. 402 
107. 55 
100. 183 
131B. 29 

191. 263 
119. 151 
100. 164 
500. 39 

119. 70 
500. 40 
500. 42 
100. 187 
500. 43 
500. 44 
500. 45 
119. 68 

119. 30 

105. 174 
100. 185 
100 163 
100. 188 
122. 37 

122 37 
100. 162 
100. 202 
119. 28 

100 302 
100. 289 

122. 40 
102. 43 
102. 42 
500. 36 
102. 39 
500. 41 
122. 38 

'ioo. 283' 
119. 135 


Exhibit No. 901 


Under joint auspices of Institute of Pacific Relations, 417 Market Street, San 
Francisco 5, YUkon 1570; and San Francisco International Center, 68 Post 
Street, San Francisco 4, DOuglas 2273. January 1946 

(On December 29, 1945. the Institute of Pacific Relations and the San 
I'l-ancisco International Center held a round-table conference running 
through the day on atomic energy and its international implications. 
Attending the conference were physical scientists, some of whom had 
contributed to the development of the atomic bomb ; social scientists, 
journalists; officers of the United States armed services; and persons 
active in women's groups, labor groups, and groups interested in inter- 
national relations. The agenda and a list of participants appear at the 
end of this summary.) 

THE facts about THE BOMB 

The moderator opened the discussion by asking whether the scientists present 
were agreed on the following five points which seemed to him to emerge from 
what the public had heard about the atomic bomb: (1) that the bomb in its 
present state of development was capable of enormous destruction and that 
"improvements" in the future would almost certainly make it very much more 
destriictive ; (2) that secrecy at best was only a temporary protection for the 
United States because other countries would probably develop atomic bombs 
shortly; (3) that the raw materials necessary for atomic bomb production were 
readily available to all great powers and many smaller powers ; (4) that the cost 
was not prohibitive; and (5) that no adequate defense against atomic bombs 
existed at present or was likely to be found soon. 

Recently, however, the moderator had read statements attributed to a high 
military authority that cast doubt on some of these conclusions. The talk about 
a push-button war, according to these statements, was exaggerated. The people 
of this country had no need to fear being atomized by a hostile power. Wash- 
ington, D. C, would not be bombed during the lifetime of most people now living 
because the United States had the production and engineering know-how to 
build the bomb, which other countries lacked. These factors were just as essen- 
tial in the making of the bomb as the scientific contributions. The military 
authority was said to have declared that the scientists were not engineering ex- 
perts and therefore were not qualified to judge the time required for other nations 
to produce the bomb. 

A scientist who had contributed to the development of the bomb declared that 
he agreed with the five points put forward by the moderator. The bomb had 
tremendous destructive power at present and was susceptible of great develop- 
ment. He suggested the possibility that in the future atomic energy would have 
other wartime applications than its original use in blasting Japanese cities. 
Radioactive materials might be used, for example, against personnel and agri- 
culture. To keep the scientific principles behind the bomb from being known in 
other nations was impossible. Moreover, these principles were the critical ele- 
ments in its making. The scientists themselves had suggested much of the en- 
gineering that went into the making of the bomb. And, since the need for speed 
was paramount, practically all of the devices and techniques used were taken 
from other operating industries. Any advanced industrial nation could get the 
raw materials— uranium and thorium were well scattered over the world — and 
make a bomb in reasonable time. No effective defense exists now nor seems likely 
in future. 

A second scientist who had contributed to the making of the bomb agreed. In 
his opinion, quite possibly the present state of the bomb was to its future develop- 
ment as the muzzle-loading cannon was to present-day artillery. A policy of 
secrecy would only spur on development of the bomb in other countries, now that 
the United States had proved its production feasible. For the fundamental 
secret was released when the bomb was dropped — namely, that atomic energy 
could be harnessed for destruction. Much additional information was contained 
in the oflicial Smyth report. Several different methods were available at each 
stage of the bomb's manufacture, and foreign nations would probably not be 

SS34S — 52— pt. 14 — — n 


forced to make the same mistakes we did in its hurried development in wartime. 
Another scientist suggested that in peacetime the development of the bomb 
might go on faster in the Soviet Union than in the United States. P'or the 
U. S. S. R. seems to support its scientists more wholeheartedly than this nation 
does. Money was no object on a state-supported project, the scientists being 
given everything they needed to produce the desired results. As for secrecy, 
that was a hope unjustified by the facts of scientific life. 


What is the state of American public opinion about the bomb? the moderator 
questioned. Are the people fully and accurately informed about the matter, and 
are they reacting in a way that will eventuate in reaching rational solutions to 
the problems of the new atomic age? 

One word describes the present public mind about atomic energy, a journalist 
replied, and that word is fear. The public may have a fuzzy hope that interna- • 
tional peace can be obtained by international agreement, but that feeling is sec- 
ondary to an almost universal fear — a fear that otlier powers will get the bomb 
and will use it. And out of that fear comes an instinctive reaction on the part 
of the public that we can and should keep the bomb a secret, and through its 
possession write the world ticket for the future. One of the greatest needs of the 
hour, he continued, is for a great amount of public education and information, 
and that as rapidly as possible. 

Will public opinion support the cession of a part of our sovereignty in order to 
make international control of atomic power possible? a scientist asked. There 
is no indication, a journalist answered, that the public today has even the fog- 
giest notion of what such regulation will do to our sovereignty. Without that 
understanding, bow can the people answer the question of whether they would 
be willing to surrender a part of it? A physicist commented that, unfortunately, 
with such a state of public opinion, some of our better Senators, who are con- 
stantly asking how much of the wise and decent thing they can "get away with," 
will not feel constrained to fight very hard for intelligent action. 

A social scientist observed that at a closed meeting of business men in New 
York recently a high official of the army argued for keeping the bomb as a power 
instrument and the audience had seemed to agree with his arguments. A labor 
educator queried whetlier the May-Johnson bill with its reactionary insistence on 
secrecy and tight national control was still the official policy of the military. Or 
are the armed forces willing to follow the Moscow agreement, which alters the 
May- Johnson concepts? There has not been and is not now an official military 
policy, an officer of the armed services replied. That is a matter for the people 
of the United States to decide. Another officer concurred. And to aid the people 
to decide intelligently, it was generally agreed by all present, an immediate na- 
tional campaign of education on the facts of the bomb and its implications for the 
future was vitally needed. 


The moderator read a newspaper dispatch from Moscow giving "man in the 
street" interviews on the atomic bomb. A 38-y?ar-old woman, a dressmaker, had 
said she wished the bomb had never been invented. She was afraid that the 
attempt of the United States to monopolize it would not be in the interests of 
the people of the world. And, she added, she hoped the inventors of the bomb 
would find no peace on this earth ! Was this typical of foreign opinion, asked the 

An educator recently back from a United Nations meeting replied that he was 
afraid it was. All over the world there was a sweeping feeling that peoples and 
nations must cooperate culturally, politically, and in every way if civilization 
were to continue. I'eople felt that it was impossible to keep the atomic bomb the 
secret possession of the United States, and that it would be undesirable if it were 
possible. For that would lead to suspicion and armed competition, which would 
be the final disaster. All during the war Europe has been socially as well as 
politically isolated. We should take immediate advantage ol' this emotional 
desire by removing all obstructions from the free interchange of technical, po- 
litical, artistic and literary ide;is. A scientist agreed that one of the most imme- 
diate needs was the launching of such a widespread intercultural program to 
encourage free interchange of all types of information, including information 
related to potential military weapons. 



A labor member stated that he understood we were continuing to make atomic 
bombs. Why are we still making them, and against whom are we planning to 
use them, he queried? Is this not a threat to all other nations and to the suc- 
cessful construction of a working international organization? 

A scientist replied that it would be a fine thing if we stopped making them 
immediately. But a college otticial disagreed. As long as we maintain an army 
for future wars that army should be as efficient as possible and shovild have the- 
best tools of destruction available. He remembered that he personally had been 
against the fortification of Guam before the recent war and had lived to regret 
deeply his stand. Only with effective international control and policemen would 
he be willing to see this nation disarm atomically. 

An officer of the armed services observed that perhaps international control 
was not the only solution to the problem. He suggested that the United States 
could possibly stop future wars by maintaining its superiority in atomic re- 
search and by building up such an overwhelming stockpile of atomic bombs that 
it would be foolhardy for another nation to attack us. One of the principal 
reasons why gas was not used against us in the recent war, he observed, was that 
we had more of it than the Germans did. 

Disagreeing, a scientist replied that we could not be at all sure that we could 
continue our sui>eriority in either the research for, or the production of, atomic 
bombs. The development of science is one of the most unpredictable things on 
this earth. But even if we did remain superior, this policy would lead straight 
to an armaments race and catastrophe. 

A second officer of the armed services added that if atomic bombs were still 
being manufactured it should be remembered that they were being made with the 
explicit approval of the President, who was in a much better position to know 
about our po.ssible future military needs than anyone sitting in this room. Ap- 
parently, a journalist added, the President is supported by public opinion. For 
the public obviously believes that another war is not only possible but probable, 
and because of that conviction it demands that we have the best engines of 
destruction in the world. 

Whether this nation should stop making atomic bombs immediately or only 
after international control has been evolved was a moot question as was the ques- 
tion of revealing or not revealing such "secrets" as we still possess. But there 
was little doubt in the majority of minds about the need for ijositive and immedi- 
ate action in organizing some type of workable international control. As one 
social scientist put it, this is a time of tragic urgency. Unless we solve this 
in-oblem now, we shall inevitably drift into an atomic arms race, the catastrophic 
effects of which are all too foreseeable. Agreed to also was the remark of a 
physicist that the war just ended was the "last victory" on this earth. In any 
future major war the great cities on both sides will be destroyed and millions of 
people will be anniiiilated. "Victory" will be a purely relative matter, of who 
has the most survivors and the greatest capacity and will to fight on. 


Granted some form of world organization, is intei-national control of atomic 
energy, backed by an etfective inspection system, technically possible, the mod- 
erator questioned? 

A scientist replied that he had no doubt about it, if the participating countries 
honestly attempted to enforce it. Atomic bombs cannot be made in an abandoned 
cellar. Their manufacture requires elaborate machinery and laboratory equip- 
menr, whii h are readily detectable. But, a journalist added, inspection of atomic 
energy was not enough. The world Is now in a feverish race, not alone in atomic 
weapons but in all types of new and deadly armaments. Jet planes, gas turbines, 
supersonic speeds and push-button rockets are all being developed. Consequently, 
there would have to be inspection of all tj'pes of armament. The fundamental 
problem was to stop the outbreak of war. For once hostilities started, and in- 
ternational control was abandoned, the atom bomb could be made by any major 
nation and would undoubtedly be used. 

A social scientist, who had worked for a number of years with the League 
of Nations, was of the opinion that the technical problem of inspection would 
uoc be too difficult, judging from the experience with the control of opium. One 
possible safeguard, for example, was a free interchange of information. The 
refusal of any country to make evidence available could be construed as prima 


facie evidence of something wrong. The problem was really political, not 
technical. But because it was political it was perhaps more dilficult to solve. 
Certainly, a tremendous revolution in our ways of thought and action would 
have to precede or accompany the adoption of a genuine inspection system. 
For that would mean opening every industrial laboratory and every factory 
door in the world to the official inspectors. It was obvious that our concepts 
of secrecy by competitive industries and our theory of patents might offer 
obstacles to such a development. 

A scientist interjected that efficient inspection would have to be in some 
instances by visit and search. We could no longer rely on the negative safe- 
guard of a scientist's desire to publish. Most of the research done in this 
country today was done not in the university laboratory where publication 
always had been and is automatic, except where the government steepped in. 
But rather it was done in industrial laboratories where the emphasis was upon 
withholding information from possible competitors. In some instances that 
condition had greatly changed the traditional concept of freedom in science. 

Would the various nations of the world, for example the U. S. S. R., accept 
international inspection, the moderator asked? 

A member who had devoted particular study to the U. S. S. R. replied that 
in the first international meeting of scientists since the war the Russians held 
nothing bacli. The desire of the U. S. S. R. for secrecy is commensurate with 
tlieir feeling of insecurity. Once the U. S. S. R. feels secure from military in- 
vasion, he thought, it will be completely willing to exchange any and all 

But would not a system of thoroughgoing international inspection mean a 
drastic change in the Russian way of doing things and be harder for them to 
accept than for us, a scientist queried? 

A military officer thought not. Once the Russian government accepted it, the 
whole nation would accept it . For the Russians are accustomed to such 
inspection from above. Private industry in the United States, on the contrary, 
is not. Even if our government did officially accept such a system, it would 
meet with great opposition in practice by private corporations throughout the 

A journalist agreed. If the General Motors Corporation will not open its 
books to a government committee on prices and wages, it is probable that it 
will object strenuously to opening its laboratories and factories to foreign 
inspectors. International inspection clearly means a sweeping change in our 
ideas about private enterprise and private gain through the use of private 

But, several members interposed, the information obtained could be held con- 
fidential by the international inspectors. After all, we have had inspection by 
income tax authorities and various government enforcement agencies for a long 
time. The Department of Commerce regularly gets statistical information from 
business firms which it agrees not to publish except as industry totals. 

Should not the United Nations Organization run some atomic laboratories of 
its own, the moderator asked? It could invite all the world's leading scientists 
to work in these laboratories from time to time. In that way the UNO would 
know more about atomic energy than any single nation in the world, and full 
disclosure and interchange of new developments would be more assured. 

There seems to be no intention to do that, replied an educator just returned 
from a UNO meeting. For one thing, it would cost too much, and the resulting 
huge budget would imperil the life of the entire organization. No, the answer 
lies in world control and inspection. And our willingness, or lack of it, to accept 
inspection will be a test of whether we are acting in entire good faith in our 
efforts to build a world dedicated to amity and security for all peoples. 

We should be extremely careful about vetoing any proposition aiding control 
and inspection, even though it concerns what we believe to be our own business, 
a social scientist added, or it may set a precedent we might live to regret. New 
Zealand objected to a League committee investigating a local squabble with the 
natives in one of their mandated territories. On tlie basis of that precedent the 
League was barred from investigating the state of things in the Japanese man- 
dated islands of the Pacific. 

I am ready to accept whatever changes in our life effective control of atomic 
power necessitates, a journalist stated. I would much rather welcome a Russian 
inspector representing the United Nations, than a Russian atomic bomb. 



The next question the moderator posed was whether the present structure of 
the United Nations Organization was adequate to fulfill its mission in an atomic 
world. Should the veto power reserved by the five great nations be altex-ed? 
Many people of world importance, including some statesmen, think that the veto 
power and the control of the atomic bomb are irreconcilable. Some, indeed, feel 
that we must have a world state now with plenary powers if we are to preserve 
our present civilization from disaster. 

A social scientist answered that it was a proper procedure to place the respon- 
sibility for the control of the atomic bomb squarely on the backs of the great 
powers. The idea that all nations large and small should be given equal repre- 
sentation and power in an international body has come from all the nonsense 
that has been thought and written about sovereignty. To give a nation of five 
million inhabitants as much power as a nation with one hundred and seventy- 
five millions could not be considered democratic. Modern wars are started by 
conflict between the great powers. And it does not make any difference to an 
aggressor nation whether it is outvoted four to one or forty to one. The abolition 
of the veto power would at this time simply enlarge the sphere of possible dis- 
harmony among- the major nations. 

Accepting this as true, a scientist believed that the veto power was necessary 
under present circumstances. The public, he felt, is not ready to discuss the 
veto i)ower, because it seemed to be beside the point. What is needed immedi- 
ately is not new machinery but agreement among the great powers. 

A college administrator added that the reason why no one at the meeting 
was willing to speak for the abolition of the veto was that everyone recognized 
that our present popular belief in national sovereignty would make it imjwssible 
for either the U. S. S. R. or our own Senate to agree to such a step. We have this 
fixation about sovereignty and we have to live with it at least a little while 


Throughout the meeting, the moderator had observed numerous references 
to the U. S. S. R. when the members had speculated on the possibility of keeping 
the peace. Apparently, in common with many other people in this country, the 
members of this group felt that the gi'eatest potential danger to the peace of 
the future lies in the possibility of deteriorating relations between the United 
States and Russia. The moderator realized that many people in this nation 
are worried, for example, about the Russian policy toward the smaller states 
neighboring her. Occasionally there is also a fear expressed in this country that 
the Red army may take over the control of the Russian state. And these fears 
of ours are also undoubtedly reciprocated by Russian fears about the policy 
of the United States. What then can be done here and in Russia to encourage 
continuing good relations between the United States and the U. S. S. R.? 

One of the best ways to quiet our fears, a labor educator suggested, is to 
study and inform ourselves about the structure and the present condition of 
the U. S. S. R. If we do, we will know that the Red army comes from the people, 
is part of the people, and therefore oifers no threat of any such military domi- 
nation of the government. AVe will also know that there are one million am- 
putees in Russia today who have lost an arm or a leg. and that they together 
with all the Russian i^eople have but one desire internationally — and that is 
lasting peace. We should also find out by study that there never have been 
and are not now anv irreconcilable conflicts of interest between this nation 
and the U. S. S. R. 

An officer of the armed forces suggested that perhaps we could use the atomic 
bomb as a bargaining counter with Russia to get the things we want interna- 
tionally and to obtain a foolproof International organization. To this a scientist 
objected that the bomb gives no hartraining power, or very little. Within fire 
years or so the Russians will probably be able to make atomic bombsL In the 
meantime, we are not going to make war upon them. The people of this country 
could not be persuaded to enter another war in the next five year by any gov- 
ernment, unless we were attacked. They just would not support a war, and the 
Russian government knows that. 

A modification of Russian restrictions on the press would help our relations, 
a journalist volunteered. There is as much need for international freedom 
of the press as there is for free world science. 


What about looking at our own newspapers, a civic leader interjected, at our 
own schools, radio, and movies? Depending upon the definition, we may have a 
fr€>e press; but does it express national opinion? Judging from the campaigns 
of the last three presidential elections, she thought not. It may be free, but it 
certainly is not a responsible press. Many people want Russia to adopt a free 
press, but would they want Russia to adopt the policies of some of the news- 
papers in this country? 

01)viously, a scientist added, the United States and the USSR in the future 
are going to compete for the moral leadership of the world in the name of de- 
mocracy. They may mean difl"erent things by democracy, but neither of them 
is using anti-democratic propaganda as the Nazis were. That is important, for 
perhaps one system does not have to swallow the other. Perhaps both will be 
modified toward a common mean. 

Why do they have to be modified to be accepted by each other, an educator 
asked? Is it not possible that cultural pluralism can exist in the world without 
war? If we cannot accept the fact of cultural pluralism, then we certainly are 
on the broad highway to another world war. 

This argument was quickly supported by a college official. Reasoning by 
analogies is dangerous, he admitted, but four hundred years ago most of the 
civilized world was killing one another l)ecause of religious differences. When 
both sides were convinced they could not win they stopped the killing and ac- 
cepted the fact of religious pluralism. And types of religion meant as much to 
the seventeenth-century European as types of economics to the man in the 
street today. 


A few thousand scientists created this problem of atomic energy, the moderator 
stated, but millions of people all over the world have to participate in solving 
it. What can be done in the immediate future to dispel their suspicion of one 
another and to create both the will and the ability among them to answer these 
many difficult questions which we have been discussing? 

For one thing, replied a scientist who had worked on the bomb, our own 
country can take the lead in allaying suspicion by abandoning production of 
atomic weapons. (There was no agreement on the timing of this move, some 
holding that international acceptance of an adequate control system should 
precede such a step.) Secondly, the scientist continued, we might supply atomic 
power plants to nations who do not now have the needed power to develop their 
raw materials. One operating uranium pile in China might be convincing testi- 
mony to the Chinese, as well as the rest of the world, that we do not intend to 
monopolize atomic power for our own selfish national interests. 

The National Academy of Science might also further the interests of world 
peace, a social scientist suggested, by reciprocating Russia's recent gesture 
and inviting the scientists of the world to a conference in the United States 
to discuss recent scientific progress and research. Why only science, an officer 
of the armed forces asked? Why not call a world conference to talk over the 
whole field of human culture and endeavor? 

A college official objected that as an educator, he was dubious about per- 
suading people through intellectual means rapidly enough to solve the great 
problems confronting us. Through the use of symbols we might work faster 
and more effectively in the emotional realm. One of the most powerful of our 
symbols is the flag. Why not start a United Nations flag movement. A flag, 
together with other types of persuasion, might help to create what we really 
need — a new area of sovereignty, a world sovereignty. 

An officer of the armed forces intervened. One of the most fundamental 
things we can do in creating an attitude receptive to world organization and 
enduring peace is to obtain an adequate standard of living for everyone. As 
we oppose legislation in this nation calculated to assist the rest of the world 
to increase its capacity to produce and to raise the world standard of living 
we are opposing world peace. And as we support it we are supporting world 
peace. An economist signified hearty agreement. 

A most essential role in educating the public and in changing public attitudes, 
a journalist declared, will be played by the scientists. At no time in the past 
has the prestige of the scientists been higher with the American public. If 
they remain out of their laboratory shells and continue their activity on the 


platform and in the press as they have recently done, the edueational job will 
he far less ditficult to perform. They should not c<mfinB their remarks to the 
technical aspects of these questions, but, as in this meeting, take the responsi- 
bility of discussins publicly at every opportunity all of the social implications 
of their discoveries. 

A scientist replied that tvpo organizations made up of scientists had already 
been formed in the state of Califirnia to work for the proper world control 
of atomic power. Other crroups of scientists were active in other parts of the 
country and were federating natinnnlly. An association for the international 
control of atomic energy, to include both scientists and nonscientists, had re- 
cently been launched in this vicinity. 

The organization of such small groups all over the nation should be en- 
couraged, a social concluded. It gives the movement for international 
control a grass rt?ots flavor and is in the great tradition of American democracy. 
But that is not enough. If these small groups are not organized into a co- 
ordinated national movement for education and action, thpir energies will be 
dissipated. What is needed today is a national campaign, and indeed a world 
campaign. There already exist in this nation several strong and active national 
organizations concerned with the maintenance of world peace. By federating 
with and supporting there organizations, local groups all over the country can 
best bring about their <lesire to harness atomic power for the constructive use 
of mankind. 

George E. Mowrt, 


The Agenda Used by the Conference 

i. the situation 

A. Testimony of scientists on destructiveness of atomic weapons : on probable 

time required for other powers to have them regardless of secrecy ; on future 
development possibilities. 

B. Official policy proposals and negotiations to date. 

C. The present state of public opinion, as gauged by opinion polls, by pronounce- 

ments of various groups, and in other ways. 

D. Official and unofficial reactions in other countries. 

E. Conclusions : How urgent is the problem posed by the situation thus revealed? 

In view of the fact that all participants have by now considerable back- 
ground information, a relatively brief time will be spent on Topic I. 


A. Control of atomic weapons. 

1. National control? Probable consequences of atomic armaments com- 


2. International control? 

a. Methods and feasibility of inspection system. 

b. Political problems, including relation to United Nations Organiza- 


B. The prevention of war. 

1. The United Nations Organization. What changes, if any, in the Charter 

and in T'nited States policy toward the Organization are needed in 
in the light of atomic weapons ? 

2. Improvement of relations with other great powers, especially the 

U. S. S. R. What can be done about the distrust that exists? 

3. The issue of "world government." How and when? 

C. Re-examination of United States military defense policies. 

1. Foreseeable effects of atomic weapons on military strategy and on com- 

parative power positions. 

2. The relation of atomic weapons to such issues as : 

a. Universal peacetime military training. 

b. Naval policy and naval bases. 

c. Scientific research and mobilization of scientists. 



A. The problem of public support for constructive policies in relation to atomic 


B. What specific methods are available for education of the public, especially on 

the West Coast, to the real issues involved and to the needs for positive 

List op Participants 

Bloch, Felix, Physics Department, Stanford University 

Boardman, T. D., International Center 

Brewer, Leo, Chemistry Department, University of California 

Clark. Mrs. Warner, International Center 

Condliffe, John B., Economics Department, University of California 

Cowell, Mrs. Olive Thompson, Social Science Department, San Francisco State 

College . 
Douglas, Mrs. W. W., League of Women Voters 
Edwards. Paul C, Associate Editor, San Francisco News 
Elkus, Mrs. Charles de Young, Jr., Columbia Foundation 
Elliott, Robert C, San Francisco News 
Greenslade, Admiral John W., USN (ret.) 
Hacke, Mrs. Harold, League of Women Voters 
Isaacs, Lt. Col. Irwin M., USA 

Kirkpatrick, Paul H., School of Physical Sciences, Stanford University 
Kefauver, Grayson N., Department of Education, Stanford University 
McLaughlin, Mrs. Alfred, Institute of Pacific Relations 
McWilliams, Mrs. Robert, International Center 
Merner, Garfield D. 

Mowry, George E. (Rapporteur) History Department, Mills College 
Oppenheimer, Frank, Radiation Laboratory, University of California 
Phillips, Miss Lillian M., Women's Action Committee 
Roberts, Holland, California Labor School 
Tilton, Mrs. L. Deming, League of Women Voters 
Webster, David L., Physics Department, Stanford University 
Weinberg, Joseph W., Physics Department, University of California 
Wheeler, Oliver P., Director of Research, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 
White, Dr. Lynn, Jr., President, Mills College 
Wickett, Fred A., Institute of Pacific Relations 
Wickett, Walton A., California Laboratories 
Wilbur, Brig. Gen. Wm. H., USA 

Selected Reading List 

(All items listed are available in the libraries of the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions, 417 Market Street, or the International Center, 68 Post Street, San Fran- 
cisco. Those marked with an asterisk were circulated to conference participants 
in advance.) 

Angell, Norman. "Human Nature and the Atom Age." Free World, Dec. 1945. 
"Atomic Bomb. Asset or Threat?" Appraisai of Weapon by Nation's Foremost 
Scientists, V. S. News, October 26, 1945. 
*"Atomic Energy, Agreed Declaration by the President of the United States, the 
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the Prime Minister of Canada," 
Department of State Bulletin, November 18, 1945. 
*"Atomic Energy and American Policy, Official and Unofficial Pronouncements," 
Internatonal Conciliation, December 1945. 
"Atomic Isolationism," Nation, October 20, 1945. 

Baldwin, Hanson W. "The Atom Bomb and Future War," Life, August 20, 1945. 
*Brodie, Bernard. "The Atomic Bomb and American Security," Yale Institute 
of International Studies, Nov. 1, 1945. 
Bush. Vannevar. "Beyond the Atomic Bomb," Supplement to Fortune, Sept. 

Chase, Stuart. "Atomic Age Balance Sheet," Common Sense, October 1945. 
*Chapman, Seville. "Atomic Bombs and World Organization." (Mimeographed.) 
*Compton, Arthur H. "Atomic Power in War and Peace." (Mimeographed.) 
Einstein, Albert (as told to Raymond Swing). "Einstein on the Atomic Bomb," 
Atlantic Monthly, November 1945. 


Geddes, D. P. (ed.). The Atomic Age Opens. N. Y. : Pocket Books, Inc., 1945. 
*Gideonse, Harry D. "The Politics of Atomic Energy." Pieprint from 'New 
Leader, November 3, 1945. 
GilfiUan, S. Cohim. "The Atomic Bombshell," Survey Oraphic, Sept. 1945. 
Gustavson, R. G. "The Story Behind the Atomic Bomb," Vital Speeches, October 

1, 1945. 
Hutching, Robert M. "Toward a Durable Society," Fortvne, June 194P.. 
"The Impact upon International Relations of the New Weapon," World Today, 

September 1945. 
Jaffe, Bernard. "How the Bomb Came to Be," Nem Republic, Sept. 17, 1E45. 
Baldwin, Hanson W., Churchill, Winston ; and Hutchins, "The Blast That Shook 

the World." Reader's Digest, October 1945. 
Present, Richard D. "Scientists Have No Illusions," Free World, Dec. 1945. 
*Ruml, Beardsley. "World Trade and Peace." (INIimeographed.) 
Russell, Bertrand. "How to Avoid the Atomic War," Common Sense, Oct. 1945. 
Shapley, Harlow. "Status Quo or Pioneer?" Harpefs, October 1945. 
Shotwell, James T. "Control of Atomic Energy." Survey Oraphic, Oct. 1945, 
Shotwell, James T. "Our Endless Frontier," Survey Graphic, November 1945. 
♦Smyth, Henry Dewolf. Atomic Energy for Militai-y Purposes. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1945. 

Exhibit No. 902 

129 East 52nd St., New York City, January 29, 1945. 
Mr. Frederick V. Field, 

16 West 12th Street, New York City. 

Dear Fred : This is to thank you most sincerely for your extraordinarily helpful 
letter of January 26th. I think I agree with practically every one of the criti- 
cisms that you have made. If we could have managed to shape the conference in 
advance along the lines which we now in retrospect see would have been desirable, 
the results would, I b'^lieve, have been even more substantial. The analysis that 
you have made means that we must now in the series of continuation conferences 
and discussion groups which we are now planning and which you suggested at 
Mont Tremblant endeavor to achieve some of those things which we failed to 
achieve at Mont Tremblant. In this we will be looking to you for constant sug- 
gestion and leadership. 

Thanks to your excellent suggestion, yesterday we had Castro to lunch. Lock- 
wood and Holland and I all found him most charming, stimulating and intelligent. 
We are giving him letters of introduction to friends in Delhi and Chungking and 
arranging for him to meet a number of Chinese in New York and Washington 
and in addition a circle of Americans who know China in both cities. 

He has made excellent suggestions for multiplying our contacts in Mexico itself. 

Be sure that I meet Tolefano when he comes to New York. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 903 

129 East 52nd Street, New York Citt, 

February 3, 1948. 
Mr. Edgar J. Tarr, 

Chatean Laui'ier, Ottaiva, Canada. 
Dear Tarr : On Wednesday evening, February 10th, subject to your approval, 
I am planning to take you to a dinner to the great Mexican labor leader, Vin- 
centa Lombard Toledano who is one of the most forceful, intelligent, and liberal 
leaders in Mexico and is President of the Confederation of Latin American 
Workers. The dinner is sponsored by the C. I. O. It will give you opportunity 
of meeting someone who would be essential in building an I. P. R. in Mexico. It 
will also give you an opportunity of seeing at first hand, progressive New York 
City workers en masse. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 905 

Makch 1, 1943. 
KM from ECC: 

The private document prepared in Washiugtou on the Strength of the Muslim 
League has come into my hands. It is not available for quotation, nor should 
any reference by made to it. I thought, however, that you might be interested 
in seeing it, so I have had copies made. I don't think that it covers the 
ground, but it does contain one or two interesting points. 

164/No. 4/2/1/43 
Background infomiation 


Mk. JiNNAii's Position 

Mr. Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League has recently been carrying on a 
vigorous political drive. 

His visit to the Punjab showed the extent to which he has secured contact 
with the Muslim masses. It can no longer be argued that because at the 
General Elections it was not able to secure a majority of the Muslim votes 
in any Province, the Muslim League has no following among the masses. Since 
1937, accession to the Muslim League's and Mr. .Tinnah's strength has been 
tremendous. Almost every bye-election in Muslim constituencies has been 
won by the League and the number of Muslim League members in the various 
Provincial Legislatures has increased manifold. 

The number of Muslim Ministers who now owe allegiance to the League is 
considerable. The latest accession has come from Sind. Sir Ghulam Hussain 
Hidayatullah, who succeeded Mr. Allah Box, has joined the League and his 
example has since been followed by all the Sind Muslim Ministers. Here is a 
survey of the Muslim League position in the Muslim majority Provinces : 


The total number of Muslim Members in the Punjab Legislative Assembly is 89. 
Only one out of these was elected on Muslim League ticket in the General Elec- 
tions of 1937. The number of Muslims elected on Unionist tickets was 77. Aii 
Muslim members of the Unionist Party are, however, now members of the Mus- 
lim League under what is known as the Sikander-Jinnah Pact of 1938. The 
main terms of the Pact were that the Unionist Party's Leader, tlie late Sir 
Sikander Hyat Khan, with all his Muslim followers in the Assembly should 
join the League and promise support to it in all Indian constitutional questions. 
Mr. Jinnah agreed on his part that the Muslim members of the Unionist Party 
would have freedom in Provincial matters and would be free to pursue the 
Unionist Party program. 

The political complexion of the Punjab made it necessary for the late Sir 
Sikander Hyat Khan, the Punjab Prime JMinister, not to form a Muslim League 
Government but a Unionist Government in coalition with Hindu and Sikh groups. 
In all Provincial matters he pursued a more or less independent line and, though 
professing allegiance to the League and Mr. Jinnah, his policy on all-Indian ques- 
tions was at times embarrassingly independent of the League. On the other 
hand, Sir Sikander never openly flouted any league mandate and he resigned 
from the National Defence Council when required by the League. 

The Civil and Military Gazette of Lahore recently wrote : "What is consistently 
ignored is the fact that Mr. Jinnah and Sir Sikander are mutually dependent; 
their common fundamental purpose must override differences arising from the 
admitted diversity of their 'spheres of influence.' Whatever their personal pre- 
dilections, circumstances must force the Muslim League President and the 
Premier of the Punjal) (so long as he is a IMuslim) to I'un in dcmble harness until 
India's future is hammered out ; and that Constitution may conceivably effect 
even closer cooperation between tiiem." 

Mr. Jinnah's recent Punjab tour monopolised public attention, not only be- 
cause of his public utterances on topical questions, but also because of the object 
underlying his visit. Recent attempts made by the Punjab Premier to settle the 
communal proldem in that part of the country on a Provincial basis irrespective 
of an all-Indian agreement, must doubtless have caused anxiety to Mr. Jinnah. 
The formula favored by Sir Sikander, according to most reports, conceded self- 


determination to the Hindu and Sikli minorities in the event of a Muslim 
plebiscite deciding in favor of secession in a postwar settlement. The minorities 
may form a separate State or join the main Indian Union. Negotiations went 
on for some time amon,t,'st the various parties but ultimately broke down or 
were adjourned because it was said that the Hindus wished to consult the 

Soon after, Mr. Jinnah arrived in the Punjab and in his first public utterance 
made a pointed reference to the main basis of the scheme without naming it and 
condemned the move to give the right of self-determination to "Sub-National" 
groups like the Hindus and the Sikhs in the Punjab and the Muslims in the United 

He further tried to win over the Sikhs to his conception of Pakistan by 
reassuring them tliat their interests would be safe under a Muslim State. This 
failed, by Mr. .Jinnah succeeded in scotching the "Mischievious idea," as he 
described it, of a purely Provincial settlement of the communal problem and laid 
down that "no settlement is worth the paper on which it is written either in 
the I'unjah or elsewhere, so far as Muslims are concerned, except with the 
Muslim League." 

Later, Mr. .linnah in another speech said that he had not referred to the 
Sikander formula, which he liad not even studied in his earlier speech. This 
enabled Sir Sikander Hyat Khan to make a rapprochement with Mr. Jinnah 
and declare himself to be a loyal supporter of the Muslim League. If there were 
any differences between Sir Sikander and Mr. Jinnah. it was explained, they 
related more to the method than to the policy and program of the Muslim League 
and were intended solely to further its aims and ideals. 

Attempts have lately been made to show that the Sikander formula is in ac- 
cordance witli the League's resolution on Pakistan w^hich visualised territorial 
adjustments. The formula allowed this in accordance with the desires of the 
communities concerned and to that extent unintentionally conceded the right of 
self-determination to the Hindues and the Sikhs. However, the problem is no 
more a live issue. IMr. Jinnah has applied tlie damper and as a result of his visit 
to the Punjab he is back again in the position he occupied prior to Sir Sikander's 

The death of Sir Sikander Hyat Khan on December 26tli was regarded by the 
New York Times Correspondent (X. Y. T. Dec. 29) as considerably strengthening 
Mr. Jinnah's position by removing the only Muslim figure important enough to 
challenge him. 


Out of a total of 123 Muslim members in the Bengal Assembly and 30 in the 
Legislative Council. 43 and 11 memiiers. respectively, follow the Muslim I^eague. 

Mr. Fazlul Haq, the Premier of Bengal, who has been a member of the Muslim 
League since 1918, resigned in 1940 when disciplinary action was threatened 
against him for accepting membership of the National Defense Council, from 
which, however, he resigned. The IMuslim League expelled him on December 11, 
1941, for having formed a coalition Ministry in Bengal without its sanction. 

Some unconfirmed reports have appeared in the press that Mr. Fazlul Haq 
had met Mr. Jinnah recently in Delhi. Another report said that Mr. Haq liad 
rejoined the Muslim League. On this the Bengal Premier made the following 
statement: "The news published by Independent India (Mr. M. N. Roy's Delhi 
paper) about my rejoining the Muslim' League raises an irrelevant issue. I 
maintain I was never out of the League, I am still in the League. Therefore, 
the question of my rejoining does not arise. As regards Mr. Jinnah, I have 
never been at war with him, nor do I intend to be so. I am not at war with 
anybody. I am at war with untruths." 


Out of 35 Muslim members in the Sind Assembly, only 13 were elected on 
Muslim League ticket. With the return of Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah 
as Premier of the Province in October last, a number of M. L. A.'s have joined 
the League. Sir Ghulam and all his Muslim ]Ministers are now members of the 
League, and the strength of the League party is now 26 out of 35. 

Sir Ghulam resigned from the Mu.slim League when Mr. Allah Bux took him 
into his Cabinet two years ago. His rejoining the League has been prompted 
by a desire to strengthen the Ministry that he formed on Mr. Allah Bux's 




Out of 34 Muslim members in the Assam Assembly, originally only 3 were 
elected on Muslim League ticket. But, a few months after the General Elections 
30 members signed on as a Muslim League I'arty. The Premier, Sir Mohammad 
Saadullah Khan, has been strictly followiu'i IMuslim League discipline. He re- 
signed from the National Defence Council when re<]uired by the League to do 
so. On recently assuming office he claimed that his Cabinet was representative 
of Assam's people. No mention was made of the party affi'iations of the Muslim 
members of his Cab:net. In all his public utterances siuCvi assuming office, he 
has refrained from mentioning the Muslim League. 

ihf; north-west frontier province 

Out of ."^S members in the N.-W. F. Province Legislative Assembly, only 12 belong 
to the League Party. The only sign of a weakening of the Congress Party in 
the Province has been the resignation of Arbab Abdul Ghafoor Khan, M. L. A. 
ex-Parliamentary Secretary, from the Congress Party and the Rsd Sldrts, but 
he did not join the Muslim League. He formed a new organization called the 
Pashtoon .lirga. It aims at an independent Pathan State, run in accordance 
with the laws of the Shariat. In a statement, Arbab Abdul Ghafoor Khan said 
that an alliance with the Congress was harmful as the Pathans were gradually 
losing their identity and drifting away from religion. 

Total Muslim 
Members of 

Total Muslim 
League Mem- 






Lowpr House - _ 





Assam -- 


North Wp'^t 

Frontier Province 



Total --- --- 


I 211 

> Or 60.45 percent. 

Important note. — It is important to remember in using the above figures that 
they show the strength of the Muslim League among the Muslim members of 
the Legislatures of Muslim majority provinces; they do not show Muslim League 
strength in Hindu majority provinces (these figures will be released later when 

JH : MC. 

Exhibit No. 906 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York, N. Y. March 1, 19^3. 
The Misses Carter, 

SI Bartlet Street, Andover, Mass. 
Dear Mabel and Harriet : Thank you for all your kindness, thoughtf ulness, 
and love, and for this delicious loaf of bread. 

I looked everywhere in the station and on the train for Zita, but I guess she 
probably decided to take a later train. 

Under separate cover I am sending you the four American Council booklets. 
They are all good, but I think you will find the one on the Soviet Union the 
most interesting and timely. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 907 

March 2, 1943. 
Copies to WWL 

HM from ECC : 

Going up to New England last week I read "The Land of the Soviets" for the 
first time. I was immensely impressed with it and feel that it is a most skillful 
and timely job. It is going to have a very big sale in the secondary schools, but 
I would like to see a similar sale amongst the general reading public. 

If you agree that this is desirable, I am wondering what you and your col- 
leagues would think of cooperating with Webster in getting it out as a bound 
volume that would sell at $1..50 or $2.00, and go out in a big way for getting it 
reviewed and promoted. So long as it is in its present Binding it will probably 
fail to make the review columns of the more serious book review editors. 

Could you also check with F7-ed Myers and Rose Gandel to see whether it has 
been taken up by the merchandising department of RWil and whether there are 
any large possibilities there either in the present edition or in a bound volume, 
where there could be a considerably larger national distribution. 

At the right time I would like to see the present or the new edition go with 
personal letters from me to any of the following who have not received it : 










the whole RWR Board 

McLean and some of the leaders of the Canadian Aid to Russia Fund 


Some of the more outstanding members of the Foreign Relations and Foreign 
Affairs Committees in Congress 

A select list of people in the Ai-my headquarters 

T. V. Soong 

Some of the Indian Leaders 

To Chiang Kai-Shek and some of his colleagues 

ECC from HM : 

Here is a possible type of invitation that might work on the Russians. 
It would be necessary to tell Litvinov what it was and urge him to send as 
many of his people as possible, if he can't come himself. Likewise it would be 
well to get from Jessup, Currie, Harold Ickes, Henry Morgenthau the names of 
their assistants who should be invited, if we don't already know. Also Lukashev 
should be urged to let some of his people come. 

Exhibit No. 908 

Makch 18, 1943. 
WLH from ECC. 

The talk with Veatch revealed the following : 

1. Governor Lehman and Mr. Sayre were very enthusiastic about our talk and 
very eager to have the IPR undertake the assignment. 

2. The areas to be covered in approximately the following order are : 



Netherlands Indies and, in fact all Southeastern Asia except that we need give 

little attention to the Philippines (I imagine Sayre will do that himself) 
Korea, Japan, and Manchuria 

Veatch will send us today or tomorrow such general outlines and directives 
as they have already worked out for other areas, but they do not want us 


to be too much ^ided by these. They want us to make our own analysis and 
put forward our own project. 

They would hope that we could send them an outline of our proposed plan 
within the next four or five days ; that after a month we could present a first 
draft, and that some of us could take it to Washiugton for a full day's discussion 
with them and a few Far Eastern experts from various Government departments. 
Then the gaps could be filled and a redraft made and the whole thing submitted 
by the middle of May. 

I asked Veatch whether they were thinking of a six- or ten-thonsand-doUar 
job, and he said that they had been thinking in smaller terms, that he felt pretty 
sure that they could get an appropriation to cover the cost of one $6,500 man 
for two months and then the money could be used in whatever way we thought 
best. But if this is inadequate they would make every effort to get a larger ap- 
propriation. I should say that we could count definitely on about $1,100 with a 
fair chance of making a case for $2,200 or $2,500. 

I told Veatch that professionally we couldn't afford to submit a poor piece 
of work. 

Exhibit No. 909 


"WLH from ECC. March 26, 1943. 

I was a bit sad when I discovered in Pacific Affairs page proof that you had 
secured a review from Norman Thomas, but I decided to say nothing to anyone. 

Today however without having mentioned the matter to her I received the 
enclosed from Harriet Moore. Please return it at your convenience. 

The case of Roy is different, I assume ILO submitted his paper and that we 
had to accept it. 


ECC from HM. Rec'd March 26, 1943. 

It is probably unnecessary for me to add this P. S. to the memo in re the 
talk with Litvinov, but I believe it should be born in mind. It does not help 
the standing of the International Secretariat with the Soviets to use people 
like Norman Thomas and Roy of India. Good capitalists are ok with them but 
Social democrats are poison — especially of the Thomas variety who remain 
the one group in the U. S. who oppose the war. This opposition even comes 
out in a piece like his review in the current Pacific Affairs tliough somewhat 
disguised — "It is the failure of most American liberals to understand and discuss 
openly these facts which warrants grave doubts concerning the success of our 
struggle now." It would be one thing for one of the national councils to select 
these people — but it is a little different when it is tlie international secretariat. 

In the case of Roy their reaction is probably that the IPR is pretty ignorant 
about India if they pick Roy to write about the labor movement there. I know 
very little about it, but my impression is that Mr. Roy's labor movement is 
something minute and doesn't represent anytliing of real significance. Of 
course Mr. Roy is incidentally an ex-communist, expelled I believe for "rightist" 
tendencies. If we were to pick a minority party in India, it would be more 
to the point today to pick the Communists themselves who apparently are co- 
operating in the war effort and trying to push the Congress into a settlement. 
The British have even let most of them out of jail as their program is construc- 
tive for the general war effort. But best of all, the IPR should stock to major 
movements and to articles on large groupings first, before it goes in for the 

I am sure that this position will not be accepted by either the secretariat or 
many of the individuals connected with the IPR, but as you know it is bard 
for the Soviets to cooperate with an organization whose policy it cannot 
identify * * *. 


Exhibit No. 910 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York, N. Y., 1st Ap7-il 1943. 

In pencil (Copy to P. K. C). 

Miss Mabel M. Carter, 

31 Bartlet Street, Andover, Massachusetts. 

Dear Mabel : Herewith my check for $225. I was in Washington on Monday 
and so got a little behind with my correspondence. 

While in Washington, among others, I called on and had interesting talks 
with Dr. T. V. Soong, Foreign Minister of China ; Under Secretary of State Sum- 
ner Welles ; Secretary of the Interior Ickes ; John Hazard, of Lend-Lease ; and 
Michael Greenberg, of Lauchlin Currie's White House office.' In the evening I 
participated in a United Nations discission at Constitution Hall. The other 
speakers were: W. L. Batt, of the War Production Board; Gardner Cowles, of 
the OWI, who went to Russia with Willkie ; Maurice Hindus ; and Sir Bernard 
Pares, of the London School of Slavonic Studies. We dined beforehand at the 
home of Mrs. Robert L. Bacon and then went back to her house at 10 : 30 for an 
hour and a half further discussion and a number of speakers, Senators, Congress- 
men, press, and others. It was a full and useful day. 
Affectionately yours. 

Exhibit No. 911 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, April 12, 19^3. 
Mr. Richard J. Walsh, 

Asia Magazine, J,0 East J,9th Street, Neio York City. 
Dear Dick : The Dies Committee is after T. A. Bisson, who for the past year 
has been working for the BEW. Bisson desires a few of his friends to write 
letters testifying to his loyalty as an American citizen, adding anything that the 
writer feels free to say. 

Enclosed is a copy of what I have written. Would you feel free to writ© 
directly to Honorable John H. Kerr, Chairman, Special Subcommittee on Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Washington, D. C, sending 
a copy of your letter to T. A. Bisson at 383 Willard Avenue, Chevy Chase, 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 912 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, N. Y., 12th April 1943. 

Henry C. Alexander, Esq., 

23 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Alexander: From your reading of Land of the Soviets I am afraid 
you may have got a wrong impression of the Institute of Pacific Relations. In 
the hope of correcting such an impression, I am venturing to send you for your 
personal library a few of our publications which may aid in rounding out the 

During the past year the Institute has published in North America more than 
fifty books and painphlets. In this entire list the only one which has been criti- 
cized as soft and sentimental is Land of the Soviets, which was written espe- 
cially for high-school students and which now. happily, is being revised. Much 
more representative of the Institute's solid work are such studies as : 
Banking and Finance in China. 
Japan Since 1931. 

The Making of Modern New Guinea. 
I am therefore sending copies of these to you under separate cover. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 913 

War Department, 
Military Inteixigence SER\^CE; 

Washington, April IS, 1943. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

c/o Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, Neio York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Carter : Thank you for your letter having reference to the Princeton 
Conference. I am glad to have the tentative agenda, which I think is well pre- 
pared. I have read Mr. Holland's article in the Far Eastern Survey of March 
5th ; it seems to be an excellent statement. 

I am taking the liberty of inviting Colonel Boekel, who is shortly going to 
India in charge of "civilian affairs on General Stilwell's Staff. I do this in the 
belief that he will find a great deal in the discussions which will be of value to 
him in his work. I have checked with Dr. Johnstone and he thinks it is an 
excellent proposal. I realize there isn't time for a reply from you, but unless 
you send me a wire to the contrary, I shall bring Colonel Boekel. 
Sincerely yours, 

/s/ John I* Christian, 
Captain, A. U. 8., Southern Asia Branch. 

Exhibit No. 914 
Penciled notations : KP 

War Dep.^btment, 
Military Intelligence Service. 

Washington, Ajrril 1, 194S. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Secretary, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 
Dear Mb. Carter: You letter to Colonel Mayer with respect to the I. P. R. 
meeting on India, scheduled for Princeton, April 17-18, has been received. We 
shall be pleased to have Captain John L. Christian of the Southern Asia Branch, 
attend this private meeting. 
Sincerely yours, 

/s/ M. W. Petti grew 
M. W. Pettigrew 
Colonel, G. S. C, Chief, Far Eastern Unit. 

Exhibit No. 915 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, April 5, 1943. 

Captain John L. Christian, 

Military Intelligence Service, 

War Department, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Christian : We were delighted to hear from Colonel Pettigrew that you 
will be able to attend the Princeton Conference on "India in the United Nations' 
War Effort," April 17 and 18. As soon as it is ready we will send you the draft 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Cakter. 

Exhibit No. 916 
In pencil (ECC invited 4/28/43) 

May 6 Meeting, Washington, Revised Invitation List 

Sir Girja S. Bajapi, Indian Agency General, 2633 16th Street NW, Washington, 

D. C. 
Hugh Horton, Department of State, Washington 
H. B. Bnfler, British Embassy, Washington 

(penciled in-Carter) 


Frank Coe, Board of Economic Warfare, Washington, D. C. 

Geoffrev Cox, New Zealand Legation, Washington 

J. M. Elizalde, Resident Commissioner of the Philippines, 1617 Mass. Ave., 

James W. Fnlbright, House Office Building, Washington 
Morris Greene, 2117 Woodland Drive NW, Washington 
Dr. G. H. C. Hart, 1620 Belmont Street NW 
Alger Hiss, Esq. Department of State 

(penciled in-Holland) 
Luther A. Johnson, House Office Building 

(penciled in- Johnstone) 
Dr. Walter Judd, House Office Building 
Dr. Kan Lee, China Defense Supplies, 1601 V Street NW 

(penciled in-Lockwood ) 
Howard J. MacMurray, House Office Bldg. 

T. M. Martin, Col., G. S. C.-Chief, Japan Section, M. I. S. the Pentagon 
William Mayer, Col., G. S. C.,-Chief, China Section, M. I. S., the Pentagon 
John W. McCormack, House Office Building 
Karl Mundt, House Office Building 

M. W. Pettigrew, Col., G. S. C.,-Chief Far Eastern Section, M. I. S. the Pentagon 
L. B. Pearson, Minister-Counsellor, Canadian Legation, Washington 
MomSeni R. Pramoj, Royal Thai Legation, 2.300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington 
Mr. A. P. Tixier, Delegation du Comite National Francais, 729 15th Street, NW 
Alan Watt, Australian Legation, Washington, D. C. 



Someone from Navy 
Bruce Turner 

Exhibit No. 917 

Penciled notations : ( K. P. on Monday ask WWL & WLH whether it's okay to 

invite both of these?) ECC 

War Department, 
Military Intelligence Service, 

Washington, April 29, 1943. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Paciftc Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 
Dear Mr. Carter: Thank you very much for your invitation to attend the 
I. P. R. round-table discussions on the problems of collective security in the 
Pacific and Far East, commencing Tliursday, May 6. I shall make every effort 
either to be there or to delegate someone to represent the Far Eastern Unit. 
I think that the two agencies listed below might also be interested in the 
discussions : 

Brig. General C. W. Wickersham, Commandant, School of Military Govern- 
ment, Charlottesville, Virginia. 

Colonel Dallas S. Townsend, Chief. Military Government Branch, Civil Affairs 
Division, Office, Chief of Staff, War Department. 
Very truly yours, 

[s] M. W. Pettigrew 
M. W. Pettigrew, 
Colonel, G. S. C, Chief, Far Eastern Unit. 
(Penciled notation: How about shoemaker, too? Lt. Col. gaines H. Office of 
Provost Marshal Gen., Service of Supply, Room 2805, Munitions Bldg., War 
Dept., Wash., D. C.) 

88348— 52— pt. 14 10 


Exhibit No. 918 
Penciled notation : Hiss, yes 

3415 VoLTA Place, 
WasMngton, D. C, April SO, 19J,3. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52 Street, New York, New York. 
Dear Mr. Carter : This is to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of April 28 
in which you were so good as to ask me to attend a small private discussion on 
May 6 to discuss the tentative outline which was enclosed with your letter. 

I shall he very glad to attend this meeting, subject, of, to some last- 
minute call of duty which frankly I do not now foresee. 
Yours sincerely, 

Alger Hiss. 

Exhibit No. 919 

Penciled notation : Martin, Yes. 

War Department, 
Military Inteixigence Service, 

Washington, May 1, 1943. 

Penciled notation : K. P. By all means come on this basis — ECC 

Mr. Edward C. Cabter, 

Secretary-General, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 

Dear Mr. Carter: I have received your letter of April 28, 1943, inviting me 
to join a small private IPR round table discussion on the problem of collective 
security in the Pacific and the Far East, to be held in Washington on May 6. 

I am glad to have a copy of the tentative outline prepared by Mr. Johnstone, 
and I should like to have the privilege of attending the discussion if I am not 
expected to participate. 
Yours sincerely, 

/s/ Truman M. Martin 
Truman M. Martin, 
Colonel, G. S. C, Chief, Japan Branch. 

Exhibit No. 920 

129 East ."2nd Street, 
New York City, May 4, 1943. 
Colonel TrtJman M. Martin, G. S. C, 

Chief, Japan Branch, Military Intelligence Service, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Colonel Martin : We will of course be glad to have you come to the 
Thursday evening meeting as an observer. 
Sincerely Yours, 

Edward C. Carthir. 

Exhibit No. 921 

Mat 10, 1943. 
WWL from ECC : 

I had a long talk with .Tane Plimpton yesterday about becoming the IPR 
representative in Washington. I think she would take the job like a shot if 
she wasn't partially committed to going to work for Gulick in the Lehman 

She lias agreed to hold up until Wednesday morning taking any final action 
with Gulick. This is to give you time to see her on Tuesday and do the final 
job (if salesmanship on behalf of the IPR. 

Miss Plimpton was an honors graduate of Vassar, and throughout her term 
at Vassar has .shown an imusual interest in the study both of American domestic 
problems and of foreign relations. She has been very active in tlie student move- 


ment, was editor of the Vassar paper, and held several other high positions 
in student life. 

She could do, I think, a reniarkaldy good job for Bill Johnstone and for our 
other Washington study groups because she has already had a lot of experience 
in summarizing similar meetings. For several weeks, for example, at 700 
Jackson Place, she has been rapporteur of the Washington study group of the 
Commission to Organize Peace. 

Of incidental value is the fact that she has intimate friends in the White 
House and is a born promoter as well as a good scholar. Once she was given a 
definite assignment, I would have no hesitation in sending her to Welles Horn- 
beck, Harry White, or anyone in our government or any otlier government 
with whom we wanted to make an IPR contact. 

I think you can render a great service to Amco and Pacco by persuading 
her to bec<)me our Washington representative. So far as Pacco is concerned 
I would be prepared to recommend an appointment for the rest of the year. 

She kno'ws her way around government offices, having been an interne in 
the Bureau of the Budget where she has made the necessary grade. She does 
not know shorthand, but she types rapidly and well. 

You can reach her in lioom 2.jU of the State Department building, though 
that particular roo^n is a Bureau of tlie Budget room. She lives at 3913 
Huntington Street, N. W. — Telephone : Ordway 6370. 

You may want to send her a wire today as to- when and where to meet you. 

Exhibit No. 922 

May 21, 1943. 
Mr. Edward C Cartel, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York, New York. 
Dear Mr. Carter : As regards the invitation list for May 27 I suggest adding 
Sir George Sansom, and Kan Lee. I presume that you have invited Hiss. I shall 
be glad to have a talk with Alger Hiss about the meeting. I still think if we go 
ahead on the agenda that it can be a good discussion. I will be on hand to have 
dinner with you before the meeting if that is possible or to see you ten or fifteen 
minutes before the meeting at 700 Jackson Place. 

I will be perfectly willing to preside if you think it best, although you do a 
much better job than I can. Please let me know if there is anything further you 
would like done before the meeting. 

William C. Johnstone, 
Dean of the Junior College. 

Exhibit No. 923 
Penciled in (copy to HM) 

129 Bast 52nd Street, 
Neic York 22, N. Y., 7th June 1H3. 
Mortimer Graves, Esq., 

American Council of Learned Societies, 

1219 Sixteenth Street N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mortimer: On my return I received your little yellow inquiry about a 
center of information in Washington. Part of the problem, of course, is 
finance ; and part is personnel. I think you ought to get Harriet Moore's advice. 
I wish we could see our way clearer and am wondering whether we ought to 
wait until we can have the Ickes-Litvinoff-Graves-Moore-Carter dinner that I 
spoke of. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 924 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York 22, N. Y., 9th June 1943. 
LAucHLiisr CuRRiE, Esq., 

Executive Office of the President, 

The White House, Washiiigton, D. C. 

Dear Curbie: Some time ago you asked me for a list of Chinese personnel. I 
am now able to send you a copy of a list prepared by Lenning Sweet of UCR 
together with a suplementary list which he has also prepared. This, I assume, 
will be used in its present form or revised in the report that Lockwood is making 
for Governor Lehman. If this is of any use to you, would you have a copy 
made for your files and return the enclosed to me in due season? 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 925 

129 East 52nd Street, 
Neiv York 22, N. Y., 15th June 19^3. 
Lauchun CuRTiiE, Esq., 

Executive Office of the President, 

The White House, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Currie: Sweet of UCR has compiled the enclosed list of foreign per- 
sonnel that might be of use in relief and rehabilitation positions in China. If 
there is anything of use to you in it will you make a copy for your files and 
return this copy to me in due course. 

Col. Evans » "arlson, as you doubtless know, is back from the Pacific with new 
and characteristically valuable experience behind him. He leaves tonight for 
Washington and \A'ill be at the Army and Navy Club for the next two days in 
case you want to see him. I assume he will be seeing the President. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edwabd C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 926 

Invitations for Third Meeting on Collective Securitive in the Pacific and 

THE Par East 

In ink— June 17, 1943. 
In pencil— 6/10/43. 
( Hand written : ) 
No— Sir Girja S. Bajpai : Indian Agency General, 2633 16th St. NW. 

Dr. Hugh Borton : Special Division, Department of State. 
Yes — Nicholas A. J. deVoogd : 1620 Belmont Street NW. 
Yes — iMorris Greene : Australian Legation. 
Yes — Alger Hiss : Dejiartment of State. 
Yes— M. R. Seni Pramoj : Royal Thai Legation, 2300 Kalorama Road NW. 

Lt. Col. James W. Shoemnker : 1729 Q Street NW. 
No — Captain Vaughn F. Meisling : Military Intelligence Service, War Department. 
Yes — Jf)hn Alexander: British Embassy. 

No — Philippe Baudet : French National Committee, 1420 16th Street NW. 
Yes — Frank Coe : Board of Economic Warfare. 
(?) — L.B.Pearson: Canadian Legation. 

Yes — The Honoraltle Frances P. Bolton : 2301 Wyoming Ave. NW. 
Yes — The Honorable Howard J. McMurray : House Office Building. 
No — The Honorable James W. Wadsworth : House Olfice Building. 

G. S. Cox : New Zealand Legation. 
No — The Honorable J. W. Fulbright : House Office Building. 
Yes — The Honorable Walter Judd : House Office Building. 
Yes— Kan I^e : China Defense Supplies, Inc., 2311 Mass. Ave., Washington 8. 

Alan Watt : Australian Legation. 

Harry B. Price : China Defense Supplies, Inc., 2311 Mass. Ave., Washing- 
ton 8. 
Yes — J. M. Elizalde: 1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW. 

Col. William Mayer: Chief, China Section, MIS, War Dept., Pentagon Bldg 
No — Sir George Sansom : British Embassy. 

Y. R. C. James Yen : % Chinese Embassy. 



No — Bruce Turner: New Zealand Legation (6/14/43) in pencil. 

No — W. W. liOekwood. 

Yes— W. L. Holland. 

Yes — William C. JohnKStons. 

Yes— Edward C Cartel*. 

(In ink) Walter Laves: Organization Services Division, Office of Civilian 

Defense, Dnpont Circle Bldg. 
Yes — Grayson Kirk : Department of State. 

*Engene Dooman: Department of State. 

♦William Y. Elliott : War Shipping Administration. 

*Read Hager: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Munitions Assignment Board. 

List of those invited to collective security in the Pacific and the Far East, 

too Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. 

(in ink) 

[I— Invited. Ace. = Accepted. Arr. = Attended. N= Did not attend or regretted] 

John Alexander 

Sir Qirja B-ijpai 

Philipne Baudet 

T. A. Bisson 

Frances P. Bolton 

Hus:h Borton 

H. B. Butler 

Evans F. Carlson 

Edward C. Carter 

Frank Coe 

■Q. S. Cox 

N. A. J. de Voogd 

Eugene Dooman 

J. M. Elizalde 

William Y. Elliott 

.T. F. Engers 

Miriam S. Farley 

J. W. Fulbright 

Andrew Grajdanzev__. 

Morris Greene 

Read Hager 

O.H. C.Hart 

Alger Hiss, 

W.L. Holland 

Luther Jolmson 

William C. Johnstone. 

Walter Judd 

Grayson Kirk 

Walter Laves 

Kan Lee 

W. W. Lockwood 

Col. T. M. Martin __ 
Col. William Mayer- 

John W. McCormack 

Howard J. McMurray 

■Capt. Vaughn F. Meisling, 

Martha Mooney 

Harriet Moore 

Karl Mundt 

L. B. Pearson 

Col. M. W. Pettigrew 

Catherine Porter 

M. R. Seni Pramoj 

Harry B. Price 

Sir George Sansom 

James W. Shoemaker.. 

Capt. J. P. Taylor 

A. P. Tixier 

Dallas Townsend 

Bruce Turner 

James W. Wadsworth. 

Alan S. Watt 

Urbano Zafra 

May 6, 1943 

(In ink) May 27, 1943 

I., Ace, Att 

I. (sorry). New York. 

I. (sorry), engaged _ 

L, Ace, Att 

I., England 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Ace 

I. (try attend), Turner. 
I., Ace, Att 

I. (sorry) engaged. 

I., Ace, Att 

I. (sorry) engaged. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I., West Coast 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Ace, Att 

I. (sorry), engaged. 
I., Ace., Att 

I. (sorry), engaged. 

, Ace, Att 

, Ace, Att 

. (sorry suggests 
, i\ 

(sorry), engaged 

, Ace, Att 

I., N 

I. (sorry) , engaged 

I (try), N 

I. (try or send some- 

I., Ace. Att. 

I., Ace, Att- 

, London 

(sorry) engaged. 

I., Ace, Att 

I. (sorry). Hot Springs. 

L, Ace, .\tt 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Ace, Att 
I., Ace, Att 
I., Ace . Att. 
I., Ace, Att. 

I. (sorry), Hot Springs 

I.. N 

I., Ace, Att. 

I., Ace, Att- 

L, N 

L, N 

I., N 

I., Acc, Att- 

I. (sorry). Hot Springs. 

L (try) 

I., Acc, Att 

L, N 

I., Acc, N 

I., Ace, Att 

I., Acc, Att 

I. (sorry), engaged 

I. (sorry). Hot Springs 
I., N 

L, Ace, Att. 
I., Ace, Att. 
I., Ace, Att. 
I., Acc, Att. 

(sorry) engaged. 
, Acc, Att 

I. (sorry) engaged. 

I., N 

Hot Springs 

June 17, ;943 

I., Ace, Att. 

I. (sorry), away. 

I. (sorry). New York. 

I., .\ce, Att. 

I. (very sorry), busy. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I. (no reply). 

I., Ace, Att. 

I. (sorry). 

I. (hopes to come) N. 

T., no reply. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I. (sirry) engaged. 

I., Acc, .\tt. 

I., Acc, Att. 

I.. Ace, Att. 

I. (s'>n v), New York. 

I., Acc, N. 

I., Acc. A!t. 

I., Ace, Alt. 
I., Ace, Att. 
I., Ace, N. 

I. (very much inter- 
I., Ace, Att. 

I. (no reply). 

I., Acc, Att. 


I. (try), N. 

I., Ace, Att. 

I. Acc, Att. 

I. (sorry) Baltimore. 

I. (no reply). 

I. Acc-., Att. 

I., N., regrets. 


I. (sorry). 


•Special letter. 


Exhibit No. 927 

WLH NWL HA (Pencilled initials) 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, May 26, 191i2 
MiLO Perkins, Esq. 

Executive Director, Board of Economic Warfare, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Perkins : In early September the Institute of Pacific Relations is 
planning a small private study conference to make an over-all appraisal of the 
factors to be considered in the waging of the war in Asia and the Pacific, and to 
stimulate creative thinliing on immediate postwar problems. 

We expect able representation from China, India, Great Britain, Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Soviet Russia, and the Netherlands 
East Indies. 

We regard it as most essential that you be present and participate in our 
discussions. I want very much to talk with you in the near future as to some 
of the personnel whom we should invite from other countries. I am wondering 
whether you would have a quarter of an hour free to discuss this matter with 
me on Tuesday, June 2nd. I could see you any time from early morning to late 
at night except between two and three-thirty. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 928 

Penciled Note : ECC Ark July 3 

Board of Economic Warfare, 
Washington, D. C, June 20, 19^2. 
OflBL-e of the Executive Director 
Penciled note: TARR 

Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 
129 East 52nd Street, 

Neiv York City. 
Dear Mr. Carter : I appreciate your invitation to attend the September meet- 
ing of the Institute of Pacific Relations to discuss problems of war and recon- 
struction in the Far East. Your enterprise in promoting such discussion is 
useful. If circumstances permit, I shall be happy to participate ; otherwise I 
shall ask James H. Shoemaker of the Far Eastern Division to attend. 

I am sorry that I could not get in touch with you before June 2'. Might I 
suggest that the next time you come to Washington you see Mr. William T. 
Stone and Dr. Shoemaker about the persons to be invited to attend the meeting. 
I have asked them to consider this matter now so that your discussion with them 
may be as helpful as possible. 
Sincerely yours, 

[s] MiLO Perkins. Executive Director. 

Exhibit No. 929 

Draft to Mild Perkins 

Dear Mr. Perkins : We deeply appreciated your letter of June 20 indicating 
that if circumstances permitted you would be happy to participate in the forth- 
coming Conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

In deference to the wishes of our Chinese colleagues we have decided to hold 
the Conference in December instead of September as originally proposed. The 
Chinese cabled that they could send a very much more representative group if 
the later date were chosen. 

Enclosed is a copy of the draft agenda. Mr. Lockwood has already followed 
your suggestion and talked to Mr. Stone and Mr. Shoemaker about our plans. 


Exhibit No. 930 

129 East 52d Streiet, 
New York 22, N. Y., June 28, 194S. 
Lauchlin Cxtrrie, Esq., 

Executive Office of the President, 

The White House, Washington, D. C. 

Deiak Cukeie: For your private iiiformation I enclose a description of some of 
the Chinese who arrived in this country a few weelis ago. This was prepared for 
me by Harry Price. I am sure he would have no objection to my sharing it with 

Sincerely yours, 

Edwaed C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 931 

July 14, 1943. 
constantin oumansky, 

Embassy of the V. 8. S. R., 

Merida 18, Mexico City, Mexico: 

Planning see you early Thursday afternoon fifteenth. 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 932 

129 East 52d Street, 
Neio York 22, N. Y., June SO, 19J,3. 
His Exceixency, the Soviet Ambassador, 
Embassy of the U. S. 8. R., 
Mexico City, Mexico. 
Delar Oumansky: If you are unlikely to visit the United States this coming 
month I am wondering whether you could spare a half a day to talk over many 
matters with me if I found it possible to visit Mexico in the third or fourth week 
of July? 

Sincerely yours, 

Edw^vrd C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 933 

Copy of Unfinished Handwritten Letter From Edward C. Carter to 

John A. Carter 

Aloft — Mexico City to Fort Worth, Tex., 

8unday, July 18, 19.'t3. 

Dear John : Mexico City is about the same altitude as your birthplace, Simla. 
Unlike Simla it is flat. Like Simla it is surrounded by mountains. But Mexico's 
mountains though impressive are not as high or extensive as the vast bulk of the 
Himalayas. The climate of Mexico City is unlike Simla. It has cool nights and 
warm days all the year round. Some people feel the altitude. I didn't. The 
city is a mixture of Rome, Paris, New York, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Mexican 
Indian and I suppose of Madrid and Lisbon (which I've never visited). It 
reminds one alternatively of Manila (the Spanish influence, palm trees, sunshine, 
a primitive hinterland and an emotional people who can act with great ability 
but who sometimes find great oratory a substitute for practical action. They 
both can exert themselves when music bids them dance. 

I mentioned Detroit's influence. There is apparently no gas or rubber shortage. 
The city is jammed with American cars — mostly Mexican licenses but a scattering 
of Texas and Arizona licenses. The hotels are full of American tourists. I had 
wired ahead for a room but had to try six hotels after arrival before I could get 
located. Luckily Oumansky (who has just arrived from Moscow as the Soviet 
Ambassador) sent one of his staff in the Embassy car and she (Miss Alexandra 
Nicholsky) drove me around until she found a hotel that would take me in. 

After a wash and shave at the Hotel Gillow, she drove me to Embassy for lunch. 
Oumansky greeted me most cordially but said quickly, "Don't say anything about 
it to Mrs. O." Luckily I knew what he meant. Five days before leaving Moscow 
for Mexico their only child, a 15-year-old daughter who was their greatest joy 
and interest in life, was killed in an accident in Moscow. She had been at school 


in Washington, was developing great charm, brains, versatility, and they had all 
three been planning together their next great adventure — the flight to Mexico 
and life in a totally different civilization. They buried her and 2 days later got 
into the great plane that flew them, their files, and the Embassy staff (four or 
five people) across Siberia to Fairbanks, Alaska, where I am happy to say the 
U. S. Army received them most cordially (lots of generals helping) and on orders 
from Washington a big Army transport plane flew them from Fairbanks via 
Seattle to Los Angeles when they travelled by American Airlines to Mexico City. 

Mr. and Mrs. U. and I had a very nice lunch preceded by a little vodka and 
caviar that they had brought. Mrs. O. was in black and you could see how over- 
whelmed she is with her sorrow. Several times when I was with O. alone he 
told of his anxiety for her and showed how terribly he, too, is suffering. But he 
has his work that absorbs so much of his time. She is reading and clipping 
American newspapers for him but the mails are awfully slow and that is hardly 
a full-time job. I am going to ask Ruthie if she will send Mrs. O. some clippings 
from time to time so that Mrs. O. will have more to do and also so that they can 
get stuff of value that they wouldn't otherwise get. Mrs. O. has sent Alice and 
Ruthie, by me, some little gifts of Mexican silver. 

Oumansky and I spent many hours during my 3 days in Mexico discussing IPR 
and the world in general. Motylev has gone to the front and has been succeeded 
by G. N. Voitinsky as head of the USSR IPR. V. is a very good man — he was long 
in China and the Far East. The food situation in Russia for civilians is terribly 
bad but the Soviet press says little about it for fear of giving comfort to the 

With O. I met some of the leaders of the Mexican RWR. Castro Leal, a great 
Mexican history and university professor. 

(Penciled notation: If he has time ECC may finish this later — RDC.) 

Exhibit No. 934 

July 20th, 1943. 
Mr. and Mrs. Constantin Oumansky, 
Enibassy of the V. 8. 8. R., 

Merida 18, Mexico, D. F. 

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Oumansky, This is to thank you both for your very kind 
hospitality while I was in Mexico City. I enjoyed every minute of the 3 days 
and I cannot tell you how pleased I was to renew our old acquaintance. 

The new secretary of the Mexican aid to Russia committee came to see me 
Sunday morning and we had a long and useful talk. 

I arrived at La Guardia Field yesterday (Monday afternoon) about 1 : 30. 

I have already given your greetings to several of your friends and will be 
seeing more in the course of the week. I tried several times to reach Mrs. 
Litvinoff on the phone yesterday afternoon, but there was no answer. So I went 
to her apartment at 6 : 00 and discovered she had been away for a few days. At 
the apartment house they did not know precisely when she would return, but I 
will see that she gets Mrs. Oumansk.v's letter just as soon as she returns. 

Mrs. Carter and Ruth were delighted with Mrs. Oumansky's presents and with 
all the news I was able to bring them. 

I will be w^riting you again in two or three days on several matters. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 935 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York 22, N. T. July 20th, 1943. 
Mrs. Maxim Litvinofp, 

301 Eafit SSth 8treet, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Mrs. Litvinoff : Yesterday I arrived by air from Mexico City where I 
had spent 3 days. I saw a great deal of Mr. and Mrs. Constantin Oumansky, 
who sent you their warmest greetings and the enclosed package. On ray ar- 
rival yesterday afternoon I phoned your apartment several times but got no 
answer. So I went to the apartment about six in the evening and discovered 
that you were away for a few days. So I thoutrht I better send this package 
by mail rather than leaving it with the elevator man. 


The Oumansky's are settling in to life in Mexico City very well. They have 
made many friends already and are clearly very vpell liked. They are both 
terribly crushed by their daughter's death. He is most considerate of her and 
is doing everything in his power to help her to overcome her profound grief. His 
life is, of course, more filled with activity than hers so he does not have as much 
time for sadness. But he is terribly crushed by the calamity. He is naturally 
eager for her to have as many things to do as possible. I suggested to her a 
number of things that she can do for Russian war relief in Mexico. 

II' you could possibly manage to go there for a visit, you would be doing the 
Oumanskys a very friendly service. Incidentally, you would find much in Mex- 
ico to interest you. It is a fascinating mixture of Europe, the Orient, and of 
Mexican Indian life and culture. There are interesting people in Mexico from 
all over the world and the cultural and aesthetic life would interest you very, 
very greatly. The climate is salubrious and the vegetables and fruit, the clear 
air and the sunshine are to be had in great abundance. There is little external 
evidence of the war and no rationing of rubber, petrol or coffee. Do go if you 
possibly can. 

There is a chance that I will be flying to Chungking about the first of August. 
I do hope that I can have a talk with you at least on the phone before I go, if 
I do go. 

With kindest regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

Edwaed C. Carter. 

Copy care Embassy of the U. S. S. R., Washington, D. C. 

Exhibit No. 936 
Copy to : Oumansky. 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York 22, N. Y., July 20th, 1943. 
Eugene D. Kisselev, Esq., 

Consul General of the V. 8. 8. R., 

7 East 61st 8treet, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Kisselev : This is to inform you that I have recently received a cable- 
gram from Moscow signed by Voitinsky reading as follows : 

"Volumes Mont Tremblant Conference Papers Received Many Thanks." 

May I thank you most sincerely for your kindness in dispatching the volumes 
go promptly. 

I will have another consignment of books to send to Voitinsky in another 
week or two. May I enlist your help in sending this second instalment also? 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 937 

129 East 52nd Street, New York 22, N. Y., 

August Jfth, 1943. 


Executive Office of the President, 

The White House, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. CtrERiE: Dad was very grateful to you for sending him the letter 
of recommendation which he found awaiting him at the Mayflower on Monday 
night. He was sorry to miss having a last word with you. If there is anything 
■which you would like to communicate with him you can send it to the Embassy 
in Chungking. 

He is wondering whether you would feel free to cable John Fairbank that he 
is on the way? 

Sincerely yours. 

Secretary to Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 938 

August 1, 1943. 
Sent from 331 East 71st Street, N. Y. C. 

Lauchlin Currie, 

Executive Office of the President, 

White House, Washington, D. C: 

If you think a general letter of recommendation would be helpful for me on 
my journey could I get it at your office nine-thirty Tuesday morning? 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 939 

The United States, 
Office of War Information, 
54 Queensway, New Delhi, India, August 23, 1943. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

% American Eiwhassy, Chungking. 

Dear Dad : The following cable came from Bill Holland, which I am passing 
along through the pouch. 

"Extension AMCO relief studies requested confidential basis hope you Carter 
can report briefly from Chungking, extensively following return ; also secure 
several studies qualified Americans special aspects 500 dollars available stop 
Can you also arrange survey correspondents India Australia Hariet More." 

I hope things are going well, and that the trip was not too adventurous. 
Affectionately yours, 

[s] Bill. 

(Penciled note : W. D. Carter.) 

Exhibit No. 940 

129 East 52nd Street, New York 22, N. Y., 

15th October 1943. 
Letter #25 

William D. Carter, Esq., 

U. S. Office of War Inforniation, 

A. P. O. 885, Postmaster, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Bill : Here is another part of the September Pacific Affairs which you 
requested. I hope it gets to you soon. 

You may be interested to know that Kay Greene is now, as far as we know, 
somewhere in the northern part of the continent on which you landed before 
flying to your present post. She started out with a job with Lehman's organiza- 
tion, which I believe Phill Jessup got for her. I think Margaret is going to use 
some of her furniture for her new apartment. Kay had left it for Rose Y'ardu- 
mian and Mary Healy to use. But as Rose has now gone to Washington for the 
IPR and as Mary will soon be joining Beecroft, they gave up their plans for 
taking an apartment here so the furniture was going begging. 


Exhibit No. 941 

1 East 54th Street, 

■'ith November, 1943. 
Private & confidential. 
Dr. Robert J. Kerner, 

University of California, Berkley. 
Dear Kerneb : As you know, W. L. Holland and I were in Cliina in September. 
Holland saw your former student and great admirer, Chen Han-.seng. Holland 
discovered that because of his honest, liberal views and progressive attitude, 
Chen Han-seng was in danger of being spirited away by some underground right- 
wing group. We all regard him as one of the soundest students of China's 
agrarian economy and a true Chinese patriot. We conferred with both Chinese 
and American friends in China as to how best to save Chen Han-seng for future 


usefulness to his country. It is a matter that has to be handled with extreme 

All of our advisers say that the best insurance would be an invitation from 
one of the three or four leading American universities to Chen Han-seng to come 
to the United States either as a temporary research professor or associate or 
for a special course of lectures. This apparently would be a greater safeguard 
than an invitation from the IPR. 

Knowing how familiar you are with Chen Han-seng*s work, Holland and I 
are venturing to inquire whether you could act in the matter. If funds should 
prove the only difficulty, we would be prepared to find the necessary money for 
the journey and, say, a three-months api>ointment. 

In confidence, today I have received through the State Department the fol- 
lowing confidential message from Chungking : 

"Confidential : Please tell Mr. Carter that latest from the Kweilin consul 
indicates that Chen Han-seng is in an increasingly precarious position, and 
that Sa Kung-liao, the liberal writer who was arrested there this summer, 
is now incommunicado; Chen may well be next, and IPR would be well 
advised to act suddenly and soon if they want to get him out." 
Would you wire me whether you would be in a position to act swiftly and 
.affirmatively in this matter? 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 9-12 

< Handwritten note:) Copies to JAC 


1 East 54th Street, 
.Veir York 22, N. Y., Sth November 1943. 
The Misses Caster, 

31 Bartlctt ^trert, Andovcr, Massachusetts. 

Dear Mabel and Harriet : Letters from each of you have arrived. "We are 
glad to hear fj-om you both and to read the interesting clippings that you have 

I finished my work in Moscow just as Hull, Eden, Harriman, and their staffs 
arrived. I had an invitation to go to the airport to meet them, but at the same 
time I had an important engagement with a Russian expert on China whom I 
had been trying to see ever since I arrived, so 1 spent three hours with Rogoff 
instead of going to the airport to see the celebrities arrive. The reception for 
them was very imiiressive I was told. The American planes came in and landed 
their passengers fifteen minutes ahead of the British, so first I\Ir. Hull inspected 
the Guard of Honor and then Mr. Eden. The Guard of Honor were all in fancy 
uniforms and impressed everyone profoundly. I "did not bother Hull or Eden 
after their arrival because I knew they were fully occupied with the preparations 
for what proves to have been one of the most historic meetings in our generation. 
A great many of the things that we have all worked for for years are beginning 
to be realized. 

We are not going to Nashville to see Jill because John is staying on at Fort 
Sill as an artillery instructor for a month or two at least. His address is : Lt. 
John A. Carter 01184470, Battery E, 32nd Battalion, Sth Training Regiment, 
F. A. R. T. C, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. 

Alice and I are going to Lee this afternoon so I can get a little further sleep 
and relaxation before I plunge into active work next week. 

Ruth and I have just spent two days in Washington. I had talks with Secre- 
tary Morgenthau, Ambassador Davies, Lauchlin Currie, Governor Lehman, Phil 
Jessup. Selskar Gunn, General Faymonville, Jane Plimpton, Stanley Hornbeck, 
Elizalde, Fox of the President's War Relief Control Board, and a few others. 

I was very tired when I arrived owing to the strenuous character of the last 
week in Russia, but I am now back in my old form. 

You will note we have moved into new offices which ai-e going to be a little^ 
more commodious and convenient than our rabbit-warren at 129 East 52nd 

With much love, I am 

Ever affectionately yours, 


Exhibit No. 943 

November 13, 1943. 
AG from ECC : 

When I asked yon to translate Rogoff's article I did not know about the part 
of it which appeared in the September issue of Amerasia. I hope tliis will reach 
you in time so as to prevent your doing the entire translation if part of it has 
already been done in Amerasia. 

I was sorry that I did not get as far to the east as Irkutsk. 

Exhibit No. 944 

1 East 54th Street, New York 22, N. Y., 

15th November, 1943. 
Lt. John A. Carter 01184470, 

Battery E, 32nd Battalion, 8th Training Regiment, 

Fort Sill, Oldahoma. 

Dear John : It was wonderful to hear your voice on the phone at Lee Friday 
evening. Mother, Ruth and I were very excited. 

I got your good letter of November 3rd a few days before. Your present tem- 
porary assignment of teaching men survey must, as you say, be both interesting 
and instructive to you. I am sure it is also interesting and instructive to your 

You certainly have a wide variety of subjects to cover in the Field Artillery. 

You would have been immensely interested to have visited with me the great 
"German War Tropiiies Exhibition" at the Park of Culture and Rest in Moscow. 
Here, spreading over many acres is a vast but systematically organized collec- 
tion of armament and equipment captured from the Germans. There are special 
sections for each classification— tanks, planes, trucks, artillery, uniforms, mines, 
bombs, etc. The evolution, for example of tanks and artillery, are vividly shown. 
The Russian Major General who personally conducted me had special tech- 
nicians elaborating details in each section; i. e., one for howitzers, another for 
heavy siege guns, another for light but terribly powerful antitank guns, another 
for various types of antiaircraft guns. The different technicians explained the 
differences in German and Soviet equipment and indicated how much more mobile 
a great deal of the Russian equipment is. 

Yes, the Moscow conference was one of the most significant gatherings of our 
generation. As I was in Russia for the fortnight before the conference began, 
I was aware on every side of the determined efforts the Russians were making to 
ensure the success of the conference. The intellectual and documentary educa- 
tion had been very extensive. In addition the Russians thought up a thousand 
dilTerent acts of hospitality and friendship not only for Hull and Eden but for 
all of their staff including all of the members of the crews of every one of the 
British and American planes that flew the two staffs into Moscow. 

It was, I suppose, necessary for Churchill and Roosevelt to have all of those 
two-some conferences of theirs, but it did begin to look to all the rest of the world 
as though a secret, closely knit Anglo-American hegemony was emerging to con- 
trol the world. 

The Moscow conferences dramatize to the world that the four countries — 
Britain, China, U. S., and U. S. S. R. — must and will work together. Of course, 
there are innumerable problems to be faced still, but the machinery for facing 
them is now at long last being set up. 

I am sure that all of the public criticism of Hull as being anti-Soviet has been 
worth while. It probably needled him into bolder and more friendly action than 
he mi!:ht otherwise have taken. 

With you, I think that the reports of the travelling Senators were not aS 
thoughtful as they should have been. A British Parliamentary Mission of the 
same sort would have compared notes and agreed on making a more unified im- 
pact on the public on their return. 

With you I also question the wisdom of the line which Time is taking regard- 
ing air bases abroad. There is bound to be an immense expansion of aviation 
after the war, but we will become one of the most hated nations if we try to 
scoop other nations in attempting monopoly of postwar commercial aviation. 

It is too eai-ly to say whether Wavell will establish a new India or not. Thus 
far he has shown no sign of holding out the olive branch to those in prison. He 


has, however, publicly acknowledged that there is famine in India by going per- 
sonally to Bengal, which his predecessor failed to do. 

I will try and send you copies of any letters or reports that might develop 
further my ideas resulting from the trip. 

I enclose a hurriedly dictated report on certain aspects of my visit to the 
Soviet Union. This is just a first draft and will be revised later. Will you 
please send it on to Polly and the Andover Aunts and ask them to return it to me. 
Affectionately yours, 

Exhibit No. 945 

1 East 54th Steeet, New York 22, N. Y., 

15th November 1943. 
Miss Kate Mitchell, 

Amerasia, 225 Fifth Avenue, 

'Nevo York, N. Y. 
Dear Kate : May I congratulate you on the September issue of Amerasia. I 
do hope that you managed to send a number of copies into China itself. If you 
have not done so already, may I venture to suggest that you tear off the cover 
and send by air mail to their appropriate APO addresses one copy each to : 
General Stilwell 
General Chennault 
General Stratemeyer (New Delhi) 

John Davies and Jack Service ( Both on Stilwell's staff) 
George Merrell (American Mission, APO 8S5, Postmaster, NYC) 
William D. Carter (U. S. O. W. I., APO 885, Postmaster, NYC) 
Mac Fisher (Chungking) 
You might also send one by ordinary air mail to Liu fu-wan, P. O. Box 98, 

It may help matters with the Indian and Chinese censorship if you refrain 
from mentioning that you are sending these at my request. It may also help 
if the envelope which carries them is simply marked with your new address 
without mentioning Amerasia, 52nd Street, or the IPR. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 946 

(Pencilled:) RD San Francisco, 417 Market St. 
(Pencilled note:) Return to RD 

Report on Washington Office, December 1943-March 1945 

Under the joint auspices of the American Council and the International Secre- 
tariat the Washington offices of the Institution Of Pacific Relations were re- 
opened at 744 Jackson Place NW., in November 1943 with Professor William C. 
Johnstone, Dean of the School of Government at The George Washington Uni- 
versity, as Director of the Washington Study Program and Miss Rose Yardumian 
as Washington Representative. During the past year several research associates 
have been added on a part-time basis including Miss Virginia Thompson, Mrs. 
Eleanor Lattimoi-e and Dr. Rockwood Chen. (Miss Thompson moved to San 
Francisco in October where she is now associated with the Office of War Informa- 
tion.) In August 1944 Mrs. Elizabeth Ussachevsky joined the staff of the Wash- 
ington Office. A small library including a full set of IPR publications and a 
number of reference texts on the Far East has been set up and made available 
to members and people working in the field. The Washington Office sells the 
publications of both the American Council and the International Secretariat for 
the convenience of members in the local area. 

The IPR in Wa.shington has been in a favorable position through its inter- 
national and private character to simulate informal discussion among Far Eas- 
tern experts temporarily stationed in Washington from the various countries 
for off-the-record meetings either at the IPR offices or at the Cosmos Club Assem- 
bly Hall. Informal meetings at the IPR office — of which there have been 17 in 
the course of the past year — have included such speakers as Mr. Edmund Clubb of 


the Department of State; Dr. Wang Shih-chieh, Minister of Information in 
Chungking; Col. Victor Purcell, a colonial administrator with long ex- 
perience in Malaya ; Dr. J. S. Kennard, a missionary recently returned from 
China ; the Hon. Walter Nash of New Zealand who discussed the ILO confer- 
ence ; several Chinese professors visiting this country under the program of 
cultural relations of the Department of State; Mr. John Service of the Depart- 
ment of State ; Sir Frederick Eggleston, Minister to the United States from 
Australia ; Mr. Kumarappa, Director of Social Sciences of the Tata Institute, 
India ; Mr. George Yeh, China, Ambassador Naggiar, France, Mrs. Pandit, India, 
Mr. Siva Rao, India, delegates to the Hot Springs Conference of IPR ; Senator 
Carloos Garcia, a Filipino guerrilla leader from Leyte ; Gunther Stein, British 
correspondent from China ; and Mr. John Emmerson of the Department of State 
who described plans of the Japanese Emancipation League in Yenan. 

General meetings to which all members in the local area are invited have taken 
place about every two months usually in the Cosmos Club Assembly Hall. At- 
tendance at these meetings ranges from 75 to 100 people. The first meeting of this 
kind was held in December 1943 to give tlie members of the IPR an opportunity 
to hear Mr. Edward C. Carter, Secretary-General of the IPR and Mr. William 
Holland, Research Secretary, discuss their trip to China. The response to this 
meeting was so enthusiastic that it was decided to include such meetings as part 
of the regular program. Kiglit .such mombei'ship meetings have been held in the 
last 16 months. Other speakers have included H. Foster Bain, repatriated from 
the Philippines on the second Gripsholm trip, who described some of the effects 
of Japanese occupation on the Philippine economy ; Dr. Tsiang Tingfu and Dr. 
Mackenzie Stevens who discussed the role of cooperatives in Asia ; Dr. Henry 
De Young, Mr. Youngjeuhg Kim, and Mr. Ilhan New who discussed Korean 
affairs; Lt. Com. Nelson Spinks, Dr. Wiiljam C. Johnstone and Mr. Wilfred 
Fleisher who participated in a panel discussion on What To Do With Japan 
under the chairmanship of Admiral Harry Yarnell ; Mr. Obaidnr Rahman and 
Mr. John Fischer on U. S. -Indian economic relations. In December 1944 a joint 
meeting was held at the home of Mrs. Gifford Pinehot with the local branches 
of Americans United and Indusco participating on recent developments in Chinese 
affairs — Mr. Lewis Smythe and Mr. Owen Lattimore were the speakers. Early 
in March, 194.5, Representative Mike Mansfield of Montana reported on his mis- 
sion to China to the IPR membership in a Cosmos Club meeting. 

Special functions have included a luncheon for press members to hear Mr. 
Carter and Mr. I-Iolland give an off-the-record account of their trip to the Far 
East, a dinner for members of Congress and administration officials for the same 
purpose. (Penciled note — An informal luncheon discussion led by Mr. Carter 
for Army and Navy officials responsible for educational work was held about a 
year ago to acquaint officers with IPR materials particularly our pamphlet pro- 
gram.) A luncheon was heUl for Owen Lattimore on his return from China 
in the summer of 1944 when he accompanied Vice-President Wallace on his trip 
to the Soviet Far East and China. At this meeting Mr. Lattimore discussed the 
treatment of minorities by the Chinese and Russians. In December 1944 a 
sherry party honoring Sir Fi-ederick Eggleston, Minister from Australia to the 
U. S. was held at the Mayflower Hotel. 

Following the ninth international conference of the IPR held at Hot Springs, 
many parties were held in Washington to honor the foreign delegates visiting in 
Washington. Highlighting these was a tea given by the Hon. Frances Bolton, 
Representative from Ohio, for conference delegates to meet members of Congress 
as well as Army, Navy, and Administration officials. A small cocktail party was 
given for the press by the IPR to meet the chairmen of the various delegations. 

Under Dr. Johnstone's chairmanship a number of small study groups were 
formed on various topics sponsored by the American Council in some cases and 
by the International Secretariat in others. In one case the American Council 
of the IPR and the China Council sponsored jointly a number of meetings on 
Postwar U. S.-Chinese P^conomic Relations. Under the auspices of the American 
Council study groups met on Trade and Investment Policies in Southeast Asia, 
Treatment of Japan and Postwar U. S.-Chinese Economic Relations. The Inter- 
national Secretariat has sponsored two groups, one on Treatment of Japan, and 
the other on Economic Recovery in Pacific countries. A great part of the dif.- 
cussions on Japan have been included by Dr. Johnstone in his forthcoming book. 
The Future of .htpnn, soon to be published by the Oxford University Press under 
the sponsorship of the American Council of IPR. Plans are under way for 
another study group under the auspices of the American Council on the general 
topic of Dependent Territories in the Pacific area. 


It is interesting to note that as a result of greatly increased interest in the 
Pacific area and therefore in the work of the IPR generally, membership in the 
AVashington area has almost doubled in the last eighteen months since the re- 
opening of the Washington offices. (Checli with TGS on exact figures believe 
we have picked up 85 members in the past year bringing our membership up 
to 200 approximately. This does not include about 35 non-Americans interested 
in the work of the IPR whom we invite to general membership meetings.) 

ExHiHiT No. 947 

(Pencilled note:) Ray — Some rough notes for Peggy on my vague ideas on 
program. Thought you might like to see a copy. RY 

(Pencilled note :) Return to R. D. 

To: MAS, 
From: KY. 

April 16, 1945. 

During the present phase of the Pacific war and until its final successful con- 
clusion and for several years thereafter the interest of the American people in 
Far Eastern affairs will increase tremendously. The job before the IPR will 
be to build this interest in a constructive way toward the education of an 
enlightened American people. The IPR is uniquely organized and favorably 
equipped to assume leadership in this task. Through a carefully planned pro- 
gram of activities integrating the school program, -pamphlet and research pro- 
grams, and through an expanded circulation of Far Eastern Survey, Pacific 
Affairs and the other research publications of the International Secretariat, 
the IPR should be able to go forward building and broadening the base of its 
meuibership. Tlie greatest obstacle before the American Council at present is 
the lack of integration between work already done, current program and a 
future program. This can be overcome only with the appointment of a mature 
qualified and experienced Program Director with a background in Far Eastern 
affairs if possible. 

In my work in Washington I have found that not all people interested in IPR 
are interested in all phases of its work. For example, press and radio people 
are far more interested in the Far Eastern Survey than in general meetings or 
study group activities. The good job already begun on getting the Far Eastern 
Surrey before infiuential new.spapermen and radio commentators with appro- 
priate releases should be continued. We have found that government people 
are more interested in the program of study groups than in any other single 
activity. The international character of IPR l)ringing together experts tor 
inftumal di.scussion on Far Eastern problems has interested many government 
people who after participating in one of these groups usually become members. 
It may be that this kind of activity can be expanded throughout the United 
States ; in areas where non-Americans interested in Pacific affairs are present, 
the international character could be organized for people with Far Eastern 
background. It may be that this phase of our activity should be planned in 
cooperatic.ii with local Fl'A's, Carnegie Endownipnt groups, Americans United, 
etc. While I strongly favor cooperation \\ ith all groups to avoid duplication, 
outside of study group activity I would urge that the IPR set up an independent 
program wherever possible. 

Organized groups and clubs (including women's groups, international and 
national organizations interested in international relations, church groups, 
labor groups, and other) are attracted by general membei'ship meetings. An 
arbitrary figure of six such meetings a year might be planned for all active 
branches. While we have been able to plan only one meeting ahead in Wash- 
ington we hope in the future to have plans made a little farther ahead. It is 
not always possible to do this, of course, because people come unexpectedly and 
sometiiiies stay only briefly. These groups mentioned above who will form 
the bi'oader base which we hope to build are also very much interested in the 
popular pamphlet program. It may be that the general meetings and new 
pamphlets could be coordinated in some way. The Army and Navy can be 
included in the above group, generally speaking. We had one special luncheon 
in Washington for Army and Navy leaders in orientation work about a year 
ago to acquaint them with our work, particularly pur pamphlet progi-am. Per- 
haps another one should be planned soon. 


There has been no demand in Washington for the business luncheons which 
have worked so successfully in New York. However, we have had a number 
of small informal sherry parties beginning at 5 : 30 and lasting about an hour 
for foreign officials, U. S. government officials, newspapermen, etc., just back 
from the Far East. To these meetings we invite approximately 3.5 people, mostly 
members and some nonmembers whom we wish to interest in membership. The 
talks are usually off-the-record and brief, with a long question period. We have 
had 17 such meetings in the course of the past 12 months. They are an excellent 
technique for building membership in Washington as well as for giving us the 
reputation for being closely in touch with the latest visitors from the Far 
East. People often call up to ask what's going on at IPR? (We don't tell 
them all, of course!) Slightly modified to fit the special branches these meetings 
could be more generally used throughout by our branches. 

Not a small part of our office time is taken up with requests for information, 
not only on IPR publications and others but on substantive material. We have 
handled this business very spottily in Washington. When I have time, I work 
up bibliographies. Investigate Mme. Chiang Kai-shek's life, etc., but often these 
requests must be answered very generally by reference to a pamphlet or article. 
This is one specific instance where coordination between a branch and the 
national office is bad. There are lots of special bibliographies in the file in 
New York (Bruno has worked up many), and somehow when this is done 
branches should get copies. It would be desirable to have copies of those 
already drawn up. Another criticism which I would like to make is that, unless 
I come to New York to find out specifically what each of you is working on, 
I am apt to be very loosely informed. ( Don't stop the New York trips thought. ) 
For instance, I had heard from someone down here that we were putting out a 
pamphlet by Pearl Buck but didn't know anything about it until I got to New 
York. Each department head or the Secretary should assume responsibility for 
keeping branches informed about all work in preparation. This would be a 
big help. 

We have recently decided in Washington that we would try to build up our 
relations with the House and Senate Foreign Affairs Committees. In connec- 
tion with these plans which have already been in operation, a few^ of us invited 
Congressman Mansfield to dinner, and plans are in process to invite Congress- 
woman Emily Taft Douglas for lunch. Getting the IPR better known on the 
Hill will be one of our chief aims for the next six months. (I might add, Peggy, 
that I am scared to death of this kind of work.) I have asked Ruth Lazurus to 
keep me informed about forthcoming issues of FES so that I can use special 
articles as a springboard for discussion on IPR. 

Finally, on the question of big money raising, I have done nothing in this 
field whatsoever. The question is a complex one, I know, but the branches 
should be informed of what is being done in the various areas and how. The 
national office should assume leadership in this job but with some direction; 
perhaps the branches could help share the burden. 

The fact that Washington has almost doubled membership figures since the 
reestablishment of our Washington office is a concrete indication of the interest 
of many kinds of people in our work. (Check with Tillie. I believe we've added 
over 85 members and have approximately 200 now.) 

Exhibit No. 948 

1 East 54 th Street, 
New York 22, N. Y., 

ISth December 1943 
Andrew J. Grajdanzev, Esq., 


Dear Andrew: I am giving a small private dinner for several Soviet friends 
in Washington on Tuesday, December 14th, to report on my impressions of the 
Soviet Union. 

I would be delighted if you would join us. The dinner will be held in Suite 
237 at the Hotel Mayflower at 8 : 00 p. m. tomorrow night. Business suits will 
be worn. 

Would you let me know whether, in spite of this short notice, you will be 
able to attend. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carteb. 


Exhibit No. 949 

22nd December, 1943. 
Private & Confidential. 

The Secretary, 

Lithuanian Legation, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir : Yesterday I received the enclosed unsigned letter, pamphlet, and 
news bulletin in the enclosed envelope. 

I have scanned this material and am now returning it to you because I am not 
able to write to the anonymous sender, and furthermore I ought in all frankness 
to say that I am sure that this is not the moment for friends of Lithuania to 
attack the Soviet Union. From a realistic point of view it seems clear that 
Lithuanians in Europe will have a better opportunity of working out their own 
salvation by forgetting the grievances of the past centuries and seeking to under- 
stand and cooperate with the people of the Soviet Union. It would seem to me 
that along these lines there is a greater chance for peace in Europe and pros- 
perity in Lithuania than along the lines of the enclosed documents. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 949-A 
State of New York, 

County of New York, ss: 

I have examined the documents described in the list annexed hereto as Ex- 
hibit I. While I have a present recollection of only a few of them, I am satisfied 
that with the following exception they are letters or memoranda received by 
me or photostatic copies thereof, or copies of letters or memoranda sent by me 
to others or photostatic copies of such copies : 

12. Ray Dennett RDC Sept. 26, 1945. 

Edward C. Carter. 

Sworn to before me this 9th day of May 1952. 

[seal] Irene R. Donohue, 

Notary Puhlic, State of New York. 

Qualified in Queens County, No. 41-6061800. 

Certs, filed with Queens, Kings, New York, and Bronx County Clerks and Regs. 
Offices, Westchester & Nassau Co. Clerks Offices. 
Commission Expires March 30, 1954. 

(The document referred to by Mr. Carter is exhibit No. 9G2.) 

Exhibit No. 950 

K. C. Li, Woolworth Btjilding, New York 

El Runchokee, 
El Paso, Texas, March 7, 19U- 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 1 East 54th Street, 

Ne^v York, Neio York. 

Dear Mr. Carter: Your letter of March 1 has been forwarded to me and I 
am enclosing copy of a letter I have written to the Draft Board in Richmond, 

I approve of your assuring Mr. Holland that the IPR for the next two years 
will make up the difference between any salary he may receive in government 
service and his present IPR salary. It is only fair in view of the reasons you 

I hope Holland is deferred, as he is indeed indispensable in preparing for the 
important 1945 Meeting. I am leaving here but expect to be back in New York by 
the 15th. 

With kindest personal regards. 
Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) K. C. Li. 
K, C. Li. 

KCL : efm 


88348 — 52 — pt. 14 11 


Exhibit No. 951 

K. C. Li, Woolwobth Building, New York 

March 7, 1944. 
Selective Service Board #53, 
Richmond, Calif. 
Gentlemen : I have just learned that Mr. W. L. Holland, a registrant of your 
Board, has been classified as 1-A. May I respectfully suggest reconsideration of 
this classification for the following reasons : 

1. Mr. Holland is International Research Secretary of the Institute of 
Pacific Relations which is the leading research organization devoted to 
Pacific problems. 

2. Because the Institute has lost so many of its staff to Government 
service, Mr. Holland has literally become indispensable. Besides being 
research secretary, he is also editor of its magazine, "Pacific Affairs." 

S. The 1945 Conference of the Institute is regarded as very important, 
and preparations for it are in the hands of Mr. Holland. The work of this 
Conference will be valuable to the State Department as well as to members 
of the United Nations. 

4. Mr. Holland is frequently being consulted by representatives of the War, 
Navy, and Treasury Departments. 

5. Should the registrant be inducted, he will no doubt, because of poor 
eyesight, be assigned to limited service. I believe he is of greater value 
to his country and the cause of the United Nations in his present position 
than he can be in uniform. 

For the above reasons, I recommend that Mr. Holland be deferred for 1 year. 
Sincerely yours, 

K. C. Li, 
Chairman, International Finance Committee, Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Exhibit No. 952 


Notes Fob Cleveland Speech, March 31, 1944 

The peoples and leaders of the United Nations generally believe that they 
will win the war. But many thoughtful people in the various nations are not so 
sure of the peace. This misgiving is on balance a healthy sign. It derives in 
part from a greater degree of political consciousness than that which existed 
amongst the Allies in the midst of the First World War. It is true that some 
hundreds of people in the United Kingdom, the British Dominions, the United 
States and other countries were studying proldems of world organization dur- 
ing the last war. But where there were hundreds engaged in this task then, 
there are now thousands, probably tens of thousands. Indeed one of the most 
striking results of the last war and the Paris and other peace conferences was 
the creation of scores of important national and local organizations whose 
central purpose was : "It must never happen again." Among the many such non- 
governmental organizations that came into being at that period are the Royal 
Institute of International Affairs in London, The Centre d'Etudes de Politique 
Etrangere in Paris, the Institute of History and Economics in Copenhagen, the 
Foreign Policy Association and the Council on Foreign Relations in the United 
States. In lf)25 men and women from several of the Pacific countries, meet- 
ing in Honolulu, formed the Institute of Pacific Relations as a regional ex- 
pression of this broad movement. For it was felt that most international 
organizations had their headquarters in Eui-ope and were inadvertently tending 
to take the position that if European problems were solved the problems of 
the world as a whole would disappear. Many Europeans and Americans, if they 
looked to the Far East at all, seemed to be looking that way with a telescope 
in reverse. The founders of the IPR were acutely consrious of a whole world of 
dynamic forces in the Pacific area which had menacing possibilities and which 
cried out for immediate study. The Institute aimed to study the problems of the 
Pacific from a world point of view and the problems of the world from a 
Pacific point of view. National Councils of the Institute came into being in 
eleven countries bordering on the Pacific or having vital interests in that area. 
When Japan raised the curtain on the Second World War by occupying Man- 
churia in 1931, the foresight of the founders of the Institute was justified. In 


1933 the Institute chose Mr. Newton D. Baker as Chairman of its international 
governing body, the Pacific Council and he gave rare insight to the leadership of 
the Institute until his death. Recently an eminent American, closely in touch 
with the efforts of the United Nations, following Hongkong and Pearl Harbor, 
to prepare themselves for the war in the Pacific, remarked: "I would hate 
to think of where we would have been if it had not been for the scholarly 
research of the Institute of Pacific Relations." 

In addition to the national and international organizations which I have 
just mentioned there have grown up in this and other countries local and regiouat 
societies of similar purpose such as the Cleveland Council on World Affairs^ 
and the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations. These still further register th& 
growing conviction that the study of foreign affairs was as urgent a concem 
of the masses as domestic issues. The contribution of such councils to public 
enlightenment has been great. 

But the Second World War has come and by history's severest test the efforts 
of us all will have to be described with the one word : "failure." 

The challenge today is how can we profit by this collective failure to help in 
solving now the overwhelming problems of world organization? Do we now 
accept Newton D. Baker's prophecy that if the nations did not organize after the 
first world struggle, the war would have to be fought over again on a vaster scale 
and that the United States would return to the ideal of world organization which 
it had rejected? 

Although the governments of the world and the peoples through unofficial 
organizations like the Cleveland Council on World Affairs and the Institute of 
Pacific Relations have failed, they have increased substantially the possibility of 
avoiding the grievious mistakes of the past generation. Balked and frustrated 
as we are by the caution of our governments, the leaders of the United Nations; 
and their respective publics are much further advanced in previsioning the 
future than they were at this stage in World War I. 

Both governmental agencies and unofficial organizations have done and are 
doing quantitatively at least a vastly greater amount of study on the future 
organization of the world than they had done in preparation for the Paris Con- 
ference. In the United States alone every week sees the appearance of some new 
book, plan, or monograph on world organization. The Protestant Churches, under 
the leadership of John Foster Dulles, have advanced their views. The interna- 
tional lawyers, under the leadership of Manley O. Hudson of Harvard and the 
Permanent Court of International Justice, after a long period of careful study, 
have made six postulates and twenty-three proposals for the organization of the 
proposed community of nations and prescribing details for the operation of its 
machinery. The Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, under the 
leadership of James T. Shotwell, has published a flood of memoranda on almost 
every aspect of the postwar world. The United States Chamber of Commerce's 
Committee on Post War Problems has called for the immediate formation of an 
international commission to draft a world peace plan based on the Moscow 4- 
Power Declaration. This committee, headed by Harper Sibley of Rochester, 
has made six brief but pertinent proposals which, if adopted, might usher in a 
new era. The Committee of Economic Development under Paul G. Hoffman of 
the Studebaker Corporation has a nation-wide net of study groups working on 
the internal problems of American adjustment to the postwar situation. In this 
field many other organizations such as the Brookings Institute, the Twentieth 
Century Fund, the National Industrial Conference Board, the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the A. F. of L., and C. I. O. through a joint committee are busily at work. 
Many of the great universities have created institutes of international affairs 
which are turning out thoughtful memoranda on the postwar world. The 
National League of Women Voters, the American Association of University 
Women, the National Federation of Women's Clubs are similarly engaged. In 
the periodical field, FORTUNE magazine is conspicuous for its continuing pub- 
lication of articles on America and the future. This magazine has already pub- 
lished five major articles dealing with relations with Britain, with the Pacific, 
with Europe, and also with reference to the American domestic economy and 
the United States government. The Institute of Pacific Relations has the coop- 
eration of its Councils in ten countries in carrying out a long-range and very 
fundamental series of studies on the war and postwar problems of the Pacific 
area. The interim volume "WAR AND PEACE IN THE PACIFIC," being a 
report of the Mont Tremblant Conference, sketches the main outlines of the 
problems and indicates the studies which still must be undertaken. The Inter- 


national Labour Office in Montreal and the Secretariat of the League of Nations 
in Princeton are hard at worli. 

Within the State Departments and Foreign Offices of the United Nations work 
on these problems from the governmental angle is proceeding on a much greater 
scale in volume at least than during the first world war. 

Both the public and governments of the principal United Nations will have an 
immense volume of material with which to face the future. But while recognizing 
the value of all this preparatory work, the publics are haunted by several 

First, they fear that statesmanship, though adequately documented, will fail 
because the statesmen are tired, overworked, overcautious, and so fearful of their 
internal political opponents that they are unequipped to give that creative leader- 
ship on which the world waits. 

Second, they fear that isolationism with its reactionary and appeasing qualities 
will rise up to defeat creative statecraft if it emerges. 

Third, the people of Britain, China, Russia, France, and Italy fear that if 
America's leaders move constructively to implement the Moscow declaration, 
the Atlantic Charter and the Four Freedoms in cooperation with the other Powers 
that the American Congress will repeat history and defeat American states- 
manship at the end of this war. 

It is precisely at this point that the role of organizations like the Cleveland 
Council on World Affairs emerges as of transcendant importance. 

At the first conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations in Honolulu in 
1925 at the opening session the Chairman asked the members to list the problems 
of the Pacific. The very first spokesman rose and said, "The United States is 
the problem of the Pacific." There were many in other countries who asserted 
that the United States, becavise of its growing strength and its refusal to cooperate 
with the League of Nations, the International Labour Office and the World 
Court, was an anarchical influence in the Pacific and in the world in general. 

Facing the new and vastly more complex world situation today there are many 
responsible Americans who hold that the problem of the postwar world is the 
United States. For if it does not use its sovereignty to implement a world 
collective system, the third world war will be infinitely more devastating than 
anything mankind has yet known. 

There is a tendency among other Americans to fear that the application of 
the Four Freedoms and the Atlantic Charter will be defeated not by the United 
States but by the British and the Dutch in their colonial world and by the 
British in their acquiescence in an unjust settlement in eastern Europe. There 
is a further American belief that the forming and successful operation of a 
world organization will be thwarted by the age-old conflict of the European 
nations and the reemei'gence of Britain's ancient balance-of-power policy. 
There are other Americans who admit these dangers but who affirm that they 
will only be realized if the United States withdraws from the theatre of world 
cooperation. Certainly it is not the duty of the Cleveland Council on World 
Affairs or the Foreign Policy Association or the Council on Foreign Relations 
to dictate to our European or Asiatic allies. It is rather to concentrate on the 
colossal task of so informing the American electorate that its representatives in 
Congress will voice an overwhelming and intelligent American mass opinion on 
behalf of effective and daring cooperation in world machinery and affairs. 

Although the various public opinion polls reveal a growing American approval 
of International cooperation, they do not yet ensure that when the generalities 
are brought down to the concrete issues of "vital interests", the American pub- 
lic is prepared to go the whole way. In this decade we have seen the great 
Republic of France collapse because for 150 years there have existed two Frances 
which hated each other. Within this country the lines do not appear to be as 
clearly drawn as in France. But there are menacing movements and atti- 
tudes which are growing in strength. In spite of much that is encouraging, 
attitudes toward the Negro, the Jew and even the North American Indian make 
it inappropriate for Americans to throw stones at the British for their treat- 
ment of colonial peoples. The attitude of certain American groups toward pro- 
gressive movements in organized labor, among farmers, and the public gen- 
erally hold the seeds of future devastating conflict. Usually those who take 
these antisocial attitudes are precisely those who still appear to regard the 
Nazis and the Japanese more tolerantly than they regard our British, Russian, 
and Chinese allies. 


America today is in debt — deep debt — to China, Britain, and the USSR. To 
China because slie was the first to see the nature of aggression and take up 
arms against Japan. To England because if she had lost the Battle of Britain 
the Nazis would have lunged into the Atlantic and been able to drive further 
into Russia before they were stopped. And to the Soviet Union for her early 
foresight in knowing that war was coming and for her brilliant and stupendous 
war effort. 

I would hate to think of how much further Japan would have gone if the 
Chinese had not contained from three-quarters of a million to a million Japanese 
troops on the mainland of Asia for nearly seven years. Australia, India, Alaska, 
and parts of the United States Pacific coast would have been endangered. 

If England had lost the Battle of Britain, Canada and the United States would 
have become a war theatre instead of arsenals of democracy. Latin America 
would undoubtedly have been used by the Nazis as a springboard for bombing 
Dallas, New Orleans, Atlanta, and Washington. 

If the USSR had not accepted Hitler's challenge, Germany and Japan would 
have met in India and all southern Asia would have fallen to the enemy. China's 
position would have become well nigh hopeless and most of Africa would have 
been in the hands of the Nazis and Fascists. 

China's losses have been vaster than those of Britain and America combined. 
They have been equalled only by those of Russia, for to date the Red Army has 
killed more Nazi troops than the armies of all the United Nations put together. 
The magnitude of the Soviet effort is indicated statistically when I remind you 
that the published totals of American Army, Navy, and Air Force personnel is 
still under forty thousand dead as compared with an estimate of three million 
in the Soviet Union. 

The comradeship in arms of China, Britain, Russia, and the United States 
has naturally led to a measure of collaboration in staking out the broad out- 
lines of the peace. The Moscow agreements commit these four Powers to 
participate in a new international order. This commitment implied that the 
four Powers would police our enemies and substituted four Power collaboration 
for the old formula of a balance of power among the strongest states. 

Probably a majority of thinking Americans accept the Moscow thesis that a 
nuclear alliance of the four Powers is a precondition of an ordered world. They 
agree with the Moscow conference leaders that provision should be made for the 
cooperation of all peace-loving states with the Big Four. Public opinion in the 
United States broadly accepts the principles of the Atlantic Charter and the 
Four Freedoms partially because of an incorrigible American habit to accept 
broad and idealistic generalities. But the re-educational job with which we are 
confronted is as follows : 

First, to define what these mean when applies to the American scene ; Second, 
to understand the degree to which they can be applied nationally and interna- 
tionally by the other Powers ; Third, to aid our government in stating the 
issues so concretely and constructively that they will be supported by the people 
and the Congress and provide a basis for mutual cooperation with the other 

One of the many dangers in current American thought is the persistence of 
the idea that the United States is the most powerful country in the world. Even 
more sinister is the belief that we are the most moral people in the world. And 
finally, there is emerging from many platforms the assertion that the cultural 
and intellectual center of the world has moved from the European continent 
and the British Isles to North America. "Let him that thinkest he standeth, 
take heed lest he fall." 

In industrial and agricultural production and social organization the Soviet 
Union may outstrip the United States in our lifetime. Out of the ruins of conti- 
nental Europe there may emerge a daring intellectual vigor surpassing that in 
the United States. There are those who believe that the leaders in the realm of 
art and thought who will set the pace for the civilized world will emerge from 
the vast area that stretches from the Volga to the Yangtze. 

Certainly our failure following the Paris conference and our failure to under- 
stand the implications of Japanese, Italian, Spanish, and German aggression 
sprang in part from the American feeling of overwhelming superiority in power, 
social organization, and intellectual leadership. The war has shown that we 
are members one of another, that we are strong only as we are united with other 


Recently Mr. Walter Lippmann in his "U. S. Foreign Policy" has convinced 
many Americans that we have never had a coherent world policy. More re- 
cently Mr. Joseph M. Jones in his "A Modern Foreign Policy for the United 
States" has made an on-the-whole useful critique of our own State Department 
and at two points has advanced ideas which call for widespread study on the 
part of the American puhlic. He lists some of the main operating concepts of 
American foreign policy in the past and affirms that there is scarcely one that 
has not heen either demolished by the impact of world events or riddled by the 
implications of modern warfare. This is what he says : 

"(1) Isolation, avoidance of alliances, avoidance of commitments, diplomacy 
by 'parallel action' and 'cooperative effort'— demolished by our inevitable in- 
volvement in two devastating world wars in one generation. 

"(2) Verbal championing of high principles of international law and conduct 
while continually declaring that our action in support of any and all principles 
would stop 'short of war,' thereby delivering our diplomacy over to any foreign 
nation that could trump our highest ciird— destroyed by Japanese bombs at 
Pearl Harbor. 

"(3) Nonintervention in the affairs of sovereign states— a fraud that was ex- 
posed in all of its essential absurdity in Spain in 1937. 

"(4) Rights of neutrals — two world wars have shown conclusively that they 
are respected only to the extent that it is convenient and expedient for warring 
powers to do so. 

"(.5) Freedom of the seas — to a large extent made irrelevant by the growth 
of civil and military air power. 

"(6) National self-determination — proved inadequate as it fails to protect 
the rights of individuals and minorities. 

"(7) Limitation and reduction of armaments — a policy proved dangerous to 
the nation's security in the absence of international organization for policing, 
inspection, enforcement, and for mitigating the economic causes of war. 

"(8) Concept of international law as applying only to states and not to indi- 
viduals, thus permitting atrocities within states that shock and offend the world's 
conscience and lead to war — direct bomb hit. 

"(9) Nondiscrimination and equality of treatment in commercial relations — 
still valid, but inadequate in a world in which economic expansion and a rising 
standard of living are conditions of peace and democracy." 

Mr. Jones proceeds to sketch the framework of a modern foreign policy as 
follows : 

"I. The first major requirement of a modern American foreign policy is that 
it shall perpetuate after the war the close association of the four ma.ior United 
Nations — the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China — as a 
nucleus of world order, strong and above challenge. 

"II. The second important requirement of American foreign policy is that it 
shall be based upon, protect, and extend the principle of freedom in the world. 

"III. The third essential requirement of American foreign policy is that it 
shall make adequate provision for international control over civil and military 
air power everywhere in the world ; and for placing at the disposal of a United 
Nations organization a sufficient margin of air power to deal efficiently and 
effectively with aggression or threat of aggression anywhere in the world. 

"IV. The fourth major requirement of American foreign policy is that it shall 
promote, wherever in the world it is desired, steady expansion of economic 
activity, a rising standard of living for the masses, and expanding programs of 
public education, health, and nutrition as indispensable to democracy and 

In spite of certain limitations I would urge all of you who are here today 
carefully to study these two volumes. In addition I venture to suggest study of 
the volume "Post War Worlds" by Percy E. Corbett and "War and Peace in the 
Pacific" for those concerned for international relationships in that half of the 
world. To this latter group I recommend the volume "Winning the Peace in 
the Pacific" by S. R. Chow, an eminent Chinese scholar, and another volume 
"The Ftttt^re of Southeast Asia" by an Indian leader, K. M. Panikl^ar. 

The Institute of Pacific Relations in common with other organizations is en- 
gaged in an effort to fill up the vast gaps in the world's knowledge of the Pa- 
cific area. The American Council of that Institute has published recently a 
sheaf of pamphlets on several of the countries of the Pacific which are being 
used widely in the American Army and in American secondary schools. Every- 
one here who has a relative in the Armed Forces in the Pacific or a child in an 
Ohio school will wish to familiarize themselves with this invaluable series. 


This vast Pacific world, almost unknown to Americans before Pearl Harbor, 
is now beins visited by a rapidly increasing stream of American men and women 
in the Armed Forces. For a few it is a kind of Cook's tour. But for the ma- 
jority it is the mud of a South Pacific fox-hole, the fever of the lUirmese jungle, 
the lieat of the Indian plains, and the frustration of life in wartime China. A 
"must" for all patriotic Americans is to see that their men and women in these 
areas are supplied with background material on racial and national cultures and 
economic interests so that they can adjust themselves intelligently to their role 
of comrades in arms and comrades in peace with their Pacific allies. There 
remains the common task of examining the military, political, and economic 
policy which the United States and other United Nations should adopt in this 
far flung Pacific area. Here more attention has been given to the treatment of 
Japan that to any other single topic. But if we think that the resolving of the 
problem of Japan means the solution of all the problems of international coopera- 
tion in the Pacific area, we will deceive ourselves. For all around that greatest 
of oceans new dynamic and divisive forces will emerge which must be faced 
on a regional and global basis. 

Let us address ourselves first, however, to the treatment of Japan. I am not 
familiar with any more comprehensive analysis of this problem than that con- 
tained in an article in the current Pacific Affairs by my colleague, T. A. Bis- 
son. Recognizing that the treatment of Germany will give some pointers for the 
treatment of Japan, Mr. Bisson, from whom I will quote at length, writes as 
follows : 

"In his Christmas Eve broadcast. President Roosevelt expressed the general 
principles underlying the political attack on Germany in most careful and exact 
terminology. The conferees at Teheran, said the President, 'were united in 
determination that Germany must be stripped of her military might and be 
given no opportunity within the foreseeable future to regain that might. The 
United Nations have no intention to enslave the German people. We wish them 
to have a normal chance to develop, in peace, as useful and respectable mem- 
bers of the European family. But we most certainly emphasze that word "i-e- 
spectable" — for we intend to rid them once and for all of Nazism and Prussian 
militarism and the fantastic and disastrous notion that they constitute the 
"master race.' " 

"Against the background of the final military assault on the European fortress, 
three simple principles are laid before the Germany people: (1) Germany's mili- 
tary power will be crushed and not permitted to revive; (2) the old leadership 
must go; and (3) on these bases, the (Jerman people will again be accepted as 
normal members of the European community. The uncompromising nature of 
this program is perhaps its most striking feature. Even with respect to the sec- 
ond principle, there is no call to the Germans to throw out their old leaders. 
The words used — 'we intend to rid them' — place the responsibility on the United 
Nations for this drastic action. They are an implied threat to those Germans 
who support the old leaders, and an implied promise to those Germans who would 
like to see them overthrown. Cooperation of the German people in this over- 
throw would obviously be welcomed, but it is neither urged nor suggested. 

"In the same broadcast. President Roosevelt also made reference to two basic 
elements which must enter into the making of peace with Japan. These comprise 
llrst, 'the restoration of stolen property to its rightful owners' — a restatement of 
the Cairo pledge that Japan will be stripped of all territories gained by aggression 
since 1895 ; and secondly, the peace will ensure 'the permanent elimination of the 
Empire of Japan as a potential force of aggression.' It is noteworthy that these 
two pronouncements, taken together, do not go beyond the first principle as stated 
for Germany. They constitute a blunt affirmation of the intention of the United 
Nations to fight the war against Japan to a finish, somewhat analogous in this 
respect to the 'imconditional surrender' demand voiced at Casablanca. It might 
have been assumed that further statements on Japan, covering the scope of the 
last two principles set forth for Germany, would have to wait upon victory in 
Europe and the mounting of the final assault against Japan. At this point, how- 
ever, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, in a New Year's message to the Chinese 
Army and people, went far to close the gap. Revealing a hitherto unreported 
passfige at the Cairo conference, he made the following statements: 

" 'In intimate talks I had with President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Churchill at Cairo we considered steps for mutual cooperation and agreed upon 
certain plans for prosecution of the war. 

" 'We also agreed upon the question of the disposal of the enemy after the war. 
One important problem in this connection concerns Japan's form of government. 


When President Roosevelt asked my views I frankly replied, "It is my opinion 
that all Japanese militarists must be wiped out and the Japanese political system 
must be purged of every vestige of aggressive elements. As to what form of 
government Japan should adopt, that question can better be left to the awakened 
and repentant Japanese people to decide for themselves." 

" 'I also said, "If the Japanese people should rise in revolution to punish their 
warmongers and overthrow their militarists' government we should respect their 
spontaneous will and allow them to choose their own form of government." Mr. 
Roosevelt fuly approved of my idea.' 

"Assuming that these statements reflect a common approach to the peace settle- 
ments in Europe and the Far East, it is already possible to sketch the type of 
peace to be made with Japan. A few of the outlines are even now sharp and 
clear ; others must be drawn on the basis of given suggestions in the light of 
objectives which seem desirable. 

"The peace with Japan will be a harsh one in many of its aspects, notably those 
affecting territories, disarmament, and possible reparations. When the costs and 
sacrifices of defeating Japan's ruthless aggression are placed in the reckoning, 
nothing less should be expected or desired. These terms of the peace will, in some 
cases, be setting right old wrongs that have endured for a generation or longer. 
They are also required to limit Japan's power to engage in a second adventure in 

"Obviously, these terras presuppose the existence and continued maintenance of 
unity between members of the United Nations and the emergence of a strong and 
effective international organization. Continued agreement and firm cooperation, 
at least among the United States, Great Britain, the U. S. S. R. and China, are 
indispensable in order to enforce the terms of peace against Japan initially and 
then to see that they are upheld. Given this degree of unity, the har«her aspects 
of the peace can be mitigated somewhat by measures which will indicate clearly 
to the Japanese people that the settlement is dictated not by a polic.v of revenge, 
nor with an intention to enslave. The line is not so difficult to draw as might 
appear. A vengeful peace can be defined as one aimed at keeping Japan in a state 
ot lasting subjection, political or economic. Any such policy would be self- 
defeating. Sir George Sansom has rightly declared that the existence of 'a nation 
of over 70 million desperate and frustrated people would ruin any plan designed 
to bring prosperity and peace to Asia.' The principle enunciated by President 
Roosevelt for the German people must also be taken as applying to the Japanese 
people — the.v will be given 'a normal chance to develop, in peace, as useful and 
respectable members' of the world community. 

"What is stated here really amounts to a process of postwar development. It 
looks toward the emergence of a healthy Japan, which can in time reenter the 
society of nations as a member in full standing. The process makes serious 
demands on the United Nations, as well as on Japan. They must assist her to 
develop along peaceful lines on both the political and economic levels ; they must 
assume direct responsibility for the type of political and social structure estab- 
lished in Japan after her defeat. United Nations guidance will be required in 
greater or lesser degree, to make it certain that the old autocratic system is not 
reestablished, but that a new system is inaugurated in which the democratic 
aspirations of the Japanese people find real expression. Full opportunity must 
also he given Japan to raise the living standard of her people by the processes 
of normal international trade. The new world organization must have not only 
the strength to maintain collective security but also the economic statesmanship 
to eliminate trade barriers and develop the colonial areas of the world by meas- 
ures for improving the social and economic welfare of the inhabitants on a basis 
of nondiscriminatory international cooperation. This process will provide the 
most dependable safeguard against renewed Japanese (or German) aggression. 
The enemy nations must be restored to health and then must be fitted into a 
constructive system of international collaboration." 

Whatever the fate of the Royal Family, it is clear that whatever remains of 
the Japanese Navy must be surrendered. Munitions and aircraft must be 
destroyed or surrendered. Munitions plants must at least be converted into 
production of civilian goods. For a considerable period Japan will be pre- 
vented from maintaining military and naval forces. A civilian police force 
alone will be allowed. The punishment of the Japanese leaders of totalitarian 
aggression, whether naval, military, or industrial, must be complete. On the 


matter of reparations the experts disagree. Tlie Chinese are expected to in- 
inherit such parts of the large industrial plants in Manchuria and Formosa as 
are not destroyed by military action or a scorched eai'th policy. In these fac- 
tories and in the coal and iron of IManchnria, China will add significantly 
to her heavy industry. If, as declared at Cairo, China regains all her lost ter- 
ritories there would seem to be but little need of insisting on a long drawn- 
out period of reparation payments which might promise more discord than they 
are worth. Confined to the slender area of her own islands, Japan will face a 
perplexing problem of self-support. "With the security issue settled, intelligent 
people in other countries will assert that Japan's economic rehabilitation will 
be advantageous to other countries. Mr. Bisson rightly affirms : 

"Extension of disarmament into the factory, a necessity under modern con- 
ditions, still treats the symptoms, not the disease itself. The key issue in the 
degree of success attending the United Nations' dealings with a defeated Japan 
is not how well the country is disarmed but how greatly its outlook and mo- 
tivations are changed. In the last analysis, what is required is a thorough 
recasting of Japan's political and social leadership. Addressing himself to 
Germany, Pre.sident Roosevelt declared in the statement already quoted: 
'* * * we intend to rid them once and for all of Nazism and Prussian mili- 
tarism and the fantastic and disastrous notion that they constitute the "master 
race." ' In much the same terms. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek stated that 
'all Japanese militarists must be wiped out and the Japanese political system 
must be purged of every vestige of aggressive elements.' " 

As to those who ask, "Can we expect to impose democracy on Japan?" one 
answer is that if the United Nations do not concern themselves we will find 
the militarists and secret societies back again in their old places of power. 
Others will answer that the Japanese people may do a good part of the job 
themselves. Without staking Japan's future on the so-called "liberals" we do 
know that there have been relatively able opposition movements in Japan. If 
the United Nations' political warfare and postwar policy is sound, it will ap- 
peal to the Japanese on the ground that there are stronger material, social, and 
emotional satisfactions than those deriving from the ideology of conquest and 
master race. Confidence must be created in the faith that construction can 
follow destruction. If the United States role in United Nations' policy is to 
be positive in revolutionizing the psychology of the Japanese, the American 
people must steer a courageous and realistic course toward cooperation with 
the masses of Japan by avoiding appeasement and collaboration with the mili- 
tarists and the great cartels which have never refused to profit from the expan- 
sionist policy of the militarists. 

As indicated above while the problem of Japan is central it is not the only 
one in the Pacific area. A few of those that must be faced are the foreign 
trade, investment, airlines, merchant marine, and immigration policies of the 
United States. Another is the problem of British relations with India, Burma, 
Malay.sia, and China. Internally China has tensions and problems that are as 
baffling as those within the United States. 

Though Soviet Russia was the first gi-eat power to aid China substantially in 
her war with Japan, the role of Russia in the Pacific is still obscure to many 
citizens of China, India, the Netherlands, the United States and the British 
Commonwealth. This results in large measure to two factors : First and 
principally bef^ause of the generation of mutual suspicion between these powers 
and the Soviet Union and the fact that but few citizens of these countries 
have ever taken the trouble to inform themselves on the rational character 
of Soviet policy in Asia and the Pacific. It results to a lesser degi-ee from 
a failure to recognize the validity of the position of the combined Chiefs of 
Staffs that Ri^ssia's supreme contribution to the global war is to continue 
her devastatinsr blows against the Nazis. No United Nations citizen in his 
right mind could ask that at this moment the Soviet Union take on a second 
front war which would incidentally cut off the great flow of lend-lease supplies 
for the defeat of Hitler that now safely cross the Pacific. But in the postwar 
period whether Russia enters the Paciflc war or not, the other Pacific nations 
will have to recoscnizp Russia as a major Pacific power. The future peace of 
the Pacific will depend in part on whether the powers that heretofore have 
regarded Russia with suspicion can so thoroughly inform themselves as to 
Rxissian policy as to be able to accept at its face value Russia's overwhelming 
commitment to the world collective system. 


Cleveland Lecture, March 31, 1944 

In Georgia, in the Atlanta Constitution, Mr. Henry Ford proclaimed that the 
war will end in two months. Mr. Ford was not in a position to reveal the inside 
information on which his prediction was based. The period in which we will 
have to wait in order to verily his accuracy is so brief that I shall not take 
your time today to speculate on its truth or falsity. I mention it merely to 
advance another speculation and that is that Mr. Ford in common with some 
other Americans may believe that the collapse of Germany automatically and 
simultaneouslv means the end of the war with Japan. 

I do not hold this view. It seems to me to spring from several wrong assump- 
tions (1) a throw-back to the pre-Pearl Harbor underestimation of Japanese 
power; (2) a belief that there is a Pacilic war and a European war rather than 
a global conflict; (3) that once the Nazis are subdued the United Nations can 
quickly deal the mortal blow to Japan. 

But for the moment let us have an end of speculation. Looking across the 
Pacilic one sure factor emerges. The way in which the United Nations deal 
with Japan and all the areas which Japan has occupied will be one of the 
determinants of the issues of war and peace in the world for coming generations. 

Undoubtedly the collapse of Germany will have profound repercussions in 
Japan. The Japanese will receive the news with mixed feelings. It will spell 
ultimate doom. At the same time many Japanese, angry with Hitler's failure 
at Moscow, Stalingrad and in the Caucasus and exasperated by the arrogant 
behavior of their German colleagues in Japan and China, will secretly rejoice 
that the German master race is eating the dust of defeat. The Japanese 
command will undoulitedly seek to minimize the meaning of Hitler's down- 
fall. With his collapse will come two important opportunities — the first on 
the military ; the second on the political and psychological front. If the latter 
is as inchoate as in the past United Nations political warefare in Africa and 
Europe has been we may yet win the war in the Pacific but lose the np;'c.> 

Exhibit No. 953 

April 14, 1944. 
Soviet Russia's Contribution to Peace 

(By Edward C. Carter, Secretary-General of the Institute of Pacific Relations) 

The Red Army has killed more Nazi soldiers than the armies of all the rest 
of the United Nations put together. Surely this is a primary contribution to the 
future, for until the Nazi army is destroyed there will be no peace. 

If the USSR had not accepted Hitler's challenge, Germany and Japan would 
have met in India and all southern Asia would have fallen to the enemy. China's 
position would have beoome well nigh hopeless and most of Africa would have 
been in the hands of the Nazis and Fascists. 

By what means did Russia emerge as the greatest effective military power 
in the world in the winter of 1943-44? By what alchemy did the Russia of 
1914-17 transform herself in a short generation? Remember that Germany 
knocked Czarist Russia out of the First World War while Germany was still at 
war with the entire British Empire, the United States, France, Belgium, Italy, 
China and Japan. There is no single answer. The process represents a vast 
complex of historical and economic forces. Here we have the paradox of a 
great people who sought primarily the good life. That was the first aim. Su- 
preme military power emerged as a by-product of that objective. In other words, 
Russia's second contrilmtion to the peace is the unity of her people and her 
progress in social and economic organization, looking forward to a genuine 
democracy as the ultimate goal. 

The Russians, the British, the Chinese, and indeed many Americans are still 
guessing as to the future international role of the United States. Under these 
circumstances it is inevitable that people in tlie other countries should be 
guessing about Russia's future role. This results in part from a generation of 
mingled suspicion and ignorance which has lilinded many of us to the fact 
that through the years Russia has had a rather exceptionally consistent for- 
eign policy. 

No student of current affairs can be blind to the serious effects on present 
thinking in many countries on the future role of the Soviet Union as a result of 
nearly twenty years of mutual misunderstanding between Russia and other 
countries. There is not time tonight for me to list those trends— some real. 


some imagined — in the early days of the revolution which caused misgivings 
abroad. Those early years provoked a profound and burning suspicion of things 

To the Russians the behavior of the other nations seemed equally grim. Sus- 
picion in Russia of the capitalist countries resulted from foreisiin intervention 
in Russia following the revolution. On the advice of Secretary of War Winston 
Churchill in 1918 London despatched materials and troops into northern Russia 
under Major General Poole and later under Major General Ironside. These 
forces at their maximum numbered more than eighteen thousand British and 
five thousand Americans. They disposed of the Soviet government at Archangel 
and set up a provisional white government. In eastern Siberia, British, French, 
American and Japanese forces marched in. The Czechs controlled western 
Siberia and Admiral Kolchak with British aid established a provisional regime 
at Omsk. You are familiar with the aid which the Allies gave to Generals 

Yudenich . You will remember that in 1921 the French General Weygand 

played a major role in Poland's war against Russia. For a long time it was 
not easy for Russia to forget the foreign intervention of 1918, the Allied blockade 
of Russia in 1919, or the credit Iilockade that extended into the 1920's. 

From the moment of Litvinov's first arrival in Geneva, the Soviet government 
went on record as committed to a world collective security system. Neither the 
United States, France, nor Great Britain were really committed to that system. 
Englishmen and Frenchmen assure Americans that it was impossible for their 
governments to make this commitment because of American isolationism. 

The Powers regarded Russia's commitment to the collective system cynically, 
and the temporary Moscow-Berlin agreement in 1939 was the direct result of 
tlie policies of Chamberlain and Daladier in the Munich period. 

It behooves Americans to resurvey the whole history of 150 years of relations 
between Russia and the United States, both under the Czar and under the 
Bolsheviks. In this period of 150 years the United States has been at war at 
one time or another with Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. Never 
throughout this period has the United States been at war with Russia. Misun- 
derstanding have arisen from time to time between the United States and both 
Czarist and Bolshevik Russia, bur they have never issued in war between the 
two countries. The economic and foreign policies of the two countries have 
been parallel. Their broad interests have been largely identic. Both have been 
more concerned with the maintenance of peace than advancing their fortunes 
by wars of aggression. 

On both sides there is much to forget. Happily, tliere is a general, though 
not yet universal, desire to face forward and profit by the grave mistakes of 
the past. Since June 22nd. 1941, immense progress has been made in the task 
of liquidating distrust and forging new ties of genuine understanding. 

The growing awareness of Russia's indispensability as a member of the family 
of nations derives from several causes : 

First, a frank recognition of the fact that if the USSR had not resisted the 
Nazis the other United Nations would still be fighting a losing war ; 

Second, fresh and ever increasing knowledge of the military, industrial and 
social strength of the Soviet Union ; 

Third, a recognition that Soviet geography, natural resources, and commit- 
ment to a steady rise in the standard of living both demand and make possible 
Russia's announced and reiterated commitment to a strong woi'ld collective- 
security system. 

At the recent Moscow and Teheran conferences Russia gave unequivocal evi- 
dence of her commitment to a world collective security system. This is sa 
clearly in Russia's self-interest that only a defection by London and Washington 
can again precipitate Russia's withdrawal. 

Mr. Hull has indicated clearly that one of the foundations of United States 
war and peace policy is the complete destruction of the Nazi system which 
plungr-d us into war. There can now no longer be any question in any informed 
person's mind as to the complete commitment of the Soviet government and the 
Russian people to the destruction of the Nazi system. In view of the Soviet 
war effort the consistent prediction of certain writers of a separate deal between 
Stalin and Hitler appears ridiculous. Though the Moscow and Tehei-an declara- 
tions have been criticized as indefinite, few can ignore the significance of the 
declarations regarding complete agreement as to the scope and timing of mili- 
tary operations. 

In the political field the Moscow declaration's fourth point recognized "the 
necessity of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international 
organization — for the maintenance of peace and security." Cooperation of the 


great Powers is such an indispensable precondition of sulistantial advance that 
this must be regarded as a step forward. Moscow and Teheran were also sig- 
nilicant in that they were the occasion for the first meetings of the Foreign Min- 
isters and the government heads of the three great Powers. 

There is a cluster of declarations and agreements which throw a good deal 
of light on the interests, intentions, and broad ideals of Great Britain, the United 
States, and the Soviet Union : The Atlantic Charter, the United Nations Declara- 
tion, the Anglo-Soviet Treaty of May 1942, and the mutual aid agreements con- 
cluded by the United States with other countries. The Moscow and Teheran 
statements to a large extent implied general approval of the foregoing declara- 
tions and agreements. In some cases they stood for concrete and binding com- 
mitments. In other cases they repreesnt ultimate goals toward which progress 
will be gradual. In other words, the Moscow and Teheran statements under- 
lined in clear terms the Soviet Union's commitment to a broad program of 
cooperation for peace and security. 

As might be expected, the Bolsheviks with their growing appreciation of the 
continuity of Russian history have long assumed that the recovery of Russia's 
lost territories was a legitimate aim. 

The Russians have made it abundantly evident that they regard the reacquisi- 
tion of the Baltic States, Bessarabia, and parts of Karelia as desirable and 
historically defensible. They have announced that at the right time they are 
prepared to negotiate with a responsible and repi'esentative government of Poland 
on the general basis of the Curzon line. They have not dogmatically insisted on 
the Curzon Line as unalterable, but they have stated frankly that it should form 
the basis for negotiation. 

The Russians have aflarmed their wholly friendly and cordial interest in the 
reestablishraent of the Czechoslovak state. They have entered into a strong 
and binding twenty-year agreement with Great Britain. They have made clear 
their attitude to the French National Committee of Liberation. They have 
stated their attitude to the Badoglio government. 

Tlie Soviet authorities have declared that they do not intend to annex 
Rumanian territory or to alter the Rumanian social structure. 

The Soviet government, together with Great Britain and the United States, 
has notified the Austrians, the rest of Europe, and the whole world of their 
intention that their goal is that Austria become independent and free. The 
Austrians are assured of support in their efforts to find economic and political 
advantage througli understandings with "those neighboring states which will 
be faced with similar problems." In other words, the world organization will 
not in theory stand in the way of regional arrangements in the Danube Valley. 
A measure of regionalism was foreshadowed by the creation at Moscow of 
the Advisory Council for Italy and the European Advisory Commission. 

The Soviets clearly wish to look forward to a hundred years of peace. I 
venture to guess that they would prefer to see western Europe emerge from 
the war quickly into a long era of peace and progress under liberal, demo- 
cratic, capitalistic, and friendly governments than to be torn in twain by long- 
drawn-out chaos resulting from inconclusive communist revolutions. 

Vis-a-vis Japan, the USSR does not seek a two-front war. The strength of 
the Soviet Far Eastern armies is such as to immobilize a Japanese army of 
approximately three-quarters of a million in Korea, Manchuria, and North 
China. While not seeking war with Japan, one may surmise that the Russian 
Army does not fear Japan. Very recently the negotiations regarding Sakhalin 
and the fisheries question reveal that Moscow is fully aware of the fact that 
her strentrth is greater than that of Japan. In discussing the war in the Pacific, 
Soviet writers invariably refer to Japan as the aggressor and China, Britain, 
the United States, and other countries as the victims of aggression. 

In her relations with China, Russia is reported to have taken a scrupulously 
correct position. The Chinese remember that before Pearl Harbor, when the 
United States and British countries were aiding Japan with abundant war 
materials, Russia was aiding China with substantial credits and supplies. 

With reference to British India, a study of Soviet publications indicates that 
the Russians are failing to follow the practice of certain American liberals in 
lecturincr Britain about her relations with India. 

At Teheran the three leaders recognized the common responsibility of making 
"a peace which will command good will from the overwhelming masses of the 
peoples." There was the promise to seek the cooperation of all peoples "dedi- 
cated to the elimination of tyranny." There was the welcome to such peoples 
to come "as they may choose into the world family of democratic nations." The 


<;oncert of three made clear their dedication to the cause of free lives to nations 
and individuals and their repudiation of the role of three-power dictatorship. 
There still awaits clarification of the fourth point of the Moscow declaration 
mentioned above regarding the necessity of establishing a general international 
organization. This was to be open to all peace-loving states for the maintenance 
of peace and security. Pending the completion of this organization the three 
Powers and China promised to consult with one another and, as occasion re- 
quired, with other members of the United Nations. 

The foregoing and other declarations point in general terms to the regulation 
of armaments and the inauguration of a system of general security. 

Moscow and Teheran did not completely blueprint the future. They did, 
however, point the way to many forms of international cooperation which are 
of self-evident importance to all nations. Neither the British nor the Americans 
who participated in those conferences have provided their publics with any in- 
formation to controvert the theory that Stalin and Molotov were any less sincere 
in their declarations than the leaders from the other nations. 

The Soviet government has participated in the United Nations Food Confer^ 
ence and is also participating in the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration. A Soviet delegation recently came to the United States for 
preliminary bilateral talks on postwar international currency stabilization 
with U. S. Treasury officials. These discussions, which were paralleled with 
talks with the British delegation and similar negotiations with thirty other 
governments, are paving the way for a United Nations Monetary Conference 
toward the end of this year or in 1945. The press has hinted that the subject 
matter of the Beaverbrook-Berle conversations in London regarding international 
problems of postwar aviation have been communicated to the Soviet authorities. 

The Soviet government's policy towards its own diverse nationalities contains 
lessons both for Europe and for the colonial areas alike of Europe, the Americas 
and Asia. These are lessons that can be learned and applied with necessarily 
adopting socialism as the exclusive government policy. Some of these lessons 

1. In oi'der to be independent and strong, substantial economic power is an 
essential. This is best achieved if there is an effective balance of industrial and 
agricultural development. This does not preclude high specialization in the 
Internal economy. 

2. When there is an integration between internal economic policy and foreign 
policy the risk of cultural or social domination of one nation by another is 
substantially reduced. 

3. Nation-wide education and public health are indispensable to a rising 
standard of living and the development of self-government. These, however, 
cannot be achieved unless there is an intelligent and dynamic economic and 
social motivation on the part of the rank and file of the population. 

4. Racial and national antagonisms and prejudices can be reduced by a com- 
bination of education, compulsion (i. e. punishment of all overt forms of dis- 
crimination and vilification) and economic practices which in fact provide 
equality of opportunity. 

The Russians' self-confidence in their way of life and in their strength permit 
them to work for practical compromises with other nations and other systems. 
This is a new development in Soviet foreign policy beginning about 1933 at the 
time of the second Five-Year Plan. Before this, they relied more heavily on 
hortatory appeals to the rest of the world and other devices showing some lack 
of internal self-assurance. Those who have followed the progressive efforts of 
the Soviet government to give their many minorities and nationalities a more 
indigenous and richer culture of their own, while steadily according them 
greater and greater responsibility for political and economic matters, were not 
surprised with the Russian announcement recently that the IG Soviet Republics 
were hereafter to have a say in Army and foreign policy. The minorities were 
to participate in the State's highest responsibilities — the issues of peace and 
war. This latest move was not in my view a hastily fabricated device for giving 
the Soviet Union more votes in a future world council than the British Empire 
or the Pan-American republics, or General Smuts' British countries plus Western 
Europe. It was rather a logical development of Stalin's policy of according to 
every major racial or nationality group within the S'oviet Union the fullest 
share in the complex and abounding life of the Soviet Union and, concurrently, 
a new place in the affairs of the family of nations. 

In October last I had the privilege of visiting one of the 16 Republics — 
Uzbekistan. Here, in half a generation, a medieval, predominantly Mohammedan 


State has been inducted into full participation in tlie mass production techniques 
of the 20th Century. Accompanying the industrial and agricultural leap over 
five centuries there has been a corresponding lightning evolution from feudalism 
to a political and social structure that has made a backward people heir to 
the education, science, and the aesthetic satisfactions of the modern world. None 
of these rapidly developing 16 Republics have any urge to participate in wars 
of aggression. Their vital interest is in the maintenance of peace and the most 
friendly relations in trade and culture with all their neighbors. Their vested 
interest in peace is as great as that of every one of the forty-eight states of the 
American union. 

Exhibit No. 953-A 

215 East 72d Street, 
Tflew York, N. Y., May 26, 1952. 


Room 424y Senate Office Building, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mk. Morris: When you brought to New York recently a large number 
of documents for identification, one was a mimeographed or photostated article 
entitled "Soviet Russia's Contribution to Peace." I remember that there was 
no clue as to w'here the article appeared. 

I now find that it appeared in volume 234 of July 1944, in The Annals of The 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, edited by Dr. Ernest M, 
Patterson, professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania. The title 
of the volume was "Agenda for Peace." 

In adition to my own, papers were contributed by Bruno Lasker, Francis B. 
Sayre, Percy E. Corbett, F. Cyril James, C. J. Hambro and Samuel S. Fels. 

Reviews in the volume, among others, covered books by A. Whitney Griswold, 
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Count Sforza, Stuart Chase, H. M. Kallen, Albert 

I thought that if you are planning to print this article of mine in the records 
-of the hearings, you would want to indicate under what auspices the article was 

Sincerly yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

ECC : f tw 

Exhibit No. 954 

(Penciled note :) "MAS scan & return to EC." 

January 7, 1945. 
ECC from RD : 

Apart from Kohlberg, Hearst & Co. there has been [penciled note "No?"] direct 
criticism of the school material put out by Amco except as follows : 

1. Julean Arnold has been carrying on a one-man crusade against the S.vllabus 
prepared by George Harris for some years. This criticism is largely against the 
relative amount of attention paid in the material to the modern political aspects 
of China's development rather than to any misinterpretations or factual errors. 
Arnold feels that relatively more attention should have been devoted to Chinese 
history. (Penciled note "anti-Brit?") 

2. Kenneth Colegrove took sharp exception to the use of Kate Mitchell (pen- 
ciled note right of paragraph : "I'd never heard of this. I know we slaved with 
Kate & Komar to make it objective") and Komar Goshal as editors of the 
pamphlet texts on India. He wrote me a strong note asserting that Mitchell's 
bias had been so evident and so proved that we were doing a disservice in using 
her and Goshal. He stated that he felt that the pamphlet was biased. The 
correspondence is in the files. I have an impression that Lennox Mills joined 
with Colegrove's criticism, but I am not certain. 

3. Leland Goodrich told me verbally that IPR pamphlet texts had been subject 
to attack in the Cambridge school system, and that some one had talked with him 
on the phone about them. My memory is vague on the subject, and at any rate 
no direct word reached the office while I was in charge. Again, I have the im- 
pression that the attack — if that is what it was— merely mentioned IPR material 
along with other stuff used in Cambridge. 


(Penciled note:) "This was a question raised by a Catholic group. Later the 
pamphlets were adopted in Cambridge." 

MAS may know of any comments directly to her from school superintendents 
as they did not normally come to my attention. 

For your private information, Huggins has raised questions several times in 
Executive Committee meetings about the educational program. He has not 
been enthusiastic about Mrs. Stewart, and as a member of a school board has 
voiced some reluctance to go along with the program. McConaughy and Jessup 
have regularly risen to MAS's defense and to the defense of the whole educa- 
tional program of Amco. 

(Penciled note:) "This is very helpful to know. I'd be grateful to learn Mr. 
Huggins' criticisms of our school program, for we do want it to be the best ever. 
I can't help wondering, however, how he can judge the school program as no 
report of it has ever been made by me. It may be, however, that my departure 
from the staff will satisfy his criticism." 

(Penciled note with line from next to last paragraph:) "I've had only one — 
from Great Neck, L. I., where Land of the Soviets was attacked by the Catholic 
Church on the grounds that the pamphlet attacked the R. C. church. When the 
high school teacher (who is an ardent admirer of the IPR & the pamphlet series) 
called on the priest & pointed out the only the Russian Orthodox Church was 
mentioned in the pamphlet, the opposition ceased and the series is still being 
used in Great Neck." 

Exhibit No. 956 

10th February 194.5. 
Owen Lattimore, Esq., 

Roland Vieio Road, Rvxton Jf, ifarj/land. 

Dear Owe^t : With immense profit, delight, and admiration I have just finished 

It is a marvelous postscript to Hot Springs. I only wish that I had seen the 
manuscript or page proofs in advance and I would have made a special ti'ip to 
Little, Brown & Co. to see whether they couldn't strike off a hundred advance 
copies to serve as the principal data paper for the Conference. If every member 
had had and read SOLUTION IN ASIA before the Conference began, the dis- 
cussions would have been on a much higher creative and responsible level. 

Personally, I feel deeply indebted to you for writing the book. I believe that 
the whole IPR and the leaders of the United Nations will profit immensely by its 

With all good wishes and my warmest congratulations, I am, 
Gratefully yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 957 

6th June 1945. 
Owen Lattimore. Esq.. 

Roland Vieio Road, Riurton 4, Maryland. 
Dear Owen : Ernest Simmons, of Cornell, at the meeting of the American- 
Russian Institute Board yesterday, told me he hoped you were not going to take 
Max Eastman's article in the Reader's Digest lying down. He asserted that 
Eastman could not have read the book and that all he had read was the pub- 
lisher's blurb. I am eagerly looking forward to seeing you on the evening of 
June 13th. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 958 

June 18, 1945. 
ECC from RD : 

In answer to your memorandum of June 14, I certainly have no objection to 
your approaching William Morris, John Hersey, and Mrs. Maurice T. Moore for 
contributions to the American Council. 

In view of the letter from DeWitt Wallace, of the Reader's Digest, a copy of 
which is attached. I am talking to I. F. Stone about the best approach to 
Marshall Field. Field is about to come east to talk to PINI about the espionage 


case, and there is a reasonable possibility that, with the Wallace letter as bait, 
I might be able to interest Field in seeing that the IPR did not suffer from this 
kind of an attack. 

I have also learned that Harpers Magazine is embarrassed by its prophets and, 
through Jack Fisher, I am making arrangements to see Cass Caufield when he 
retnrns from Europe within the next two weeks to investigate the possibilities 
of fi Isirge contribution from them. 

Exhibit No. 959 

20th June, 1945. 
Owen Lattimore, Esq., 

Roland View Road, Ruxton If, Maryland. 
Dear Owen : Enclosed is a review for PACIFIC AFFAIRS just received from 
Chen Han-seng. I would deeply appreciate it if you would read it and let me 
know whether it should go into PACIFIC AFFAIRS as it stands or whether 
you would recommend a few changes. 

In the latter event could you in your own inimitable way take your pen in 
hand and do the kind of editing that will enable Chen Han-seug's review to 
represent his and your best thought? As he will be shortly coming to this country 
to join the Secretariat and to lecture at the University of Washington, I am 
particularly eager that in all of his published writings he puts his best foot 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 960 

The Walter Hines Page School of International Relations, Office of the Director 

The Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore, Md., June 25, 1945. 

Mr. E. C. Carter, 

1 East 54th Street, New York 22, N. Y. 

Deae Carter : I have several letters from you to acknowledge. 

First, I am glad to have your authority for scrapping the old Pacific Affairs 

Second, I shall shortly send you all available back issues of Pacific Affairs, 
at the same time giving you details on the bound issues that I need. 

Third, I am returning herewith the copy of the draft letter with Bisson's notes. 
You now have alternative wordings for dealing with the Manchuria-Russia 

Fourth, I am returning herewith the Chen Han-seng review, with editorial 
suggestions. It so happens that I had been reading the Normano book myself for 
the purpose of writing a review for another journal. By and large I agree with 
Han-seng, as I usually do ; but I think that as frequently happens, his talent for 
twisting the knife in the wound has run away with him a little. It would 
be a good tiling to submit my proposed revisions to someone like Bisson, in order 
to be sure of being fair to Han-seng as well as to Normano. 

Owen Lattimore. 


Exhibit No. 961 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 
Office of the Secretary-General, 
Park Lane Hotel, London, 13th Sexttemher, 19^5. 
Ray>[0nd Dennett, Esq., 

5th Floor, 1 East 5/tth Street, 

New York 22, N. Y. 
Dear Dennett : The pace has been such that any general report on my progress 
to date will have to wait my return. I have been sending rather inconsequential 


scraps to Corbett and some of my colleagues in the office, but I have been so long 
out of personal touch with our colleagues on this side of the world, and I am 
trying to use every possible moment seeing people instead of writing reports. 

I have, of course, had hours and hours with our various friends at Chatham- 
House. They are deeply cast down by Amco's failure to accept their invitation 
for a visit to London in September. Most of their reasons for desiring the visit 
would be acceptable to all shades of Amco thought, but some of them would^ 
as you suspected, be challenged by everyone. 

Just before I left you made some cryptic remark to me about Willits. Airmail 
me a letter here at this address as to what it was all about. 

Also do let me know how you have come on with your Labour troubles and 
above all please write me fully as to failures and successes on Finance. 

I was both shocked and pleased to discover that under the auspices of Lady 
Cripps and with an introduction by the Master of Balliol, Max Stewart's pamphlet 
on China has been given a large circulation in the United Kingdom completely 
independent of Chatham House. 

Austern will be glad to show you the list of the faithful who turned out for the- 
luncheon which Lord Astor gave me at Chatham House a few days after my 
arrival. It was most sporting of many of them to come under the circumstances, 
especially as some of them had to interrupt the first vacation they had had for a 
long time, in order to be pi'esent. 

When I return I will endeavor to give you and members of the Amco Board 
and Staff an oral off-the-record account of my impressions of the prospects of 
the Institute in France, Holland. Britain and the U. S. S. R. 

By the way, I know your Executive Committee cannot have reached a decision 
as to the year and place of the next I. P. K. Conference. I would, however, like to- 
have your own personal, though necessarily tentative answer, as you will have 
to handle the donkey work for Amco wherever and whenever the Conference- 
is held. Specifically, what is your personal answer to the following questions : 

1. Should the next Conference be held in 1946 or in 1947? 

2. As to place, which would be your personal preference as between (a) Canada. 
(6) United Kingdom (c) China (d) India (e) Philippines? 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter 
Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 962 

September 26, 1945. 
RD from RDC : 

Mr. Carter sent me a letter addressed to you asking that I type it up and hand' 
it on. This I have done. 

He asked me to change the dateline from the letterhead on which lie wrote it to- 
the Park Lane Hotel. I note, however, that in one of his paragraphs he asks 
that you write him "at this address". 

The address to which I think you should send your reply is : 

% Mitrany, Unilever House, Blackfriars, London, E. C. 4, England. 

I have no idea whether, on his return from France and the Netherlands, he 
will be staying at the Park Lane Hotel or not. Therefore, I think it would be- 
safer to use the above address. 

Exhibit No. 963 


Notes on Mr. Carter's Finances in Connection With Recent Trip 

On July 27, 1945, Mr. Carter left New York in possession of $1,500 worth of 
express checks, $1,000 of this was provided by Pacco and $500 by ASRR. In 
addition he had $130 in cash. On his return October 16. 1945, he had $100 in 
express checks, $43.00 in dollars and £2. Mr. Carter also had a check on a 
New York bank for $50.00, an accommodation to a G. I. officer who wanted the- 
equivalent in francs. 

88348—52 — pt. 14 12 


Mr. Carter's personal expenditures were principally as follows : 

1 Hat £2-8-11 $9.93 

French perfumery 720 francs 14. 40 

2 pair gloves £1-15-0 7. 11 

Cigarettes 9. 85 

Shaves, laundry, cocktails, theatre (1) 17.25 

$58. 54 

Transportation from Great Falls, Montana, and throughout the Soviet Union 
and on to Berlin was provided free by the Soviet authorities. From Berlin to 
London, Mr. Carter paid ATC $84.94. From London to Paris he paid Air France 
(£7-10-0) $30.45. 

At the request of the Dutch Embassy in Paris the RAF flew Mr. Carter from 
Paris to the Hague free. Mr. Carter questions whether we will ever be l)illed 
for this. 

At the request of the American Embassy, KLM flew Mr. Carter from Amster- 
dam to London. A letter from the American Embassy to KLM indicated that 
Mr. Carter would be personally responsible for the payment of the passage but 
no bill has been received as yet. Pacco should keep in its reserve approximately 
£8 ($24.48) in case a bill for this passage should ultimately turn up. 

In making out the expense account Mr. Carter will charge the IPR for nothing 
from New York to and in Russia and on to Berlin except for IPR cables and 
postage from Moscow. He will charge ASRR i/o, of the air travel cost from 
Berlin to New York and will bill ASRR % of the London Hotel bill during 
his second stay in London. 

Miss Nora Ford Smith incurred many pounds worth of expenses for air mail 
postage and cables. She will send Mr. Carter a total bill. Instead of paying 
that bill the amount of it is to be regarded as available for purchase here for 
the Professor of IPR books and food packages. 

The American Export passase of $663.75 from Foynes to LaGuardia was paid 
by the New York office. In addition Mr. Carter paid £11-10-0 ($46.69) from 
Croydon to Foynes. 

A gift package of cigarettes handed to Mr. Carter by Sverdin in Moscow was 
an expensive gift. To get it into England Mr. Carter had to pay duty amounting 
to and then because it weighed too much to bring home across the Atlantic, 

Mr. Carter had to pay the American Express Company 10s-6d (.$2.14) to pack 
and send it over and presumably Mr. Carter will have to pay duty on it when 
it arrives. 

Conversion rates : 

England— £24-13-0 equals $100. ( Approx. $4.06 per £. ) 
Belgium — $1.00 equals 2.66 cronen. 
Holland — 1 guilder equals approx. $.40. 
France — approx. 2 cents per franc. 

Summary of hotel bills : 

Park Lane, London, 8/29-9/4/45. £28-14-4 $116. 59 

Park Lane, London, 9/5-14/45, £37-8-6 151. 94 

Park Lane, London, 9/26-10/2/45, £33-19-1 137. 86 

Park Lane, London, 10/3-9/45, £28-11-3 115.96 

Park Lane, London, 10/10-13/45, £16-8-7 66. 70 

$589. 05 

Hotel Mitre, Oxford, 10/6-7/4.5, £1-5-0 5. 08 

Hotel Lancaster, Paris, 9/14-20/45, 8405 francs 168. 10 

Hotel Des Indes, Hague, 9/22-25/45, 44.60 guilders 17. 84 

780. 07 

Cables and Postage, London, £2-12-9i/. 10. 71 

Books, £1-9-1 5. 86 

796. 64 

Exhibit No. 964 

November 19, 1945. 
To: ECC. 
From: RD. 

Herewith is a draft of the Research section of the Annual Report. It needs 
considerable redrafting as to style, but I would appreciate your comments on 



Several questions occur to me at once : 

1. On pages three and four, should there be more extended discussions of the 
Wittfogel and Broek projects, similar to that in IPR in Wartime, so that their 
significance would be immediately apparent to readers of the present report? 

2. Page 7: Should this discussion on research plans be extended to include 
the Indian project and others? The difficulty is that it is hard to predict what 
the Research Committee will approve and hence there is some danger of running 
ahead of the Committeee in including this in a report. 

3. Page S: Are we at liberty to reveal our Army and Government contracts? 

4. Should we not include the names of the individual staff people who were 
taken on by the Government? 

5. Pages 9-10 : Is quite frankly a pet of mine which I may be writing too 
heavily in this report, and perhaps it should be deleted entirely. 

Exhibit No. 977 


E. C. Carter. (Attached: Photo- 
stat Hand-dra-\vn map. Photo- 
stat N. Y. Times Map). 

Discussion on Collective Security 
& Far East (Chairman, Carter). 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

ECC. (Attached: Attitt'des of 
American Soldiers in Berlin- 
District Toward Ovr Allies. 
Sept. 1945). 
ECC. (Ere. letter to Edward 
Carter from AP of Jmie 12, 
1946. and Llst Bi-siness & Kox- 


OF U. S. & American Compa- 
nies Having Patent License 
OR Trademari^ Agreements 
"With Companies in Japan 


Kate. (Enc. July 17 notes) 

Report of Conference of March 9th 

E. C. Carter 


Pencilled list names on yellow 

Memo: Meeting Arctic Institute, 

Apr. 9. 
E.C.Carter. (Attached ECC to 

JP, April 17, 193.3, and F. V. 

Field from E. C. Carter, March 

27 1933) 
L. T. Chen. (Attached Itr. to 

L. T. Chen from E. C. Carter 

dated .Tune 28, 1933). 

" taiilev Hombeck 

£. C. Carter 

Memo of Interview with Mortimer 

L. Graves. 
Individual Travel Expenditure for 

past few years. Finance 1936, 

Document 7. 

Selskar M. Gunn 

Conversation between Mr. 

Arosev, Prcs. VOKS, IMr. Car- 
ter and JB. 

Barbara Wertheim 

Fred V. Field 

E. C. Carter (Memo) 

E. C. Carter 

Harriet Moore 

A. Kantoroyitch 

F. V. Field 

Galen M. Fisher 

Meeting of the Presidium of the 

USSR IPR draft. 

M. E. Cieeve (Madge) _ 

William Holland 

From — 



CD (Charles Dollard). 




Felix Frankfurter. 

J. B_ 

E. C. Carter. 

E. C. Carter. 
J. B 

E. C. Carter. 

E. C. Carter... 
E. C. Carter... 

Harriet Moore _ 
E. C. Carter... 
E. C. Carter... 
E. C. Carter... 
E. C. Carter... 













Undated . 


1 1/29/33. 



E. C. Carter. 


T^-pe of 









File Num- 




131 B. 38 


105. 123 

100. 27 

100. 247 

100. 195 

100. 135 

100. 122 
100. 237 




100. 53 



100. 104 

100. 168 


100. 169 



















Extracts from Itr. fr. Harriet 

Moore to E. C. Carter. 

V. E. Motvlev -- 

V. E. Motylev 

Moscow Meeting in Motylev's 



E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

F. V. Field 

Stanley K. Hombeck 

(Attached letter from Stanley K. 

Hombeck to Edward C. Carter 

dated 1/30/37.) 

Edward C. Carter 

Extract from letter, San Francisco, 

to Catherine Porter from Owen 


E. C. Carter 

Clinning from San Francisco 


E. C. Carter 

Harry Emerson Fosdick 

James G. McDonald 

H. B. Elliston 

H. B. Elliston 

Hall Borovov 

Edward C. Carter. (Enc. FVF 

fron ECC dated March 8, 1937, 

and letter to Edward Carter 

from J. P. Chamberlain.) 

William L. Holland 

Jose-ih P. Chamberlain 


Kate ..- 

Kate Mitchell 

EVF (and others) 

Kate Mitchell 

E. C. Carter 

V. E. Motylev 

Joseph Barnes 

Kate Mitchell _-- 

From — 

Supplementary Agenda for 
Discussion Between USSR, 
IPR & the Sec. Gen., Moscow. 

Frederick V. Field 

V. E. Motylev 

Owen Lattimore 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Fred V. Field 

Virginia Burdick 

Constantino Oiimansky 

Names for membership, including 
Alger Hiss. 

Vi'. W. Lockwood 

Mrs. Edward C. Carter.. 

Edward C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore -.- _. 

Joseph P. Chamberlain 

Dr. John H. Finley 

Russell Shiman. 

Copy of memo attached from Div. 

of FE Affairs, Dept. of State. 
Copy of letter to Joseph W. 

E. C. Carter.. 

Virginia Burdick 

I. F. Wizon 

Edward C. Carter 

Snydor Walker 

Maxwell M. Hamilton 


Dr. Robert S. Lynd 

E. C. Carter 

Lawrence R. Salisbury.. 

Edward C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore 

Edward C. Carter.. 

Frederick Field 

W. L. Holland 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 



V. E. Motylev 

Stanley K. Hombeck. 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter 

V. E. Motylev. 


W. L. Holland 

Edw. C. Carter 

Edw. C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter. 
Edward C. Carter. 
Edward C. Carter. 
F. R. Scott 

Edward C. Carter. 

E. C. Carter 


Edward C. Carter. 
Edward C. Carter. 

Edward C. Carter. 

Y. P. Bremman 

Edward C. Carter. 
Edward C. Carter. 
Edward C. Carter. 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

R.S. Bratton, Lt. Col 
Joe (Josenh Barnes)... 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

F.V. Field 

Philip J. Jaffe 

C. Onmanskv 

Edward C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 


A. W. Dulles.. 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

L F. Wizon 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Robert S. Lynd 

Edward C. Carter 

Dr. Robert S. Lynd... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Maxwell M. Hamilton 

Edward C. Carter 

J. Leigh ton Stuart 

Edward C. Carter 

E. C. Carter 

Jessica Smith... 

Chen Han-seng 





1/27/37 . 






6/16/38- . 

Type of 

File Num- 

100. 158 

100. 56 
100. 287 
100. 64 

100. 100 
100. 28 
131 B. 52 

100. 332 

100. 294 
100. 321 

100. 303 
100. 323 
100. 363 
100. 282 
100. 395 
100. 403 

100. 387 
100. 291 
100. 319 

100. 308 

100. 309 
107. 19 
100. 310 
100. 335 
100. .330 
100. 389 

100. 333 
100. 126 
100. 326 
100. 278 
100. 374 
100. 143 
100. 368 

105. 328 
100. 59 
105. 196 
100. 144 
100. 149 
191. 145 


100. 151 
119. 60 

191. 131 
191. 247 
100. 34 

191. 254 

106. 28 
191. 148 
105. 169 
105. 32C 
100. 226 






Felix Frankfuter 

Owen Lattimorc 

Frederick V. Field 

Irving Friendman 

Frederick V. Field 

Edward C. Carter 

N. Hanwcll 

Frederick P. Keppel 

Chen Han-seng & Knight 

Harriet Moore 

Frederick V. Field 

Owen Lattimore 

Wm. L. Holland 

C. Oumansky 

Grenville Clark 

Constantine Oumansky., 

Edward C. Carter 

Constantine Oumansky.. 

N. H. Hanwell 

Harriett Moore 

Constantine Oumansky.. 

E. C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore 

Margaret R. Taylor 

Dr. V. E. Motylev 

Kate Mitchell... 


Sherwood Eddy 

E. C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore 

PhiliD J. Jaffe 

E. C. Carter 

PhOip Jafle 

V. E. Motylev... 

V. E. Motylev.. 

Philip C. Jessup 

Edward C. Carter... 

Frederick V. Field 

Constantine Oumansky. . 
Kenneth Durant 

From — 

Edward C. Carter.. , 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
M. G. Shippe (Asia- 


Edward C. Carter 

Biffgerstaff ECC 

Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter... 

Herbert S. Little 

Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 
Edward C. Carter... 

John H. Oakie 

Edward C. Carter... 

Edward C. Carter 

Owen Lattimore 

E. C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter... 

Sherwood Eddy 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter... 

Philip J. .Taffe 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Edward C. Carter 

Evans F. Carlson 

Edward C. Carter. . 
Edward C. Carter . 
Edward C. Carter . 



4/21/39 .. 
5/20/39. - 
12/3/39 -. . 

Type of 



File Num- 

119. 58 
100. 189 
105. 161 
100. 153 
105. 150 

100. 145 
100. 409 
102. 30 
100. IS 
100. 61 
100. 296 
105. 193 
100. 295 
100. 264 

191. 195 
100. 288 

100. 299 
100. 271 

100. 268 
100. 299 
191. 270 
101. 45 
100. 293 
100. 211 




Exhibit No. 977-A 

52 Smith Terrace, 
Stapleton, 8. I., August 7. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, New York. 

Dear Mr. Carter : The enclosed rough sketch gives the situation today as it 
looks on a larger map on which I have been moving pins carefully since my 
arrival. There are no actual maps from China more recent than V-J day, and 
the boundaries of areas are therefore proximate and arrived at by linking to- 
gether the respective known points (generally district towns) marking the 
limits of control of the two parties. The only accurate houndary is that of the 
Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia region (west of the Yellow River, with Yenan at the 
center) which has been a stable administrative entity for some years. 

The tendency at present (and the situation is changing rather rapidly) is for 
the Central (KMT) troops to push through along the railway lines. However, 
there is also a tendency on the part of the Communist-led forces to filter back 
and take railway points behind the extreme points of KMT advance. Thus the 
Communists are back in several stations of the Tsingtao-Tsinan and Taiyuan- 
Tungkwan (South Tungpu) railways, with the result that what were once KMT 
salients are now KMT pockets. These situations change daily as both sides 
sometimes withdraw from points where they are threatened with encirclement 
and then come back, very soon afterwards, when they have been reinforced and 
feel that their communications are secure. The enclosed map, however, gives 
the over-all situations along the railways accurately, as it is quite obvious that, 
even though the Eighth Route may withdraw from the 15-20% of any given 
railway line that it holds to block KMT traffic, it will at once seek to reoccupy 
other places representing an equal fraction of the line, though in a different and 
currently more vulnerable place. 



The actual area of Communist influence is greater than shown, because where 
regular forces have been withdrawn to avoid being pinned down, or to reinforce 
more important points, the local guerillas and their organization remain. An 
attempt has been made to show such an area in the cross-hatched red lines 
south of Shanghai and Nanking, where no regular New Fourth Army troops 
remain. Other such areas exist both north and south of Hankow along the 
Pinghan and Canton-Hankow lines, notably around Changsha. The long di- 
agonal red pocket between Sian and Ichang represents the line of breakthrough 
of the formerly surrounded Hupeh-Anhwei-Honan border pocket, once closer to 
Hankow. This "floating kidney" will tend to move north, toward a junction 
with the Eighth Route Army in the region of Yenan, or perhaps that sovith of 
Taiyuan, depending upon where a KMT weak spot is found, 





"L ^Axi^^vV^^^^,^«i^*^^JiL■■^';^ ^^^'^^.'■•^^•^.'■^^ ^-s— t if ^iA<^;i=ai a\.w-y' 

,^^^<, y''^yt^,o«*'^££A*^.!Lj«..j?!V^ 





« 108 »0» MB 





{rT?A USS ControlM by KuomintMC 

BHI ConbolM by Conlmunil^ 



CHINA, showing Kuomintang and Communist areas 





Exhibit No. 978 
Discussion on Coltective Security in the Pacific and the Far East 

May 6, 1943, 8: 15 p. m., 700 Jackson Place, Washington 

Carter, Chairman. 

Present : Mrs. Alexander, Sir Gurj Bajpai, Hugh Borton, de Voogd, Farley, 
Greene, Hiss, Johnstone, Lockwood, Martin, Meisling, Pramoj, Shoemaker, Zafra. 

Mr. Carter stated that the purpose of these meetings was to stimulate think- 
ing around the problems of collective security which appear to be different for 
the Pacific area and the Far East, compared with those that exist in Europe. 
These questions should be considered now because so much international political 
action lias been Europe-centered or concerned with the American hemisphere 
that relatively little attention has been paid to the problems of collective secu- 
rity in the Far E^.st. The Far East has tended to be ignored in most of the 
scholarly efforts on postwar organization. It is thought that the discussion 
might form a basis for an essay by one of the members. 

It was decided that a few minutes should be spent on the statement on the 
first page of the agenda, to see whether there is general concensus that it is a 
reasonable forecast. 

There was some discussion of paragraph 2 and the meaning of the word ag- 
gression as used in the last sentence. Mr. Carter suggested that for pui'poses 
of this discussion it should be limited to armed aggression or military occupa- 
tion. Shoemaker suggested that one of the most likely dangers would be that 
trouble might arise between two sections of China, with Russia coming into the 
picture and making claims China would not want to recognize. Bajpai sug- 
gested that there ought to be someone at these meetings qualified to speak for 

Shoemaker thought it was almost certain that Russia would desire a Pacific 
outlet and Dairen is a logical one. This would be a point of conflict with China, 
as would be Inner and Outer Mongolia and the Communist elements in China. 

Pramoj suggested border difficulties between Thailand and French Indo-China. 

Mr. Cordell Hull statement on restoring the French Empire was brought up at 
this point. Hiss said that the statement was made a long time ago and it was 
a statement of intention with reference to a particular action, not a promise 
having in mind action regarding Pacific colonies. As it was worded it had to 
do with the "integrity" of the French Empire. 

Lookvrood said that one general comment on the statement in the agenda is 
that if it is intended as an inclusive statement on security as a whole a little 
more attention should be given to general economic and social setting of postwar 
development. The problem of establishing the basis of security will be a mat- 
ter of what machinery can be elaborated for dealing with these issues as well 
as what is going to be done about the economic future of Japan or economic 
rivalries in the Pacific or the future of the open door and access to the 
resources of Southeast Asia, or problems of economic and social reconstruction 
in China. 

There was further discussion of the possibility of minor or major border dis- 
putes breaking out between Pacific countries, and the likelihood of American 
or Soviet for'^es interfering in thpse. It was more or less agreed that there 
would be no large-scale hostilities in the immediate years after the war. 

There was some discussion of what kind of a settlement or security system 
would be set up — emergency or short-term — carefully planned and long-term. 

Hiss said that we ought to distinguish between a perfect paper settlement 
and a more viable day to day arrangement that might grow oiit of developments- 
during the war and the early stages of the peace. Good will will make possible- 
the satisfactory handling of a good many problems that could not be met with- 
qlut it in spite of all careful preparations. In the Pan-American system this is 
a pertinent point. The Inter American agreements mentioned in the agenda are 
important primarily because they stated something that had already largely been 
worked out and accepted as a basis of relationship. 

Lockwood said the Pan-American agreements work because there is peace 
rather than there being peace because there are agreements. 

There was inconclusive discussion of the applicability of the points on page 
two to the Far Eastern Situation. 

Johnstone said that granted we want a collective security system in the Pa- 
cific, whether on a regional or world bases, what could be the basis for agreement 
among the nations interested in the Pacific for such a system? Is it just a 


simple agreement that we are soing to act to prevent aggression, or is some- 
thing more necessary? One would assume that you can't have a system unless 
it is an agreement. It is quite possible that there will be a general agreement 
for the joint use of bases and employment of force in the Pacific, immediately 
after the war. When more normal conditions are restored and troops moved 
back within their own boundaries, many people will feel that it may not be 
necessary to continue joint use of bases. At that point when the period of 
large-scale use of occupation forces cames to an end more suitable arrangements 
will have to be made. Unless some machinery is set up fairly soon after hos- 
tilities end it may be very diflicult to do so later. 

Bajpai asked if there were any common interests among the Pacific countries. 

Hiss ."^aid it was a questiun of various periods of time. He hoped there would 
be an effort to secure an increasing community of interest ; that present and de- 
^ eloping military collaboration would l)ring an increasing marking cnit and find- 
ing of common interests. Every effort should be made toward reaching an 
agreement today. This ought to be supplemented or incorporated in further 

Bajpai said that of course everyone recognizes that it is impossible at this 
stage to envisage all those points either of agreement or clash of interest, mak- 
ing for association or separation hereafter. Would it be correct to say that the 
United Nations are all interested in the maintenance of peace in the Far East 
to the extent that they would collaborate with one another to use force against 
aggression in the Far East? 

Hiss said that you could not say at the present time that they are. 

It was agreed that the United Nations would have to have a community of 
interest before they could maintain peace in the Far P^ast and this question should 
he the first one explored at the next meeting. 

Exhibit No. 979 

Mexico City, July 8, 1945. 
Dr. Edward C. Carter, 

Russian War Relief, Neic York, N. Y.: 

Will be delighted to see you here any day at your convenience. Am sure 
Russian War Relief leaders in Mexico would welcome opportunity discuss with 
you their problems and take advantage your great experience. Eye, too, will 
be glad to discuss same problems with you, since they come under my present 
jurisdiction, and to renew our personal contact. Warmest regards. 


Exhibit No. 980 
■Charles Bollard, Executive Associate 

Carnegie Corporation of New York, 

522 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 18, N. Y., January 3, 1946. 

(Handwritten :) M. C. : Do you know whether the Army did any testing later 
than the enclosed? EC, Jan. 24/46. 

Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

1 East 5-',th Street, Nero York 22, N. Y. 

Dear Carter : I think these are the reports referred to in your note of Decem- 
ber 27. If not, please try me again. While both of them are technically in the 
•clear, I think it would be well to clear with Buck Lanham before using any of 
the data in anything that you may prepare for public consumption. 

You are w-elcome to keep these for your files. 




These "attitude" surveys appeared in a publication called "What the Soldier 
Thinks." I remember seeing that magazine in January 4G and I feel sure it 


will be continued on a limited scale. Surveys were of considerable value. Shall 
I try and get a more recent copy dealing with the East? 

M. C. 


Classification cancelled by authority of Brig. Gen. Paul W. Thompson Theater 
Chief, Information and Education Theater Service Forces, European Theater, 


(Name and Grade of officer cancelling classification and date of can- 
cellation) : Oct 4, 1945. 



(Based on a sample of 700 men surveyed 22-25 August 1945 in the Berlin 


Research Branch, Information and Education Division, Headquarters, Theater 
Service Forces, Euroiiean Theater, September 1945 

Report No. E70-93 
Copy No. 24 


1. The information upon which this report is based was collected in a survey 
of a sample of soldiers in the Berlin District during the period 22 to 25 August 

2. The sample includes representative units from Headquarters troops in the 
Berlin District as well as a cross section of men in the 82d Airborne Division and 
attached troops. Within each unit selected, a random sample was drawn so 
that all types of men had a proportional chance of being included in the survey. 

3. As in previous Research Branch studies, the men who filled out question- 
naires were assured of anonymity. No names or serial numbers were placed on 
the questionnaires, and it was explained to the men that the purpose of the survey 
was simply to secure their frank and and honest opinion. 

4. It is important to keep in mind that the findings presented here do nol 
purport to be indicative of attitudes held by troops in other areas. As a matter 
of fact, the Berlin District is a unique situation for our troops in the European 

5. Data have just been returned from the field and have been tallied from a 
sample that is representative of the entire theater. When these data are com- 
pared with attitudes of a cross section of men in the ETO in late April, it is 
found that attitudes toward the English and Russians have not changed ap- 
preciably ; however, attitudes toward the French were much less favorable in 
August than in April. Troops in Berlin express somewhat more favorable atti- 
tudes toward the English, and also toward the Germans, but slightly less 
favorable attitudes toward the French than do troops in the entire theater. 
Also, the Berlin troops express considerably more skepticism about how we shall 
be able to get along with Russia in the future than do a cross section of American 
troops in the European Theater. 


1. A large majority of the American soldiers (85%) in the Berlin area say 
they have a favorable attitude toward the English. A smaller proportion, but 
still a substantial majority (61%), report favorable attitudes toward the Rus- 
sians. Less than half of them (42%) say they have a favorable opinion of the 

2. Most of our soldiers who have contacts with Allied soldiers say they get 
along very well or fairly well with them. Twenty-three percent said they had 
no contact with English soldiers, 28 percent said they had no contact with Rus- 
sian soldiers, and 48 percent said they had no contact with French soldiers. Of 
those who have contact with Allied soldiers, 91 percent say they get along fairly 
well or very well with English soldiers; 75 percent say they get along fairly 



well or very well with Russian soldiers ; and 60 percent say they get along fairly 
well or very well with Fi'ench soldiers. 

3. Those who have known some English, Russian, and French soldiers per- 
sonally are slightly more favorable in attitude toward the English, Russian, 
and French people and soldiers. 

4. Educational status seems to be only slightly related to like and dislike for 
the various Allies. 

5. Men who have had combat experience are somewhat more favorable toward 
the Russians and somewhat less favorable toward the French than are noncom- 
bat men. The two groups do not differ in their opinion of the English. Combat 
men are no more nor less favorable toward the Germans than are noncombat 

6. There is a widespread feeling of confidence that we shall be able to get 
along well with England from now on, more than 90 percent of the men express- 
ing this attitude. A substantial majority (65%) say that we will get along 
well with France in the years ahead. There is considerable skepticism as to 
how well we shall get along with Russia and only 30 percent of the men say they 
think that we shall get along well with her ; a substantial minority anticipate 
war with her sometime in the next 25 years. 

7. The overwhelming majoi-ity say they expect England (80%) and the 
United States (93%) to cooperate with other nations to settle disputes peace- 
ably. Only half of them (51%) think Russia will cooperate. 

8. The better educated men and those less well educated differ only slightly 
in their attitudes on international relations. 

9. Men who have been in combat do not differ appreciably from the noncombat 
men in their attitudes on international relations. 

10. As might be expected, those who have a generally favorable attitude to- 
ward the Russian people are also more likely to be more optimistic about the 
possibility of working out good international relations with Russia and to ex- 
press more confidence in the Russian government's intentions. 

Detailed Findings 


General Attitudes 

A large majority of the American soldiers (85%) in the Berlin area say they 
have a favorable attitude toward the English. A smaller proportion, but still a 
substantial majority (61%), i-eport favorable attitudes toward the Russians. 
Less than half of them (42% ) say they have a favorable opinion of the French. 

For comparison, the same question was aked about Germans. About three 
men in every five (59%) reported a favorable attitude toward the Germans. 

Question: "What sort of opinion do you have of the English (Russian, French, 
German) people?"^ 

Anther unfavornblo 

PeroontQgo oneworingi fovorable 

Fairly favorable 












fJZry unfavornblo 
/fnhdecided or no 




1. '"V 










^ In interpreting tliese replies it must be kept in mind that in general, the contacts with 
the Enjrlish, French, and Germans have been of longer duration and have included civilian 
contacts while the Russian contacts have been shorter and limited to Russian soldiers and 
displaced personnel. 



The replies of the men in the Berlin area are more favorable toward the 
English and less favorable toveard the French than were those of a cross section 
of ETO troops surveyed in April 1945.^ 

Cross sec- 
tion survey, 
April 1945 

Berlin area 

August 1945 

Percentage saying they were very favorable or lairly favorable to— 

Enelish - - - 





French - 


Most of our soldiers who have contacts with the Allied soldiers say they 
get along very well or fairly well with them. 

In answer to the question, "How well do you get along with the English 
(Russian, French) soldiers?" : 23 percent said they had no contact with English 
soldiers, 28 percent said they had no contact with Russian soldiers, and 48 per- 
cent said they had no contact with French soldiers. 

Of those who have contact with Allied soldiers, the following percentages say 
they get along: 

With English soldiers 

With Russian soldiers 

With Fronch soldiers 

Very well 

Fnlrly vajII 

/Hot 30 well 
//iJot well Dt 






• « 




% 5k 








Those who have known some English, Russian, and French soldiers personally 
are slightly more iavorable in attitude toward the English, French, and Russian 
people than are those who have not. 

In the case of the Russians, the relation between personal acquaintanceship 
and attitude is greater than it is in the case of the English or French. 

Among men vrho have 
known — 

No soldiers 

Some soldiers 

Percentage of men who have very favorable or fairly favorable opinions of- 

The English people 

The Russian people 

The French people 





Similarly, those men who know some Allied soldiers personally are more likely 
to say they get along with English (Russian, French) soldiers very well or 
fairly well. 

* Comparable data are not available on the Russians or the Germans. 


Percentage of men who say they get along with- 

English soldiers 

Russian soldiers 

French soldiers 

Men who have known — 

No soldiers 


Some soldiers 


This relationship does not necessarily mean that getting to know Allied soldiers 
personally causes a more favorable attitude though this is probably true in many 
instances. It is also likely that getting to know other soldiers is itself an indi- 
cation of a previously existing favorable attitude. 

It is important to recognize that while personal acquaintanceship is related to 
favorableness of attitude, mere length of time the soldier was stationed in Eng- 
land, France, and Berlin has no relation to what men say their attitudes ai'e 
toward the English, French, and Russians. The only attitudes studied which 
seem to be related to time spent in the Berlin area are those toward the Germans. 
The men who have been in the area for a month or more are somewhat less 
favorable toward the Germans than are those who have been there less than 
a month. 

It is also interesting to note that educational status seems to be only slightly 
related to the attitudes reported above. High school graduates are no more nor 
less favorable than are those with less education. 

Men who have had combat experience are somewhat more favorable toward 
the Russians and somewhat less favorable toward the French than are non- 
combat men. The two groups do not differ in their opinions of the English. 
Combat men are no more nor less favorable toward the Germans than are non- 
combat men. 


In addition to rating the degree to which they were favorable or unfavorable 
in attitude toward the various Allies, the men were asked to state what special 
things they like or dislike about them. 

The following is a summary of the most frequently mentioned things which 
they like or dislike. 

Like About the English 

About half of the men mentioned some characteristics that they dislaked about 
the English people. Most frequently mentioned were: 

1. Friendly, hospitable, generous, kind, etc. 

2. Courage, guts, self-confidence, see things through, etc. 

3. They are a lot like we are. 

Dislike About the English 

About half of the men mentioned some characteristics that they disliked about 
the English. Most frequently mentioned were : 

1. Superior, conceited, stuck-up, reserved, unfriendly, etc. 

2. Traditionalism, unprogressiveness, etc. 

3. Take too much credit and give us too little credit for winning the war. 

Like About the Russians 

About half the men mentioned one or more characteristics they liked about 
the Russinns. The things most frequently mentioned were : 

1. Friendly, good hearted, etc. 

2. Jolly, care-free, happy-go-lucky, etc. 

3. Good fighters, courage, fight for their country, guts, never-say-die spirit, 


4. Sturdy, vigorous, full of vitality, hard working, etc. 

5. Treat the Germans rough like they said they would and as they should 
be treated. 

Dislike About the Russians 

About half the men listed something about the Russians which they disliked. 
Those most frequently mentioned were : 

1. Dirty, sloppy, ill-kempt appearance, etc. 

2. Ignorant, stupid, uneducated, etc. 

3. Crude, uncultured, rude, ill-mannered, etc. 

4. Arrogant, conceited, think tliey won the war alone, etc. 

5. Brutal, excessively cruel to Germans, rape, etc. 

6. Steal, loot. 

Like About the French 

About a fourth of the men listed something they liked about the French people. 
The most frequently mentioned are : 

1. Friendly, hospitable, etc. 

2. Cheerful, easy-going, know how to have a good time, etc. 

3. Helped all they could, tried to do their share in winning war, etc. 

Dislike About the French 

About two-thirds of the men listed one or more characteristics they disliked 
about the French. Most frequently mentioned are : 

1. Dirty, filthy, unsanitary, etc. 

2. Mercenary, grasping, want to get something for nothing, etc. 

3. Lazy, backward, no ambition, no spirit, etc. 

4. Undependable, irresponsible, etc. 

5. Loose morals. 

Like Aboiit the Germans 

About half of the men listed one or more things they liked about the Germans. 
Most frequent items were : 

1. Clean, neat, orderly, etc. 

2. Indu.strious, good workers, etc. 

3. Intelligent, educated, resourceful, etc. 

4. Friendl.v, good manners, treat you well, etc. 

5. Look and act like Americans in many ways. 

Dislike About the Germans 

About two-thirds of the men mentioned something they disliked about Ger- 
mans. The most frequent items were : 

1. Dishonest, two-faced, treacherous, etc, 

2. Fascistic, militaristic ideas, still believe Hitler had right idea, etc. 

3. Easily led, can't think for themselves, etc. 

4. Superiority complex, arrogant, etc. 

5. They don't accept any responsibility or guilt for the war. 

6. Self-pity, whining, complaining, fawning, all to get sympathy. 


The general picture which one gets from the men's replies is that many of 
them are in doubt and suspicious about Russia and a substantial minority antici- 
pate war with her sometime in the next 25 years. In contrast there is a great 
deal of confidence that we shall he able to get along well with England and only 
slightly less confidence about our relations with France. 

Hoio Will We Get Along With Other Nations? 

Four men in every ten say they are either in doubt as to how we will get along 
with Russia (26%) or that they expect we will fight Russia sooner or later 
(14%). Only about one man in ten expresses this opinion regarding England 
and France. 



Qnestion t "How do you think we will get along with England (France, 
Russia) from now on?" 

^awere t 

Peroentage answering: 
Russia France England 

We will get along very well 

We will disagree about some 
things but manage to get 

We will have some serious dis- 
agreements but we- won't fight" 
each other 

W« will very likely fight each 
other sooner or later 


No answer 

















When asked, "Do you think the United States will get into another big war 
within the nest 25 years V" 23 percent said, "yes" ; 38 percent said, "undecided" ; 
.and 37 percent said "no". Two percent did not answer. 

In addition, the men were asked, "If you think the US will be in another big 
war, who do you think the US will be fighting against?" Twenty-nine percent 
of the men named one or more countries. Twenty-five percent of the men named 
Russia. The highest percent of mention any other nation received was Japan, 
mentioned by 3 percent of the men. 

Cooperation in Settling Disputes 

The overwhelming majority say they expect England (80%) and the United 
States (93%) to cooperate with otber nations to settle disputes peaceably. Only 
half of them (51%) think Russia will cooperate. 



qneatlon t "Which do you think the US (England, Russia) is most 

likoly to do about international problems in the future?" 


Try to oooperate with other notions 
and tiT" to aottle disputes 

Try to hove nothing to do with 

disputes between other 

countries ... 

Try to settle things their own way 
without cooperating with other 

No answer 

Percentages answering: 













' 2% 

Confidence in the English and Russian Governments 

The men express much less confidence that the Russian government will be 
"on the up-and-up" in dealing with the US than will the English government. 

Qufletlon t "How much confidence do you have that the English 
(Russian) government will be on the up-and-up in 
dealing with the US?" 


A great deal of confidence 

Some confidence 

Not much confidence 

No confidence at all . 
88348— 52— pt. 14 13 

Percentages answering! 






No answer. 








The better educated man and those less well educated differ only slightly in 
their attitudes on international relations. 

Men who have been in combat do not differ appreciably from the non-combat 
men in their attitudes on internatioua) relations. 

As might be expected, those who have a generally favorable attitude toward 
the Russian people are also mca-e likely to be more optimistic about the possi- 
bility of working out good int«; relations with Russia and to express 
more confidence in the Russian government's intentions. The following charts 
will illustrate this relationship. 

Question: "How do you think we will get along with Russia from now on?" 

Among those who hove , . 

Percentage saying . . . 

Wo v/111 get along very well 

Favorable attitudes 
toward the Russian 
p eople 


attitudes toward 

t he Russian people 

We vd.ll disagree about some things 
but manage to get along 

We will have some serious disagree- 
ments but vre won't fight each other 

Wg will very likely fight each 
other sooner or later 


Ko answer 













Question : "Which do you think Russia is most likely to do about international 
relations in the future?" 

Among those who have . . • 

Percentage saying she 

Favorable attitudes Unfavorable 
toward the Russian attitudes tov7ard 
people the Russian people 

Will cooperate with other nations and 
try to settle disputes peaceably . . 

■Will try to have nothing to do with 
disputes betvreon other countries . . 

Win try to settle things their own 
way without cooperating with other 


No answer . . . 








Question: "How much confidence do you have that the Russian government 
will be on the up-and-up in dealing with the US?" 

Among those who have . . • 

Percentage aoying . . . 
A great deel of confidence 

Favor fible attitudes Unfavorable 
tov;ard the Russian attitude a toward 
people the Russian people 

Some confidence 

Hot nruch confidence or 
T.o confidence at all 

No answer 









It cannot be assumed from these data that by changing soldiers' attitudes in 
the direction of greater personal favorablfness toward Russian people that one 
will effect change in their international attitudes. However, it is very likely 
that such personal attitudes are likely to be accompanied by a greater willing- 
ness to view the problems of our relations with Russia in a less prejudiced, 
more pudicious frame of mind. 

Soldiers Suggestions for Improving Allied Relations 

The men were asked to write out any suggestions they had for improving- 
relations among Allied soldiers in the Berlin area. About six men in every ten 
offered one or more suggestions. 

By far the most frequent type of suggestion centered around the idea of 
increasing opportunities for friendly contact with individuals in other Allied 
forces. Typical of these suggestions were : 

"More mixing of all Allied troops in sports, joint recreational activities."' 
"Have facilities like clubs, canteens, etc., where men can meet." 
"Have dances and other social events of interest to all troops." 
"Give men more freedom and facilities for transportation to visit soldiers 
in the other forces." 

"Have joint classes, discussion groups, speakers at meetings open to all 
interested Allied soldiers." 
Less frequently mentioned were : 

"Decrease contacts with Allied soldiers, let each keep to his own area." 
"Have a more uniform policy in Berlin and let all Allied forces follow it." 
"More control of Russians." 


(Based on a Comparison of 2 Cross-sectional Surveys : Survey 1 : Among 3.795 
Enlisted Men Queried 25 April to 5 May 1945. Survey 2 : Among 2,9811 
Enlisted Men Queried 14 to 24 August 1945) 

(Research Branch, Information and Education, Headquartei's, Theater Service 
Forces, European Theater, September 1945) 

Report No. ETO-102. 
Copy No. 8 

HOW the study was made 

1. Information on men's attitudes and opinions was secured by means of 
anonymous questionnaires filled out by two representative cross sections. One 



survey was conducted during the period from 25 April to 5 May 1945 among a 
cross-section sample of 3,795 white enlisted men. The other was conducted dur- 
ing the period from 14 to 24 August 1945 among a sample of 2,981. 

2. Each sample was designed to give proper representation to all arms and 
services and types of outfits. Men in Air Forces, Field Forces, and Service Forces 
units were included in the proportions found in the Theater as a whole. Within 
each unit selected, a random sample was drawn so that all types of men had a 
proportional chance of being included in the survey. 

3. As in previous Research Branch studies, the men who filled out question- 
naires were assured of anonymity. No names or serial numbers were placed on 
the questionnaires, and it was explained to the men that the purpose of the 
survey was simply to secure their frank and honest opinions. 


In the four months following VE-day a considerable shift took place in soldiers' 
attitudes toward the French. During the same period no appreciable changes 
took place in attitudes toward the English. 

QUESTION: "?)hnt sort of opinion do you have of the En glish people ?" 
"Vfhat sort of opir.ion dc .vcu have of the rrench people ?" 

English People 

April August 
19A5 19A 5 

French People 




Very Favorable 

Fairly Favorable 

Rather Unfavorable 

Very Unfavorable 
No answer » • . 











Whereas just prior to VE-day as many soldiers said they thought as well 
of the French people as of the English (about 7 in every 10 said they felt "very" 
or "fairly" favorable toward them), in August, 75% of the soldiers thought 
favorably of the English but only 45% thought well of the French. 

The fact that there was a smaller proportion of soldiers who indicated that 
they thought favorably of the P'rench in August as compared to April is not 
the result of the changing composition of the Theater during the elapsed period 
of time but rather is a true reflection of differences in men's attitude between 
the two dates.* 

' In this as well as In other comparisons of April and Augnst findings appearing in this 
report, detailed analysis shows that differences are not the result of a changed composition 
of the Armed Forces in Europe in August as compared with April, except insofar as time 
in Army and time overseas is concerned where, of course, the 4-month lapse of time must 
be taken into account. 




The two charts below indicate that, in general, the expressed opinion is no 
more favorable toward the French people than toward the German and that 
attitudes expressed toward both French and German people is considerably 
less favorable than toward English people. 

QlgSTION : (August Survey) What sort of opinion do you have of 
the ( Fnpllsh . French . Gernwn) people ? 


fav • 

French people 

German people 

English people 






'Very No 
unfdv ' ans, 






QtJESTIOK; Leaving aside for 
the raomant the fact that thoy 
are our enemies or cur allies, 
which £ne of the follcv^ing do 
you like best .lus t as po cple— 
the French peop'le, the German 
people, or t)te English people? 

Answers C^^^^ 

The tvpes of reasons men gave for disliking the English or French were the 
same for both surveys (report of April findings— Research Report No. E-12.5 — 
lists cliief reason soldiers mention). Reasons men advance for liking or dis- 
liking the Germans, along with other data on attitudes toward Germans, are 
presented in Research Report No. E-134. 


Men who have spent considerable time in all three countries have substan- 
tially the same attitudes toward the people of each of the three countries as 
do all soldiers surveyed. As was pointed out in the report of the April survey 
there is no evidence to support the tlieories that better-educated men have more 
favorable attitudes toward our Allies or that the longer men are overseas, the 
worse their attitudes toward our Allies become. On the other hand, there is 
some evidence to suggest that the longer men remain in a particular country 
the more favorable their attitude becomes to the people of that country. This 
holds for Germany as well as for France and England. 

For example : 




Time spent in England 

'Very Fairly 'Rather 'Yeny Ko 
favorable' fav.' unfav.' unfav. ' ans. 

No time ••••«••«• 



13? p 13? 



18? ( 

S ...2? 

 ' L 

4 to 8 mos 




7 ...1? 

Over 8 mos 



12? 4 . 

. .1? 

Tine sioent in France 


•Very 'Fairly 
fffvwraTDla' fav, • 

=LE ... 


unfav. ' 


unfav. ' 


Less than 4 mos.^- , , . 







4 to 8 njoa •••••• 






Over 8 mos. » • * . 

8 UU% 


15? .. 

Attitude toward German people seems to be even more closely related to time 
spent in the country than patterns shown above for Britain and France. 

Among men who spent no time in Germanj 34 percent say they have a 
favorable opinion of German people. 

Among men who spent less than 4 tcceks in Germany 42 percent say they 
have a favorable opinion of German people. 

Among men who spent between // and 8 loeeks in Germany 54 percent say 
they have a favorable opinion of German people. 

Among men who spent over 8 weeks in Germany 59 percent say they have 
a favorable opinion of German people. 
Althou.yh time spent in country and attitude toward people of the country 
are related, analysis reveals no appreciable relationship between time in one 
country and attitude toward people of other countries. For example, time 
spent in Germany (for men who have also spent some time in England and 
France) does not appear to appreciably affect attitudes men have toward the 
English or the French. 


In the August as well as in the April survey, more soldiers were favorable 
to the idea of helping to feed our Allies after the war than the proportion who 
felt we should help our Allies by sending them money and materials. However, 
a slightly snuiiler proportion of men in August as compared to April thought we 
should send help along these lines. 

These two questions were asked the men : 

1. "After the war, some of our Allies will need help in feeding their people. 

Do you think the United States should send food to these countries 
even if it meant that we would have to keep on rationing food in our 
own country for a while to do it?" 

2. "After the war, soyyie of our Allies will need money and materials 
to help them get back on their feet. 

Do you think we should let them liave money and materials to help 
them get back on their feet, even if it meant that we should have to 
pay higher taxes to do it?" 




April August 
1945 19AS 



















Consistent with findings shown ahove is the small decline in proportion of 
men ^ho feel we should do everything we can to help Frauce get back on her 
feet. Men were asked to tell whether they agreed or disagreed with the 
statement : 

"We should do everything we can to help France get back on her feet as soon 
as possible." 

In April: 60'% of men surveyed Agreed with statement. 
In August: 51% of men surveyed Agreed with statement. 


Some Change in Belief That France Will Again Be A Strong Nation. More 
men in August than in April felt that French nation is too weak and split up 
to ever amount to anything again. 

Men were asked if they agreed or disagreed with the following statement : ''The 
French nation is so weak and split up that it will never amount to anything 

In April: 73% of men surveyed Disagreed with statement. 
In August: 62% of men surveyed Disagreed with statement. 
Fairly Large Change In Belief That French People Sincerely Like Americans. 
Men were asked if they agreed or disagreed with the following statement : "Most 
French people sincerely like Americans." 

In April: 73% of men surveyed Agreed with statement. 
In August: 52% of men surveyed Agreed with statement. 


About the same proportions of men feel that our major Allies — Britain and 
Russia — have done as good a job as possible of fighting this war. Even as 
regards France, who suffers in other respects a decline in favorable attitudes, 
there is no appreciable decrease since April in soldiers' respect for her con- 
tribution in war effort. 

Statement: "Considering everything, the (specified people) have done as 
good a job as possible of fighting this war." 
Specified People — 

Russians — More than 19 men in every 20 surveyed Agreed with statement 
in both April and August surveys. 

British — More than 16 in every 20 surveyed Agreed with statement in both 
April and August surveys. 



French — About 10 men in every 20 surveyed Agreed with statement in both 
April and August surveys. (In April, slightly more than half the men 
agreed. In August just slightly less than half — but the difference is too 
small to be significant.) 


In August just as in April most men had faith in the war aims and the future 
course of action that England and Russia are likely to take. In each survey 
about as many men expressed faith in Russia as faith in England and no change 
in the level of these attitudes took place between the two dates. 

Statement : "(Specified country) is more interested in dominating or controlling 
the world than she is in building a truly democratic world." 

In April and in August about 7 in every 10 men surveyed DISAGREED 
with this statement as it applies to both Russia and to Britain. 
Statement: "The (specified country) will try as much as possible to work out 
a just and lasting peace." 

In April and in August about 8 in every 10 men surveyed AGREED with 
this statement as it applies to both Russia and to Britain. 


No changes have taken place in the 4-month period between surveys, in soldiers' 
attitude toward our postwar relations with Russia and England. 

Question: "How do you think we will get along with (specified country) after 
the war?" 

Russia England . 





"We will get alone very 

"We will disagree about 
some things but manage 
to get along" 

Undecided * . . . . 

"We -will have some ser- 
ious disagreements but 
we won't fight each otli- 

"We will very likely- 
fight, each other .sooner 
or later" 


















III the April surve.y comparable questions were also asltod about France and 
China, but these were not repeated in Augu:;t. (See Research Branch Report 
a E-125.) 

^■Includes a few men who die not ansv<er the question. 



Exhibit No. 981 

ECC from R JG : 

I am at present having a card file made of all corporation prospects. By now 
I have accumulated eight or ten lists, many of which have duplications. Each 
card will give the name of the corporation, source, and individual to contact. 
When it is completed I thought you and I could go over it to decide what method 
of approach to use on each one. Some few you will probably want to contact 
personally. Others should get a letter and others we probably won't bother 
with at all for awhile. But it seemed a simpler approach to have all the infor- 
mation in one place. 

If you would like to give this list back to me I will include the names on it 
with the rest of the names I have. I know there are some on this list which I 
already have on other lists. 

(Pencilled note:) Have carded all of these along with our other corp. pros- 
pects 6/21/46. 

R. J. G. 

(Pencilled note :) RJG : Note & Return to ECC who hasn't seen it yet. 

American Council, 
Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., 

June 12, 1946. 

Washington Office, 744 Jackson Place NW., Washington 6, D. C. Telephone District 8665 

Mr. Edwabd C. Caetee, 

IPR, 1 East 54th Street, Netv York 22, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Carter : Attached are two lists which I spoke of yesterday when 
you were here and which should be useful in campaigning among big corporations 
interested in the Far East. 

You will be interested, I think, in the opinion of Mr. Blair Bolles, of the Foreign 
Policy Association, on the outlook for the IPR here. He thinks it will take 
six or seven mouths' hard work to lay the base for a sound job of membership 
expansion and enlargement of program. He does not believe that the IPR should 
hope or expect to get all its financial support in Washington for the local office. 
The FPA here gets about $2,500 a year from its membership and the rest from 
the New York office, which the Washington unit exists to serve. I judge that the 
total budget of the Washington-FPA is above $15,000 a year. Bolles said that a 
staff of four people is the minimum he thinks either FPA or IPR needs in order 
to do a first class job. He says you have to plug very hard to get the information 
you need in order to serve outside offices ; no automatic flow system from gov- 
ernment sources will work. He adds that he thinks IPR can and should do 
more community service here than FPA can do. 

[s] I. A. P. 

Busines& and noncommercial holdings in Japan of United States organizations 
(total value of interest is as of December 1, 1941) 




All America Radio, Inc 

67 Broad St., New York 

$8, 494 
38 801 

American Foreign Insurance Association 

80 Maiden Lane, >;ew York 

American Magnesium Metals Corp 

800 Ohio St., Pittsburgh 

327 600 

Associated Merchandising Corp 

1440 Broadway, r\ew York _ .- 


AmpriVan PrPsidpnf T.inps; 

311 California St., San Francisco 

460 526 

American Trading Co., Inc 

96 Wall St., New York 

Anderson, Clayton & Co 

Cotton Exchange Bldg., Houston 

33 554 

Associated Press 

50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 

5 721 

Baker & Co., Inc. (precious metals) 

113 Astnr St., NewaikS, N. J 

118, 266 

Can ier Corp . - - --. 

900 S. Geddes St., Syracuse 

67 308 

Commercial Pacific Cable Co 

67 Broad St., New York 


Dorr Co., The (engineers) 

570 Lexington Ave., New York 

114 149 

Eastman Kodak Co 

343 State St., Rochester 

213, 424 

Ford Motor Co. (2 units in Japan) 

Dearborn. Mich __ 


General Motors Corp 3044 West Grand Blvd., Detroit 



Business and noncommercial holdings in Japan of United States organizations 
{total value of interest i!< as of December 1, 19 il) — Coutiuued 




Goodrich, B. F., Co 

Go?ho Co., Inc. (Cotton agents) _ 

Hanovia Chemical & Mfg. Co. (2 units) . 

Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co. (electro- 
plating & polishing). 

International Automatic Electric Corp 

Internationa! Business Machines Corp 

International Nickel Co 

International Standard Electric Corp. (7 units). 

Irwin-Harrisons-Whitney, Inc. (tea) 

Locw's, Inc 

Metro-Goldvvyn-Mayer Co 

National Cash Register Co. (2 units) 

Natioaal City Bank 

Nichibei Securities Co., Ltd 

Otis Elevator Co 

Paraffine Co., Inc 

Paramount Pictures, Inc. (2 units) 

RCA Communications, luc 

RKO Radio Pictures, Inc 

Sales Afiiliates, Inc. (beauticians' stuff) .-_ 

Singer Sewing Mad.ine Co 

Standard Brands of Asia, Inc 

Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) 

Standard- Vacuum Oil Co. (.3 units) 

Tide Water Associated Oil Co 

Titan Co. (titanium products) 2 units 

Twentieth Century-Fo.x Film Corp 

United Artists Corp 

United Engineering & Foundry Co 

United Press Associations 

Universal Pictures Co., Inc 

Warner Brothers-First National Pictures. 

Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society 

Western Electric Export Co 

William Wrigley, Jr., Co 

500 S. Main St., Akron, Ohio 

c/o Alien Property Custodian, 1577 Mercan- 
tile Bank Bldg.. Dallas, Texas. 

233 New Jersey Railroad Ave, Newark 5, 

Matawan, N. J 

1033 W. Van Buren St., Chicago 

Madison at 57th, New York 

67 Wall St., New York 

67 Broad St., New York 

50 S. Front St., Philadelphia 

1540 Broadway, New York 

1540 Broadway, New York 

Main & K Sts., Dayton, Ohio 

55 Wall St., New York 

c/o Oinco of Alien Property Custodian, 417 
Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

260 Eleventh Ave., New York 

175 Brannan St., San Francisco 

New York 

66 Broad St., New York 

1270 Sixth Ave., New York _--. 

730 Fifth Ave., New York 

149 Fiftli Ave., New York.__ 

595 Madison Axe., New York 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, Now York 

26 Broadway, New York 

17 Battery Place, New York 

111 Broadway, New York 

444 W. 56th St., New York 

729 Seventh Ave., New York 

First National Bank Bldg., Pittsburg 

220 E. 42nd St., New York 

1250 SLxth Ave., New York 

321 W. 44th St., New York 

124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn 

195 Broadway, New York 

410 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 

$334, 080 
138, 555 

84, 414 





2, 645, 245 

405, 887 

513, 493 

65, 296 

928, 507 

12, 630 

349, 164 

154. 101 


5, 342 

246, 274 


2, 323, 195 

18, 877 


5. 580. 812 

1, 549. 613 

249, 852 

284, 899 

37, 520 


14, 823 


270. 932 

43. 023 

87, 172 

23, 400 



Ajax Electrothermic Corp., Ajax Park, Trenton 5, N. J. 

Ajax Electric Furnace Corp., 1108 Frankford Ave., Philadelpliia, Pa. 

American Cyananiid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza. New York, N. Y. 

American Magnesium Metals Corp., 800 Ohio St., Pittsburgli, Pa. 

Baker & Co., 113 Astor St., Newark ^, N. J. 

Bendix Aviation Corp., 11th floor, Fisher Bldg., Deti'oit. Mich. 

Bohn Aluminum & Brass Corp., 1400 Lafayette Bld.ii., Detroit 26, Mich. 

California Institute of Technology, 1201 E. California St., Pasadena 4. 

Carrier Corp., 900 S. Geddes St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Chemical Construction Corp., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N. Y, 

China Electric Co., Ltd., 67 Broad St., New York, N. Y. 

Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington 98, Del. 

Gasoline Products Co., 26 .Journal Square, Jersey City, N. J. 

General Cable Corp., 420 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. 

General Railway Signal Co.. 801 West Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio. 

Gray Processes Corp., 26 Journal Sq., Jersey City, N. J. 

Hanovia Chemical & Mfg. Co., 233 New Jersey Railroad AVe., Newark 5. N. J. 

Hooker Electrochemical Co., Buffalo Ave. & 47th St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

International General Electric Co., .570 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. 

International Standard Electric Corp., 67 Broad St., New York, N. Y. 

Kidde, Walter & Co., Inc., 675 Main St., Belleville, N. J. 

Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co., Nicholas Bldg., Toledo, Ohio. 

Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Merco Nordstrom Valve Co., 400 N. Lexington Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Merrill Co., 582 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 


Northern Equipment Co., 1945 Grove Drive. Erie, Pa. 

Kadio Corporation of America, Rockefeller Center, New York, N. Y. 

Saint Regis Paper Co., 230 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc., 40 Flatbush Avenue Extension, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Stanco, Inc., 216 W. 14tli St., Nevp York, N. Y. 

Standard Oil Co. (N. J. ) , 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York. N. Y. 

Standard Oil Development Co., 26 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Stewart-Warner Corp., 1826 Diversoy Parkway, Chicago, 111. 

Texaco Development Corp., 26 Journal Square, Jersey City, iN. J. 

Titan Co., Ill Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Universal Oil Products Co., 310 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Western Electric Co., Inc., 195 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Western Electric Export Co., Ditto. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Wilmerding, Pa. 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Weston Electric Instrument Corp., 014 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark 5, N. J. 

Exhibit No. 982 

(Pencilled note:) Urgent. 

Mr. Carter: The attached article on the CIC is to appear in the September 
22nd Survey. Its history is as follows : Hugh Deane submitted a short, which 
KB and Bob Barnett wanted Hugh to rewrite a little more ol)jectively, giving a 
little more on the other side of the question. Hugh's second piece also fell short 
of what was required, so I secured Hugh's OK on KB's rewriting the article, the 
final piece to be signed by both KB and Hugh. Hugh has seen the article in its 
present form and has .iust wired that he is returning it special delivery with his 
comments, and he added the phrase "en garde" which may .suggest that he is 
unwilling to sign it in its present form. We shall presumably have his comments 
tomorrow morning. 

In case Hugh is unwilling to sign the piece, KB is also unwilling to sign it. I 
therefore suggested some such device as this: indicating that the article had 
been written by the staff of the American Council, on the basis of sources given 
in the text and of first-hand material supplied by Hugh Deane. I will suggest 
this formula to Hugh after I have heard from you. 

Do you approve the piece as it stands? If we cannot have the the double signa- 
ture, do you approve my suggestion about authorship? (Pencilled note :) Please 
let me have your answer Friday morning. 


The piece has gone to the printer and galleys should be here tomorrow after- 
noon {Friday). I am sorry to have to bother you with the matter at this late 
date, but the possibility of "a hitch about authorship makes it necessary. 


Thursday p. m. 

Exhibit No. 983 


Seislin, July 17. 

Dear Dear Ket: Well I have been to Manchukuo and got in & out alive. I 
place our invitation to the Emperors Garden Party on the top of my (your) 
office bag at every frontier & where every Japanese gendarme can see it & 
though the questions continue they are in a mellow atmosphere. In one Man- 
churian city in an important Govt, office — the Japanese chief was called out of 
the office to the phone. His Chinese assistant quick as a flash took a piece of 
paper out of his pocket & wrote "Don't believe a word they tell you." Then a 
moment later on another piece he wrote "I can't talk." When I looked straight 
into his eyes as you have seen me some time "intense sympathy" he wrote again 
"Meet in front of Station at 6.30. He appeared at 7— driving along a side street 
in a half-covered Russian Troika — I walked alone for two blocks down a side 
street and then stepped into the Troika & we zigzagged first to a Russian Res- 
taurant where I dropped him & drove on. Then I joined him at a Chinese Res- 
taurant across the street — we talked & talked & talked. I'll tell you all when 


we meet. When we started back to my Hotel — Air raid drill was on sirens 
blew — tlae streets filled with amateur patriots with arm bands who began wildly 
putting out shop lights, bicycle light, & fairly leaped on our driver & blew out 
his coach lights — later gendarmes insisted that we alight & we walked on until 
a block from my hotel he said goodbye. I wonder whether he was agent provo- 
cateur or Chinese patriot — I think the latter. Don't mention this I beg of you 
until we meet. I don't want to get the lad shot. (You can tell this to John.) 
After leaving him — I had a devil of a time in the hotel — the lights were out 
because of the air raid drill & I had to pack in the dark, paying bill in the dark, 
drive to the station in a lightless taxi & catch my train in a station that was 
dim & where you first bumped into luggage coolies, next excited passengers, 
next the muskets of hurrying soldiers & got into a train with an armed & 
armoured engine & an armed »& armoured caboose. It was one more hectic and 
amusing get away as I had only about 20 minutes and had to get two bags out 
of the handgepack. 
Much love, 


JtTLY 19. 

Well, here I am in Vladivostok harbor — what a contrast with Korea ! It 
is cool & there is a little mist hanging over the lovely hills that are much like 
the Korean Hills & not unlike the Japanese sea — I am guessing which is Brem- 
man of those on the dock. The Siberia Maru is a very comfortable ship. It 
does a regular triangle or quadrant every ten days, Tsuruga, Seislin, Raslin, 
Vladivostok. I am the first foreign passenger in a long time to board the ship 
at Seislin. There are many who board it at Tsuruga. There were two Soviet 
women attached to the Embassy in Tokyo and two Japanese F. O. men on board, 
one going to Berlin the other to be consul general in Vladivostok. 

Later : I am now on shore in the same hotel with Bremman. 

Exhibit No. 984 

Report of Conference of March 9th 

A conference of leaders in the academic field was held at the Institute of 
Pacific Relations on March 9th to devise a scheme for meeting the emergency 
demand for people with unusual qualifications, primarily in the language field, 
without unduly dislocating the academic system or disrupting future sources 
of supply. 

what are the main government needs in this respect 

1. IntelViience officers for all forces. — Requirements: all-round knowledge of 
the language in question, especially reading script and printed matter, and mil- 
itary knowledge. 

2. Economic analysis. — Requirements : ability to read the language, and 
knowledge of the economic situation of the country in question. 

3. Interpreters with troops. — Requirement: ability to speak the language. 

4. Diplomatic advisers. — Requirements : ability to read the language, and 
knowledge of the political situation. 

5. Communications Intelligence. — Requirements : ability to read script and 
printed matter and speak the language, and a thorough general knowledge of 
the country. 

6. Propaganda. — Requirement : ability to read, speak, and write the language, 
and a thorough knowledge of the country and the people. 

7. Censorship. — Requirement: ability to read all forms of writing of the 

8. Reserve categorii, including those engaged in basic or special studies, and 
those working on long-terra government projects or on research related to 
government needs. 

Note. — Since it will be impossible for some time to find sufficient personnel 
in the above categories who combine all the necessary qualifications, the func- 
tions of each category could be divided. (For example, the work of economic 
analysis could be shared between economics and linguists.) 



The governruent is already taking some people with a knowledge' of Russian, 
Chinese, and Japanese from academic sources, but so far chiefly from the periph- 
ery. There is a danger, however, that its demands will soon involve disloca- 
tion of the academic system. 

The present method of recruiting varies with the different departments. Thus 
the Army may encounter difficulties in recruiting specialists under existing 
regulations. On the other hand, the F. B. I., the Marines, and the Navy are 
freely enrolling them as the need arises 

The supply of those with a knowledge of Russian and Chinese is still sufficient 
to meet the present demand without seriously affecting academic organizations. 
But in the case of Japanese, the supply is already practically exhausted. 



1. Japanese language. — (a) Second-generation Japanese. The government is 
still reluctant for political reasons to use this group. Moreover, few of them 
can read Japanese ; and even those who speak the language frequently speak only 
patois. Those who can read and speak well have usually received their train- 
ing in Japan and are therefore under suspicion. However, the latter are one of 
the few groups who could read script. 

(b) Businessmen. — Very few are able to read and wi-ite Japanese. Those with 
speaking knowledge would be valuable if they could be used on active service, 
but most of them are above the age limit for such work. However, their speak- 
ing knowledge could be made use of in the fields of Communications Intelligence 
and Propaganda. 

(c) Missionaries: Some have reading and writing, as well as speaking, knowl- 
edge of the language ; and although the majority would be over-age for active 
service, this group might be an important source of supply. However, it is 
doubtful how many would be willing to work against Japan in view of their con- 
nections with that country and of the fact that by so doing they would probably 
be unable to continue their activities in Japan after the war was over. 

Missionaries with knowledge of Chinese, on the other hand, could learn to read 
Japanese fairly quickly and would not be subject to the same scruples as the 
missionaries from Japan. 

(d) White-Russian emigres from Manchuria and Koreans knowing Japanese, 
It is probable that few would be able to read or write the language; and the 
political allegiance of both groups would be suspect. 

(e) Chinese could possibly be used to read and write Japanese. 

2. Chinese language. — The supply is still adequate to meet the present demands- 
of the government. If the demand grows, Chinese could be used. 

3. Russian language. — The supply is plentiful ; and, if necessary, new personnel 
can be trained comparatively quickly. 

4. Siamese and Malay languages. — Missionaries are at present the chief source 
of supply, but there are not enough of them to meet possible demands. However^ 
since the reading and writing problem is not great in the case of these languages, 
the training of new personnel would not be difficult. Another possible source of 
supply would be British Malaya. 

5. Dutch language. — No problem. 

6. Political and economic analysts. — The chief problem here is to utilize the 
present supply with a minimum of wastage, and to conserve the present facili- 
ties, and develop new ones, for training additional personnel. Newspapermen, 
State Department officials, and students and research workers abroad would be 
a valuable source of supply in this category. Steps should be taken to ensure 
that such people will be available in the case of emergency and not interned 

Conclusion. — As regards languages, the situation is already acute only in the 
case of Japanese. However, there is no machinery for making the liest use of 
available personnel in all the above categories : and there is no adequate organ- 
ization for the training of new personnel. For two reasons, therefore, it is 
essential that the academic world, in cooperation with the government, should 
devise some scheme to meet these deficiencies. First because its cooperation is 
essential to the efficient working out of such a scheme, which is of vital importance 
to the whole national defense organization ; and secondly because, in the absence 
of such a plan, the whole academic system would be dislocated by the haphazard 
extraction of teachers and students for government service. 




A committee representing the various academic institutions, learned societies, 
etc. should be set up to offer its services to the government in the tasli of worliing 
out a well integrated plan on a national scale. The first step in the drawing up 
of such a plan must be to compile a list of available personnel in the above fields 
and to classify them according to their special ability. The questionnaire already 
issued by the government with a view to creating a national roster in this con- 
nection is just beginning to get under way. This roster will do the mechanical 
work satisfactorily; l)nt it cannot show initiative in selection, and it cannot sell 
its services to the departments. 

Thus, when the preliminary listing and classifying have been completed, a 
sclieme must be devised by which the personnel can be utilized with the maxi- 
mum efficiency. Both as a means of conserving the limited supply of specialists 
and as an aid in coordinating tlie work of the various government departments, 
it would be desirable, in the case of the kind of work that lends itself to such 
treatment, to set up a central information bureau, possibly through the agency 
of the National Resources Planning Board. Without such centralization the 
available supply of specialists would soon be exhausted, and the present 
practice of duplication of work in the various departments would be perpetuated. 
A possible nucleus for such a central information bureau in the Far Eastern 
JBeld already exists in the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

In coordination with the above scheme for the most efficient utilization of 
existing pei-sonnel, machinery should be devised for the training of new personnel 
In languages and the social sciences. The establishment of some kind of Na- 
tional Training School would preserve intact and even extend the existing 
teaching facilities and would guarantee a continued supply of new personnel. 
It would also enable those doing important research work to continue their 
studies or to undertake special studies in accordance with government needs. 

Such a school could either be centralized or decentralized. If it were cen- 
tralized at Wasliington, where members of government departments could attend 
after office hours, the government might be more inclined to provide the neces- 
sary funds. On the other hand, centralization would disorganize the training 
centers already established; and the value of part-time study in the present 
emergency situation, particularly in the case of the Japanese language, is 
doubtful. (In the latter connection, the question of organizing evening classes 
wherever the necessary facilities exist was also discussed, and it was agreed 
that the matter should be further investigated.) 

The teaching facilities for such a National Training School are adequate, 
except in the case of the Japanese language, which presents a special difficulty. 
{Similar problems will arise if the government should require specialists in such 
langauL:;es as Malay, Turkish, and Arabic.) Limited facilities exist for the 
teaching of the reading and writing of Japanese print and script in this country. 
And in the case of spoken Japanese, students could be sent to Hawaii; or mis- 
sionaries and second-generation Japanese might be used for training purposes, 
though few are trained teachers. It was agreed that a conference of all teachers 
of Japanese should be held to discuss the problem. 


Steps should be taken to lay in a stock and to ensure the future supply of 
documents, newspapers, periodicals, etc. from potential enemy countries and 
from countries with which commnnications are likely to be blocked. The chief 
deficiency at present is in Russian and Japanese materials. In the former case, 
inquiry needs to be made as to what agencies or governments are holding up 
such materials. In the latter case, the defir-iency should be made up by increased 
purchases from Japan. The Institute of Pacific Relations has already increased 
its purchases of such materials slightly and is attempting to organize delivery 
through neutral countries in the event of war. It was suggested that the 
Japanese section of the American Council of Learned tSocieties, and some of 
the universities, should take similar steps on as large a scale as possible; and 
that the Library of Congress should be encouraged to increase its activities along 
these lines. 

A special problem arises in the case of Japanese dictionaries, textbooks, etc., 
the supply of which in this country is already practically exhausted. Since 
they would be extremely costly to reproduce, an adequate number should be 


ordered from Japan immediately. Snch purchases covild best be made through 
the State Department. It was agreed that tlie problem would be taken up 
immediately by the Japanese teachers at the conference. 


It was agreed that Mr. Mortimer Graves should be entrusted with the task 
of taking all necessary steps, with the assistance of anyone he thought fit, for 
the implementation of the above proposals. It was suggested that the aid of 
Mr. Philip Moseley should be enlisted in connection with the drawing up of 
a new national roster ; and that, as the essential first step, all the proposals 
put forward at the conference should be takeu up with Washington as soon as 


A two months intensive course in Chinese and Japanese is being given at 
Cornell this summer. This course, for which scholarships are available, will 
be the equivalent of a normal one-year course. In view of the emergency need 
for Japanese linguists, students should be encouraged to attend this summer 

The conference was attended by : 

Knight Biggerstaff, Cornell 
Kurt Rloch, I. P. R. 
Hugh Borton, Columbia 
E. C. Carter, I. P. R. 
Samuel N. Cross, Harvard 
Carrington Goodrich, Columbia 
Mortimer Graves, A. C. L. S., Wash- 
W. L. Holland, I. P. R., Berkeley 
Elizabeth Jorgensen, I. P. R. 
Cieoi-ge O. Kennedy, Yale 
Owen Lattimore, Johns Hopkins 
John Leaning, I. P. R. 
W. W. Lockwood, A. C. I. S., Princeton 
John Marshall, Rockefeller Foundation 
Harriet Moore, A. R. I. 
E. O. Reischauer, Harvard 
G. T. Robinson, Columbia 
David N. Rowe, Princeton 

Exhibit No. 985 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 11 1129A. 
Edward C. Carter : 

Delighted to see your son Tuesday 11 : 30 at the Court. 

Felix Frankfurtee. 1130.1151A. 

Exhibit No. 986 
(Handwritten :) 

Aug. 6. 

It is difficult to answer your very thoughtful letter re office space because 
I don't know yet whether Chen Han N-seng will have returned to China as 
Holland desires or whether he will still be in N. Y. The problem is simplified 
through Bill Holland's not coming. The Amerasia space, i. e., beyond Amerasia 
seems a solution. 

(Inserted here is a sketch of the office layout, with the following initials 
and names : EFC 


If Chen returns before I do I guess we can manage to squeeze into our present 
space. I don't think card tables will do. I think you should continue in my 
office — I would rather like to work in yours. 

We are having a peaceful crossing. Bremman is a store house of information. 
I am also lucky in that your friend & Tommy White's is in the next compartment — 
Col. Faymonville. He has been out in Vladivostok for the visit of the U. S. 
Asiatic Squadron. If every American had his wise and comprehensive out- 
look on the U. S. S. R. there would be great possibilities of cooperation between 
U. S. and U. S. S. R. 

This carriage is very wobbly. I have run out of stationery as you see — so 
I am afraid my letters will bother and bore you because of their sloppiness. I 
envy you your clear distinguished handwriting & your lovely blue writing paper. 

Aua. 7. 

It has been hot but today is lovely and cool. I hope when I get to Moscow to be 
able to reach you by cable or phone. Bremman and I got up at 4 a. m. to get 
your cable at Irkutsk but every one there swore there was no cable from you 
anywhere in the city. I saw a lovely sunrise over Baikal but that hardly made 
up for the lack of a cable from you. 

This is our longest and I hope our last separation. 



Tourist Bureau, HarMn. 
Cable care Stationmaster, Birobidjan, whether leaving as planned. 
No answer. 

Exhibit No. 987 

Arthur Paul, Daisy Paul, reserved Don't mention Vluz 

Hrepilad Fall Camincho 

N. Y. Bus Ma for Roosevelt 

Crm. Smith Boat 


Harriman Clifford Durr 

pro court Liberty Able friend 

Thurman Arnold FCC South Conf 

Abe Fortas, 50,000 income Little money 

RS : Albert Friendly, Post Raymond Swing 

William Cochrane, Bait., wife Cli 

Mary Gresham, Govt. Folk good. I. P. R. 

Robert Lamb Anne Wheeler 

C. I. O. now Williams F. E. State 

AI. Baiting daylete 

Miss Nathausen 2 children 

Pub. Rel. Bait. 

Lincoln Bid. 

Exhibit No. 988 

Meeting; Arctic Institute; April 9; ECC; OL; FD ; HM ; Schmidt; Motiliet 


Schmidt is head of all the work north of the 62nd parallel, it is about one-third 
of the U. S. S. R. 

The first thing that had to be developed in the Arctic was science. This 
began in 1917, but since 1929 the development has been very raijid. Every region 
of the north has its permanent arctic station, where work is carried on during the 
whole year. 

The second thing to be developed was transportation. This is the key to the 
arctic. The aim is to get a route across the north sea. In 19.S2 the Sibinjakov 
made the first complete trip in one season. In 19,33 was the Cheliuskin expedi- 
tion in 19P>4 the Litlcn got through and in 19.35 they opened a regular route for 
commercial vessels, four ships made the trip. In 1936 six will go from West to 


East ; two from East to West ; 6 as far as the Kolyma ; 8 to the Lena and 40 
to the Yennisea. More than 300,000 tons of cargo will be carried. 

River transportation is very important. The basin of the Lena is larger 
than Western Europe and this has to be developed. Since 1933 ships have gone 
to the mouth of the Lena. Now they have their own shipbuilding wharf on the 

The next thing is the geological survey in order to begin the production of 
minerals. There is zinc and lead and niclcel. There is rock salt near the Taimir 
penninsula. This is very important because there is no salt in the Soviet Far 
East. They have had to get salt for the fishing industry trom Odessa and 
from Western Siberia. In 1938 there will be 5,000 worliers there and they 
will produce 150 tons per year. 

The Yennisea is navigable for ocean ships as far as Igarka, 450 km. from 
the mouth. Last year many foreign steamers came there for timber, which is 
shipped down the river from Western and Eastern Siberia. One even took timber 
to South Africa. River transport on the lower Yennisea has existed since before 
the Revolution. 

There is no need to colonize the north, because there is better land to be 
settled elsewhere in the U. S. S. R. There they plan to have more machines 
than men. There is one labor camp on the Yennisea, but there is not much use 
for criminal labor there, everyone wants to work in the Arctic. The population 
in the asiatic part of the north, north of 62nd parallel is 900,000 of which 150,000 
are the native tribes. 

Aviation has been widely developed. There is regularly daily, all-year serv- 
ice down the great rivers, the Ob, the Yennisea, the Lena, etc. There are oc- 
casional services East and West between the rivers to the fur centers or to the 
mines. They find it cheaper to transport the men and equipment for the mines 
by air. The airplanes also help with the navigation, to locate the ice flows, etc. 

At present they have a general rough geological survey of the whole region 
and on a basis of this they are doing more specialized surveys. In 1936 there 
will be 12 geological expeditions to different parts of the North. 

In 1935 the most important product of the region was timber. This is shipped 
from the interior. In 1936 they expect that minerals will be the most im- 
portant. The Lena and the Yennisea are open about 4 or 4V^ months for 

The native peoples are helped by the Institute of Northern Peoples. Every 
tribe has its schools and at present they are concentrating on training teachers 
from the native peoples. There are already native technical experts, ship cap- 
tains, wireless operators, etc. 

When Schmidt was in the U. S. he found everyone very friendly to him. 
Roosevelt was interested in his work and questioned him very carefully on all 
the details. 

Conditions in Alaska are better than in the North here. The climate is not as 
severe. But in the north of Canada they are worse. 

The Soviet weather forecasts, based on their observations in the North, are 
very good and far ahead of other countries. The U. S. siiould establish similar 
stations for this purpose in the north of Canada. 

Reindeer are to be increased for meat production, but they will not be used 
more widely in transportation. At present there is agriculture in the north, 
in Igarka and Franz Joseph Land. It is just for raising vegetables. In the next 
few years they plan to have agriciilture for fresh vegetables in all the places 
where there are people. There is no grain grown there. 

The work in the mines goes on all the year. 

At present there is a 50-60 percent increase in transportation facilities every 
year. The growth of transportation over the next twenty years will depend on 
the development of mining. 

Exhibit No. 989 

ApEir. 19, 1933. 
ECO from JB : 


You will remember that when Lattimore was first suggested as a memlier of 
the American Council I was inclined to support the proposal. It is true that he 
is not an economist, but the following reasons would weigh very heavily in my 
mind in favor of inviting him : (1) as far as I know, he is not reputed to be in 

88348 — 52— pt. 14 14 


the pay of any frovernraent ; (2) he has a remarkable background of personal 
experience in Manchuria and China; (3) he has written what is perhaps the 
best book in existence on Manchuria; (4) although he is not an economist, he 
is thoroughly familiar with what the economists are interested in. In other 
words, he understands the nature of the pressures which impinge on the Far 
East, and although I myself think that he overweights the cultural or Spen- 
glerian analysis, he never loses sight of reality; (5) he has a very understand- 
ing and sympathetic attitude toward the Soviet Union, and (6) our job at the 
Banff Conference is not only to break political issues down into their economic 
units, but also to put them together again. In this second job, Lattimore would 
have a very great deal to contribute. 

April 17, 1933. 
ECC to JB : 

I wrote Fred saying that Lattimore had offered to be a member of the Ameri- 
can Group at Banff but that we had misgivings as to whether it was more 
important to have him than some of the others who we felt w^ould help more 
on our economic program. 

Now I have the following cable from Fred dated Honolulu, April 14: 
"Matsukata : I Strongly Recommend Lattimore." 
This would mean more if you also joined in the recommendation. What is your 
reaction? Attached is a copy of the letter I sent Fred. 

March 27, 1933. 
Mr. F. V. Field, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Dear Fred : Owen Lattimore is coming home from Mongolia and Manchuria 
across Canada just at the time of the Banff Conference, and he is very eager 
to attend. This news came to us after the Selection Committee had met, and it 
looks as though we were going to have the very greatest difficulty in keeping 
down the American group to 25. So it will be hard to find a place for Lattimore. 
But before the Selection Committee finally passes on his name, we should like 
to know wliether you feel strongly that he should be secured, even though that 
might mean increasing the size of the American group. Please send a full 
statement of your views as to the importance or otherwise of having him, at 
the earliest possible moment. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 990 

June 28, 1933. 
Mr. L. T. Chen, 

China Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

J23 Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai. 

Dear Mr. Chen : Here is a copy of a letter of introduction which I have given 
at his request to General Yakhontoff. The General is very eager to get the 
backing of the Institute of Pacific Relations in making a study of Communism 
in China. He felt that his wide contacts in Russia and in the Far East fitted 
him uniquely to make such a study and that he might be employed jointly by the 
China Institute, the American Council and the Pacific Committee of the I. P. R. 
in the U. S. S. R. 

We have told him that the I. P. R. was not in a position to sponsor his study. 
We do not know where the funds would come from. 

A further difficulty is that we do not think that General Yakhontoff stands in 
the first rank as a scholar. He is more in the class of a popular lecturer than a 
research worker of high qualifications. 

I think it would be a friendly act for you to see him when he calls and talk 
with him about his plans, but I do not think there is any reason for you to go 
out of your way to render him special favors or give a great deal of time to him. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Cabteb. 



June 28, 1933. 
Mr. L. T. Chen, 

China Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

123 Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai. 

Deab Mr. Chen : This is to introduce General Victor Yakhontoff, who hopes to 
visit China in September and October to get material for lectures and for a book 
on Communism in China. He was formerly a General in the liussian Imperial 
army ; later he was an attach^ in the Russian embassy in Tokyo ; after the 
Revolution he was an emigre and settled in America. More recently he has 
re-established friendly relations with people in Moscow interested in the study 
of foreign affairs. He is the author of "Russia and the Soviet Union in the Far 
East." He recently became an American citizen. 

Inasmuch as General Yakhontoff lectures quite widely before men's women's 
clubs in America and is making a serious effort to continue as an objective 
student of Far Eastern affairs, any help that you can give him will be deeply 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 



Exhibit No. 991 

July 13, 1933. 

Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, 

State Department, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Hornbeck : As you know, a group of scientific workers in the U. S. 
S. R. who have specialized on a study of the economic, ethnic, cultural, and po- 
litical problems of the Far East has been definitely organized as the Soviet 
Group of the Institute of Pacific Relations. The head of this group was elected 
unanimously at the Shanghai Conference as the Soviet member of the Pacific 
Council, the international governing body of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Sir Robert Borden, the Honorable Newton W. Rowell and Vincent Massey, 
the outstanding leaders of the I. P. R. in Canada, are exceedingly anxious to 
have a Soviet representative at the Banff Conference. Unfortunately the ofiicial 
attitude of the Canadian Government is such that it is illegal for members of 
the Communist Party to visit and live in the Dominion of Canada. Prime 
Minister Bennett, however, is so interested in the success of the Banff Conference 
that he has privately informed the Honorable Newton W. Rowell that the Ca- 
nadian immigration ofiicers at all points of entry in the Dominion will be in- 
structed to facilitate the arrival and departure for Banff of all accredited 
members of the Institute of Pacific Relations en route for the Banff Conference. 
Some months ago he gave a personal assurance of this to Mr. Rowell after Mr, 
Rowell raised the question of the legal and administrative obstacles that might 
arise in the case of a Soviet representative. 

To make doubly certain that there is no embarrassment and unfortunate 
incident accompanying the arrival of a Soviet representative, Mr. Rowell has 
(again reopened the matter with Prime Minister Bennett. As a result, I am able 
to send to yovi herewith a copy of a letter just received from Escott Reid, the 
Secretary of the Canadian Institute, conveying to me formally a copy of a recent 
letter from Prime Minister Bennett to the Honorable Newton W. Rowell. 

It so happens that it would be of the greatest value to the American Council 
in developing its program of studies of Russian practice and policy in the Far 
East if it were possible for us to get permission from the State Department to 
ensure that the Soviet member of the Banff Conference was able to visit New 
York for conference with the ofiicers and staff of the American Council both be- 
fore and after the Banff Conference. 

If the Institute of Pacific Relations group in Moscow is finally able to send 
a representative to Banff, the chances are three to one that they will send as 
the sole member or as Chairman of a group of two or three, Karl Radek whose 
article in Foreign Affairs a few months ago you must have read. He is a member 
of the Communist Party and, as you know, he has been specializing for some 
time on Soviet policy in the Far East. 

I would like to inquire from you what steps the American Council should take 
in order that we might be able to cable Karl Radek that if it is possible for him 


to visit New York on his way to and from Banff, the State Department will 
attend to the necessary formalities. 

I do not know sufficiently the present policy and division of responsibility in 
the State Department in such a matter but have wondered whether it will be 
possible for you to discuss the question with Mr. Phillips and enlist his interest 
in finding a solution to the problem which confronts the American Council. There 
is no one in Washington better qualified than you to explain to Mr. Phillips the 
purpose and importance of the scientific studies of the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tion. If any personal reference would help, you might remind Mr. Phillips that 
I was a classmate of his at Harvard and that our fellow classmate, Charles Dana 
Draper, whom he knows, is my brother-in-law. 

If some formal communication from the American Council addressed to the 
Secretary of State is called for, will you kindly let me know what sort of letter 
I should send in place of this purely personal inquiry. 

With kindest personal regards, I am 
Sincerely yours. 


Exhibit No. 992 

Edward C. Carter. 

November 29, 1933. 

JB to ECC : 

The following men at Harvard should be interested in the Russian field : 

Cross, Samuel A. — Professor of Russian, working in the medieval period. An 
expert on the Chronicles. Former commercial attache, with, I think, chemical 
training. Pretty anti-Soviet personally, but a good American citizen. Said to 
be really good at the language. You will remember that Elisieff spoke very 
highly of him, and of the six or eight young men, including one of the Coudert 
boys, who are working for him. 

Fainsod, Merle— Y'oung, married a classmate of Betty Field's, took his Ph. D. 
in Government two years ago. Spent last year in Russ'a, working on the Third 
International, and is preparing a monograph for publication on this. Thor- 
oughly intelligent, a protege of Holcombe's personally, at present a tutor in 

Langer, William — Modern European history. One of the best men in this field 
in America. Teaches History 30, Archie Coolidge's old course, and therefor 
partly inheritor of Coolidge's Russian tradition. Has no special competence 
in Russian, but an interest in it. Works for Foreign Affairs, and is the special 
friend of Mosely's. On the board of the Fletcher School. 

Holcombe — You know. 

Elliott, W. Y. — Government, at present titular head of the department. A special 
colleague of Lowell's, expert on the British empire, on which he has written a 
big book. 

Emerson, Rupert — Government, relatively young. Has married a Russian, his 
own Russian background uncertain. Said to have spent the past year in the 
Far East. Recommended by Cross. Spoken well of by Moseley. 

Blake, Robert — Head of the library. A very important fellow in Harvard poli- 
tics. Knows only a little Russian, but knows Georgian, Armenian and about 
twenty other peripheral languages. Dug up Mount Athos with Kirsopp Lake. 
Very much interested in the Russian field. 

Pope — Fine Arts. The greatest master of Persian art alive, and personnally said 
to be an advance Bolshevik. Went through Russia two years ago with Eddie 
Warburg, who has told me that he knows no Russian but is sold on the Soviet 
Union. Knows quite a lot about icons, and might be interested from the point 
of view of Russian art. 

Hopper, Bruce — You know. Away on a sabbatical in Russia. 


Exhibit No. 993 

Memoeandum of Interview With Mortimer L. Graves 

. Thursday, December 7, 1933 

Present: Edward C. Carter and Joseph Barnes. 

Speaking from meinory Mr. Graves said that the exi)enditure budget for the 
Harvard Summer School of Chiuese Studies was as follows : 

24 assistances @ 125 and 62.50 $2,500 

3 inst. P $800 2, 400 

2 sub. @ $400 800 

22 spec. lect. @ $50 1, 100 

Adm. 40 @ $5 200 


Income budget was as follows : 

Tuitions 40 and 45 $1,800 

Harvard Yenching 1, 8.50 

Society of Japanese Studies 850 

Carnegie Corporation and American Council Learned Societies 2, 500 

$7, 000 

There were forty students registered ; sixteen paid their way entirely, twenty- 
four were assisted, eight at $(J2.50 per person and sixteen at $125 per person. 
The charge for board and room for six weeks ranged from $70 upward according 
to accommodation. The tuition fee was $45 for the six weeks. 

Graves expressed delightful desire that the American Council of Learned 
Societies was not to have the credit for taking the initiative for the proposed 
Russian Language School but expressed a deep and sincere desire to cooperate 
to the full with the I. P. R. in putting the school across. 

Exhibit No. 994 

Finance 193G 
Document 7 

Individual Travel Expenditure Foe the Past Few Tears 
I — Administration 

Edward C. Carter 

Left New York January 1934, visited Toronto. Winipeg and San Francisco 
prior to sailing for Honolulu. Left Honolulu, after a two weeks' visit, for Japan. 
After a four weeks' stay in Japan, he sailed from Kobe to Manila for a short 
visit. He returned to China early in April and visited the following cities: 
Canton, Shanghai, Nanking, Tientsin, Peiping, and Ting Hsien. He left for 
Moscow early in May, visiting Hsinking en route. He left Moscow the end of 
May and visited Amsterdam, The Hague, Leyden, Paris, Geneva and London 
and returned to New York the end of June. 

He remained in the United States until the fall with the expection of visits 
to Toronto and Montreal in July and October. 

Early in November he purchased a round-the-world trip ticket via London, 
Marseilles, Bombay, Hongkong, Shanghai and San Francisco in order to take 
advantage of the saving possible on purchasing a round-the-world ticket. Re- 


mained in London from the middle of November xmtil early in December, He 
then visited I'aris, Amsterdam, The Hague and Moscow, returning to London 
January 2, 1935. 

Total Expenditure, $4,777.48. 


After a week's stay in London and a brief visit in Paris he sailed from Mar- 
seilles to Bomiiay. Remained in India from January 24 to February 7 visiting 
Bombay, Delhi, Nagpur and Wardha. Traveled to Shanghai via Hongkong. 
He remained in China until April 2 visiting Hankow, Nanking, Tientsin and 
Peiping. Left for Japan to attend the interim research confei'ence in Tokyo. 
On May 14, he sailed from Japan to Honolulu where he remained until June 
3rd. He sailed from Honolulu to Australia, arriving in Sydney on June 18. 
In Australia he visited Sydney, INIelbnurne and Brisbane. Left Australia on 
July 5 for New Zealand where he remained until July 27, visiting Auckland, 
Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill, Oamaru, Hastings, and Napier. 
He left New Zealand for Los Angeles spending August 5th in Honolulu. He 
visited Los Angeles, San Francisco and Yosemite. He reached New York late 
in August. 

During the autumn he visited Washington, D. C, Seattle, Portland, Vancouver, 
Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal. 

Total Expenditure, $5,077.30. 


He visited Washington, D. C, Cleveland, Chicago, San Francisco, and returned 
to New York to sail for London on March 11. He visited Amsterdam, The Hague 
and Leyden, Moscow, Geneva, Paris, and returned to London. Sailed for New 
York on May 7th. 

At the end of May he visited Ottawa to attend the meetings of the Canadian 
Institute Studies Conference. June and July spent on work in connection with 
preparing for the Yosemite Conference at Lee, Mass. 

In July he received a $500 advance toward his Yosemite travelling expenses. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $1,996.35. 

Kate Mitchell 

Miss Mitchell accompanied Mr. Carter on all of the above mentioned visits 
with the exception of his visits to the west coast and Canada in 1935 and his 
visits to Chicago, San Francisco, Amsterdam, The Hague, Leyden, and Moscow, 
and Ottawa in 1936. 

No expense to the Institute was involved in Miss Mitchell's travel. 

Elsie Fairfox-Cholmeley 

Miss Cholmeley joined the Secretariat staff on January 9, 1935, and accom- 
panied Mr. Carter on his visits to India, China, Japan, Honolulu, Australia, New 
Zealand, and returned to the United States, visiting Los Angeles, San Francisco, 
and Yosemite. She did not accompany Mr. Carter on his trips to the west coast 
and Canada during 1935. 

No expense to the Institute was involved in Miss Cholmeley's travel during 

The details of Miss Cholmeley's travel during 1936 will be found under item 
VI— Staff and Staff Exchange. 

n — ^PAcmc AFFAIES 

Owen Lnttimore 

Mr. Lattimore left New York in September 1934 for Peiping, visiting Honolulu 
en route. 

Total Expenditure, $1,200.00. 


Mr. Lattimore's travel in China during 1935 was paid for by a grant from 
the International Research Fund. 


Left Peiping in March, visited Moscow, Amsterdam, London, and returned to 
New York in May. 


Mr. and Mrs. Lattimore were given travelling grants to enable them to attend 
the Yosemite Conference. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $2,034.39. 



W. L. Holland 

Early in 1934 he visited Toronto and Winnipeg en route to Japan vt'here he 
established his headquarters in Tokyo. He also visited China during 1934. 

Total Expenditure, $5GS.98. 


In March 1935 he travelled to Shanghai to meet Mr. Carter and participate 
in staff conferences with Mr. Carter, Mr. Lasker, Mr. Lattimore, Miss Tylor 
and Miss Mitchell in Shanghai, Nanking and Peiping as well as to confer with 
members of the China Council. In June 1935, he visited Manila, Hcmgkong, 
Shanghai, Nanking, Teiping, Tientsin, and Dairen. He left Japan in July and 
spent some time in Honolulu, relurniug to New York the end of August ; since 
which time his headquarters have been in New York and Stockbridge. 

In December he paid a short visit to Toronto. 

Total Expenditure, $892.98. 


Mr. Holland visited Ottawa in May 1936 to attend the Canadian Institute 
Studies Conference. He lias also been given a travelling grant in connection with 
attending the Yosemite Conference. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $280.25. 


Carl L. Alsierff 

Dr. Alsberg was given a grant towards his travelling expenses in connection 
with attending the interim research conference in Tokyo in April. 

Total Expenditure, $300.00. 

Pardoo Lowe 

Incidental travel and travelling grant in connection with attending Yosemite 

Total Expenditure, $191.06. , 


Ricliard Pyke 

Mr. Pyke was given a grant of $150 toward his expenses in connection with 
coming to the United States. He visited Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa in 

He was given a grant of $1,000 to purchase a round-trip ticket from New York 
to Shanghai. 

Total Expenditure, $1,226.58. 


Mr. Pyke visited Toronto early in 1936 in connection with arranging for his 
readmission to the United States. 

He left for the Far East in February visiting Seattle, Vancouver, and Honolulu 
en route. He spent 3 weeks in Japan visiting Tokyo, Nagaya, Kobe, Kyoto, and 
Mara. He spent about 8 weeks in China visiting Shanghai, Nanking, Peiping, and 
Tientsin. He spent a week in Manchuria visiting Hsinking. Mukden, and Dairen. 
The advance of $1,000 given Mr. Pyke during 1935 practically covered all his 
travel to and in the Far East and return. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $63.54. 


Charlotte Tyler 

Miss Tyler left the United States in the fall of 1934 and visited London. Left 
London for the Far East via Singapore, Slam, and Indo China. She spent some 
time in Shanghai and accompanied the Secretary General to Nanking and Peiping 
where she maintained her headquarters until March 1936. 

Total Expenditure, $1,000.00. 


She returned from Peiping via Moscow, and London to attend the Yosemite 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $306.25. 

Note.— Miss Tyler's salary and travel is paid from a special earmarked grant 
from the Payne Fund. 

Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley 

Miss Cholmeley visited Canada in January 1936 for purposes of readmission to 
the United States. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $97.02. 

Harriet Moore 

Miss Moore left New York on March 11 and paid short visits to London and 
Amsterdam, and accompanied Mr. Carter to Moscow where she remained until 
the latter part of INIay. She then returned to the United States to assist in con- 
ference preparation. 

Total Expenditure, first 7 months, $600.00. 

Exhibit No. 995 

Februart 13, 1984, 
Selsker M. Gunn, Esq., 
Rockfeller Foundation, 

1,9 West J,9th Street, New York City. 

Dear Gunn : It is impossible to tell you how highly we all appreciated the 
information and the insights which you and Mrs. Gunn gave us here. We only 
wish we could have pumped you for 10 weeks instead of 10 hours. 

I am hoping that you will have a long talk with Barnes and Holland almost 
immediately after you arrive in New York, for Barnes is leaving for Russia and 
Siberia a few days after your arrival, and similarly Holland about the first of 
March is leaving New York for the Pacific Coast, Honolulu, and Japan. 

First of all I hope you can in confidence sketch to Barnes and Holland your 
general plan for China. It is of the utmost importance that they get as full 
a picture of your analysis of China's needs as you so vividly gave to me. To 
understand what is in your mind will be invaluable to Holland when he goes to 
the Far East, and to Barnes when he goes to Russia. I know you want to discuss 
with them the Standard of Living study, particularly with reference to China. 

I hojie you and Mrs. Gunn can go over to the Fifty-second Street office and more 
generally give the background of your studies, not only to Barnes and Holland 
but also to Lattimore, Miss Tjler, and Lasker. 

Any help that any of them can give you in return will be gladly given. 

I don't think I told you that, when we saw Kerakhan in Moscow in 1931, 
he told us that the Institute's researches in China and Japan would be equally 
valuable whether the Far East remained capitalist or became communist. He 
afl3rmed that these basic researches on food and population, trade, tariffs, in- 
dustrialization, and farm management must form the basis for any socially valid 
public policy. Similarly I have the feeling that your program of education 
and research for rural reconstruction in China will prove equally indispensable 
whether China goes communist or not. I think this is an important point for 
you to bear in mind, for it may be that some of your trustees will want to veto 
your proposals because they think that China is going communist. 

Holland and Barnes you must see soon after your arrival, as they wiil be 
leaving the city very soon. A little later, when your initial rush is over, I hope 


you can give a little time to Miss Tyler to tell her what you know of the Basic 
English situation in the Far East. 

If there are any memoranda that would be of use to me in China, 1 hope 
that you will send them to me in care of the China Institute of Pacific Relations, 
123 Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai. I wish now that I had been forehanded 
enough to get from you a list of the twenty or thirty Chinese whom you found 
the wisest and most promising. If you could possibly spare the time to send 
me the names and cities and a brief "Who's AVho" regarding the people I ought 
to see without fail. You would be rendering the I. P. R. a great service. 

With deepest appreciation for all that you did for us here, and with kindest 
regards from us all to you both, I am 
Very sincerely yours, 

Edwakd C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 996 

Conversation Between Mr. Arosev, President op VOKS, Mr. Carter, and J, B., 


May 21, 1934. 

Mr. Carter began by explaining that this was his third trip to the Soviet 
Union. On each of his previous trips, he had made every effort possible to work 
out arrangements for cooperation between the I. P. R. and Soviet social scien- 
tists interested in the Pacific area. The results of these efforts were by no 
means insignificant. The degree of cooperation actually achieved today was far 
higher than when he first came here in 1929. On the other hand, he was equally 
convinced that it did not yet begin to correspond to the volume and importance 
of the work being done here or of that with which the Institute is familiar 
outside the Soviet Union. The main purpose of his present trip was to try to 
improve these arrangements, if possible, through a better organization of 
Soviet representation in the I. P. R. 

Mr. Arosev began by saying that he wished to be entirely frank and open 
with us. As he had told JB previously, the question was unfortunately not 
one simply of scientific cooperation. From what he had been able to learn 
of the Institute, it was obvious that it was at least in large part a political 

Mr. Carter explained that this was only partly true. The subject matter of 
the Institute's research is political, but its own organization and activity is 
entirely nonpolitical. The Institute is a research organization which works 
through the scientific bodies and workers of different countries, and must con- 
sequently take into account the political situation of those bodies and scholars, 
but it is not itself a political body. 

Mr. Arosev replied that in tlie Soviet Union there were no private bodies or 
individuals. The nearest exception to this rule is VOKS, which is organized 
on the same lines as TASS, the Soviet News Agency. But even with these, we 
must understand, it is inevitable that any activity carried on by anyone in the 
Soviet Union in cooperation with other nationals has a political significance. It 
was for this reason that he himself was eager to straighten out the question. 
The inclusion of Dr. Petrov's name on the Pacific Council, whatever the mis- 
understanding as to his action in accepting election three years ago, was today 
merely an empty formality, and both sides would profit by clearing the question 
up. The very misunderstanding, by which Dr. Petrov feels that he accepted 
the position as President of VOKS while the record shows that he did so as an 
individual, is representative of the situation here and indicates the need for a 
clear understanding of the Soviet position in principle, an understanding which 
could be worked out only in responsible quarters when the question had the wide 
political significance which is inevitable in joining officially the Institute of 
Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Carter agreed completely with the desirability of arriving at such an 
understanding, and stated that it was the principal reason for his visit to 
Moscow. He pointed out that in reality it was the substance of cooperation 
which interested him, and that the form or formula, although it was important 
to straighten out, was after all of secondary importance. The increase of 


direct contacts between other research institutions and those of the Soviet 
Union, and a wider exchange of documents and materials are the real desiderata 
which the Institute had in mind. 

Mr. Arosev expressed his gratitude for this statement, which left him in a 
better position to understand the motives of the Institute. For these purposes, 
VOKS was the ideal organization in the Soviet Union. It is independent, it is 
responsil)le to no one and it unites in its contacts with foreign countries all the 
organizations of the Soviet Union in the arts and sciences. 

The main question at the moment, he felt, was to secure the understanding in 
principle about which he liad spoken. If that decision, which under the circum- 
stances could be made only by very responsible people, should be favorable, he 
would iind no difficulty at all in the Soviet Union. He had been in his new post 
only 25 days, but he was convinced that VOKS could be made a significant link 
between the Soviet Union and foreign scientists. In regard to the Institute, he 
and other officials had lacked hitherto any concrete idea of what the Institute 

Mr. Carter stated that we are now in a position to supply such a statement in 
written form, if desirable, as a formal outline of the aims and objectives of the 
Institute and the part which the Soviet Union would be desired to play in their 
attainment. He wondered if Mr. Arosev would care to advise him as to the form 
and method of presenting such a statement. 

Mr. Arosev said tliat he would try as quickly as possible to secure, on the basis 
of the large amoimt of information which they now had as a result of our visit, a 
definite ruling on the question in principle. He hoped to be able to secure this 
by May 2Gth, when he wished we would telephone him. Then we could submit 
such a concrete statement as we had mentioned, and he could guarantee that if 
the decision in principle should be favorable, we would find every aid and coopera- 
tion in carrying out our plans. 

Mr. Carter then described in some detail the history of the Institute's relations 
with the Soviet Union. In 1929, through the warm interest of Commissar Lit- 
vinov, Mr. Alexandre Romm of TASS was sent to the Kyoto Conference as an 
observer. In 1931, Vice Commissar Karakhan spoke with cordiality of the re- 
search work of the Institute, and of the keen interest in it which was felt by 
Soviet scientists, and assured a responsible group of Institute representatives 
that individual cooperation on the part of Soviet scientists was entirely accept- 
able to the government authorities. At that time he recommended that VOKS be 
used as the agency, and in the same year Dr. Petrov who was then President of 
VOKS accepted his election to the Pacific Council of the Institute. This formal 
representation of the Soviet Union in the Institute bad not developed as might 
have been hoped. In other ways, liowever (Mr. Carter referi'ed to JB's presence 
in Moscow for the past two months, the survey he had made of research societies 
in the Soviet Union, and to the last number of Prohlemii Kitapa, which contains 
the translation of an I. P. R. data paper) we have been successful in working 
out larger and more fruitful cooperation than we have ever had before. 

He concluded by repeating his assurances that he was only too eager to conform 
to any suggestion which might be forthcoming as to the formula of cooperation. 
He would wait until the 2nth for the decision which Mr. Arosev had promised, 
particularly since he planned to be in Moscow again in the fall. 

JB added personally, since he knew Mr. Arosev from a previous meeting, that 
he wished to assure him that the invitation was by no means a political gesture. 
The persistence and zeal of Institute representatives in Moscow in attempting to 
work out some answer to this problem reflected no desire on the part of any 
nation or group to use the Soviet Union for political purposes. It reflected rather 
our increasing conviction of the importance of Soviet studies, as witnessed by the 
fact that some of us have learned the Russian language and spent considerable 
periods here, and also to some extent the impossibility of securing any sort of 
really definite answer from Soviet authorities. If Mr. Arosev could secure a 
definite answer, even if it should be negative, it would probably be an assistance 
to the substance of what we want to secure. 

Mr. Arosev, concluding, assured Mr. Carter that he had no desire to continue 
"feeding us with empty promises." While we were here, we should feel free to 
commend VOKS in any way possible. If the answer is in the affirmatve, VOKS 
will officially bend every effort to advance our projects here. If it is in the nega- 
tive, however, VOKS will still be only too happy to help us in any way possible 
that does not commit it to our policies. He reminded us that it would be hard toi 
convince anyone in the Soviet Union that the Institute is not political. Any 
organization in which England, Japan, China and the United States are working, 


because of the delicate relations between those countries, is of necessity political. 
In this case, political significance is like the fat in wliich a cutlet is fried. It 
may be butter fat, or sunflower seed oil, but you can't fry a cutlet without fat. 
Mr. Arosev took a list of Banff Conference members, and asked a few additional 
questions concerning the central headquarters of the Institute and the role of 
Pacific Council members. He liad already been given a pretty complete sheaf of 
documents, including Pacific Affairs, a list of A. C. members. Empire in the East, 
a check list of publications, the Harvard Summer School circular, etc. 

Exhibit No. 997 

July 18, 1934. 
Miss Barbaea Wb^itheim, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York 

Dear Miss Wertheim : This is to formalize the invitation that I have already 
given you orally to go to Tokyo this autumn for one year to act as Research. 
Assistant to W. L. Holland, the Institute's International Research Secretary and 
S. Uramatsu, Secretary of the Japanese Council of the I. P. R. 

You would thus be serving both the Pacific Council and the Japanese Council 
and the division of your work would be made by a three-cornered understanding 
between Mr. Holland, Mr. Uramatsu and yourself. At the time of your arrival 
Mr. Holland and Mr. Uramatsu will be occupying offices in the same building. 
As they are working together in the closest collaboration there will be no diffi- 
culties whatsoever in working out your program so that your work for Mr. Ura- 
matsu and Mr. Holland will be complementary. 

In order that you may know just what has transpired since first I talked with 
you I now wish to quote my cable to Holland. It reads as follows : 

"Cable could you Uramatsu use I5arbara Wertheim one year from Novem- 
ber volunteer research worker. Shiman Barnes endorse." 
It was sent on July 12. On July 14, Mr. Holland cabled me from Tokyo in reply, 
as follows : 

"Wertheim valuable and welcome." 

At your convenience v/ould you please let me know whether you would prefer 
to sail some time in October, or whether you would prefer to wait until early 
November ? 

Mr. Barnes informs me that the American Council will be willing to give you 
leave of absence for the period of your sojourn in Japan and also six to eight 
weeks' leave this summer as soon as you have completed your current assign- 

In the autumn before you go I would be glad to make suggestions for a short 
period of reading and work, preparing to assuming responsibilities in the Tokyo 

With kindest regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 998 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, September 25, 1934. 
Mr. Frederick V. Field, 

Dear Fred : Would you let me know whom of the following you would like to 
meet before I sail? Sooner or later, under the most easy and natural auspices, 
I assume that you will want to establish personal contacts with all whom you 
don't know already. 

Arthur W. Packard David H. Stevens Stanley K. Hornbeck 

Robert M. Lester Henry S. Haskell Henry R. Luce 

Frederick P. Keppel Miss Ella Crandell Maurice Wertheim 

Raymond B. Fosdick Edwin R. Embree Martin Egan 

Henry Allen Moe Richard Walsh James D. Mooney 

If there are other people not listed above whom you would like me to establish 
contact with for you, please do not hesitate to call on me. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 999 
KB to ECC : 

This memorandum, which contains my ideas of what may be accomplished by 
the Institute in the Soviet Field, falls into two parts : 

I. Long-term objectives. 

II. The immediate steps necessary in order to accomplish I. 

I. The long-term objectives embody an ideal state of things which is admit- 
tedly impossible of accomplishment for many years. I would like to see all 
activities which have been proved of value by one national council incorporated 
in the work of the other councils with such modification as the peculiar needs and 
situation of each may necessitate. Keen interest by all national councils in the 
work carried on in the other countries, with active cooperation in such work 
would be an integral part of this Utopian picture. A description of this picture 
from the Soviet angle falls into the following three divisions : 

A. The Soviet Council in relation to the other member countries. 

B. The Pacific and National Councils in relation to the Soviet Union. 

C. Activities impossible without the active support of the Soviet and other 
national councils. 

A. 1. The Soviet Council must ultimately be as active on the International 
committees, in the preparation for the conferences and in the conferences 
them.selves as any other council. This will take a long time to bring about, 
due to financial, political and geographic reasons. But there seems to be no 
reason why these difficulties should be insurmountable once the Soviets are 
convinced of the advantages accruing to their own research and scholarship 
from such active cooperation. This conviction can only be given by actual 
requests for information and studies and by the reciprocal rendering of 
concrete assistance to the Soviet workers in the Pacific field. 

2. Under the auspices of the Soviet Council, a survey should be made in 
the Soviet Union of the facilities afforded research workers to acquire the 
lanuua^'es of the other members of the Institute. Should the survey show 
that facilities are provided, adequate to the building of a body of research 
workers equipped to function in the various fields, no further action would 
be necessary. Should the opposite be the case, action should be taken to 
remedy the situation. 

3. Coordination of the studies carried on in the Soviet Union of the prob- 
lems of the other member countries should be one of the functions of an 
active Soviet Council. 

4. Tlie Soviet Council should possess an up-to-date record of organisations 
and personnel interested in the problems of the Pacific area. 

5. The Soviet Council should investigate whether a need exists in the Soviet 
Union for the issue of periodical, timely information on the problems of the 
Pacific Area. It is possible that the magazines already published absorb 
all demand for such information. On the other hand, some such service as 
the American Council is giving in its biweekly memoranda might fill a real 
lack in providing a section of the population of the USSR, which would not 
otherwise be reached, with authoritative accounts of Pacific incidents and 

B. Before going into detail on B and C, I would like to recapitulate the situa- 
tion of the various national councils as I know it re the Soviet Union. 

Australia— Lack of interest coupled with suspicion. Lack of research 
workers in the Soviet field and even of people acquainted with the Russian 

New Zealand — Ditto but even stronger. 

Canada— Ditto. Feeling towards the Soviets reminiscent of 1920. 

Netherlands — Admittance of possible value of Soviet material in their 
work, but unable to use it through lack of people acquainted with the lan- 
guage and unwilling to through general fear of communism. 

Great Britain— Luke-warm attitude towards Soviet Affairs. However, 
something is being done in the Soviet field, e. g., in Birmingham, and people 
can be found in Great Britain who handle the language. 

China— Language facilities exist, but people found in possession of Soviet 
literature are in extreme danger during the periodic anti-communist drives. 

Japan— Keen interest on the part of some members of the Council exists 
but there is a lack of language facilities and it is practically impossiMe to 
import Soviet literature. 

U. S. A.— Interest is present. Language can be handled. Soviet literature 
is importable and causes no embarrassment to possessor. 


Such being the case, a considerable period of time will have to be spent in 
arousing interest and waiting for political obstacles to disappear. Granted such 
a period of time, it would be desirable to have in each member country the 
following : 

1. Facilities for acquiring the Russian language, so that a body of research 
workers could develop, capable of handling Soviet and Russian materials. 

2. A coordinating center for all Soviet Studies and the institutions and 
personnel concerned. 

The Pacific Council of course would act as originator of such plans, with due 
regard for national autonomy, and would receive reports as to progress in their 
achievement. It would seem logical, moreover, that the compiled lists of Soviet 
studies, interested institutions, and research personnel should be sent to the 
Pacific Council which would then be in a position to keep all national councils 
informed as to the state of Soviet studies in the membership as a whole. Care 
would have to be taken in setting up the machinery that it did not become so 
cumbersome and the process so lengthy that the information would be out of 
date before distributed. 

C. Under activities requiring active support of the Soviet and other councils 
we can list : 

1. Exchange of books and publications. The American Council has for 
some time been exchanging books and periodicals with various institutions 
in the Soviet Union. This can be continued in the same fashion as before 
or through some central agency set up by the Soviet Council. This central 
agency would of course carry on exchange arrangements with the other 
National Councils. The extent to which this exchange would develop would 
depend on how B. was carried out. It is obviously useless for a library to 
be collected if it is unused through lack of interest or ability. 

2. Exchange of research workers such as has existed between the Ameri- 
can Council and the Japanese and Chinese should be extended. It would be 
of great value if ultimately such exchange could function between the 
Soviet and all the other national councils. 

3. A bibliographical service such as is now being contemplated, inevitably 
will demand the cooperation of all countries concerned. In the far future 
a similar service covering Japan, China, the Soviet Union and the English 
and Dutch speaking countries should be set up in each of the member 
countries of the Institute. 

4. The Soviet and other councils could be of valuable mutual assistance 
if they kept each other informed of the progress of their various activities 
without waiting for the inevitably longer procedure of communicating 
through the Pacific Council. 

11. Immediate steps necessary in order to accomplish I. divide into two parts : 

A. In the Soviet Union. 

B. In other member countries. 
A. In the Soviet Union. 

1. From the point of view of terminology, it might be as well to suggest 
that the Pacific Institute of the U. S. S. R. should be known as the Soviet 
Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

2. Membership on International Committees. The necessary documents 
should be presented to the Soviet Council which will acquaint them with 
the activities of the various committees : Program ; Research ; Publications ; 
Education. They should be urged to appoint a representative on each 
committee. Perhaps, to begin with, one person might do for all, preterably 
the person who might conceivably come to the next conference so as to 
increase the chance of the Soviet representative actually meeting the other 
members of the committees. 

3. An associate editor for Pacific Affairs should be appointed and asked 
as his first job to check up on the articles promised by Voitinsky, Abram- 
son, and Radek. 

4. Data Papers. The Soviet Council has already announced five studies 
that they intend to publish before the next conference as well as two collec- 
tions of articles. As these all deal with subjects pertinent to the general 
subject matter for data papers for the next conference as determined at 
Banff, these publications may very well be counted enough. 

5. Standard of Living Studies. All relevant material such as the Inter- 
national Research Program 19.33-35, FVF's report on the progress of the 
American Council in the Standard of Living Studies and any other reports 
the Secretary General may get from other council visits, should be shown 


to the Soviet Council. They should be asked to draw up a report on what 
has been published and on what projects are now under way or being 
contemplated on the subject of Standard of Living in the Soviet Union. 
HM can be offered as assistant or collaborator. They should be informed 
that all countries are making such a report to the International liesearch 
Committee early next year and be asked to send their report in at the same 
time. Suggestions how the studies in each country might further progress, or 
what new ones might be originated, in order best to coordinate all the work, 
will then be sent out. As for the cultural side of the research program. I 
understand that that is still under discussion. Concrete suggestions as to 
just what "cultural relations" signifies will be sent to the Soviet Council 

6. The question of translation of Soviet studies should be discussed as it 
affects both the data papers and the projects connected with the Research 
program of the Institute. 

7. The report of JB made last spring on Soviet Institutions concerned 
with the problems of the Far East is so confidential in character that no 
reference should be made of it to the Soviet Council or to any of tlie In- 
stitutions concerned. (N. B. to IIM.) The Soviet Council should be told 
that in the American Council we are attempting the coordination of Soviet 
and Far Eastern Studies. They should be urged to compile a report of all 
Soviet organisations interested in Pacific Relations with a description of the 
type of work each carries on. Such a report, they would realize would be 
of value not only to themselves but to all Soviet-minded research workers. 
If they demur owing to lack of time or personnel, HM could be offered as the 
person to undertake it, in so far as her other activities permit, with the Soviet 
Council as sponsor and guide. 

8. Exchange of books and periodicals. Some machinery should be .set up 
within the Soviet Council which could arrange for exchange of books and 
periodicals. Obviously this would be feasible as far as the publications of 
the nine institutions embodied in the Soviet Council are concerned. Would it 
be equally feasible for the Soviet Council to act as the clearing house for 
arrangements witli other Soviet Institutions? 

9. The possibility of exchange of research workers should be broached. 
The preliminary trial of such an arrangement would seem logically to take 
place between the American or the Pacific Council and Moscow. An ideal 
arrangement would be for Kantorovich to come over here in 1036, after he 
has got the data papers published, and stay through the Conference. He 
could be attached to the staff of either the Pacific or the American Council 
and paid a salary in dollars while in exchange some member of the Pacific 
or American Council staff could be sent to the Soviet Union and the Soviet 
Council made responsible for his or her room, cooperative cards, supply 
of rubles etc. Wliether a foreigner would be willing to live in Moscow with- 
out an additional valuta income, of course, is doubtful, but something could 
be worked out. 

10. What cooperation is asked from the Soviet Council in connection with 
the bibliographical service depends on what decision is reached about the 
service itself. This matter has already been broached to several people in 
Moscow, I believe. I feel that they would be keenly interested in the pros- 
pect of a similar service in English and Dutch books being set up some time. 

11. Attendance at the next conference should be put forward as being 
desirable in order to convince the national councils of the Soviet Council's 
real desire to cooperate. It should be stressed, however, even more highly 
for the value it would have in facilitating research work and cooperation. If 
the suggestion in point 9 should be feasible, the aim would be to some extent 
accomplished. Any large representation of the Soviet Union at the next 
conference can hardly be expected. 

12. In order to give the Soviet Council a picture of what other councils 
are doing, national council reports such as the present one of PVF to the 
Amei-ican Council should be shown along with any other documentation 
possible, such as Cross's report on the Harvard Russian Language School. 
Out of the latter could develop a discussion of what are the facilities for 
language study in the Soviet Union. 

13. In connection with points 7, 10, and 12, a suggestion might be made 
to the Soviet Council that they publish a periodic memorandum on work in 
Pacific problems in the Soviet Union for dissemination among the member 
councils of the Institute. This might appeal to them strongly. 


14. Finance. On the question of the Soviet Council contribution to the 
Institute, I feel that some contribution should be made if only nominal. In 
all financial matters, it must be remembered that the Soviets are intensely 
proud. Direct subsidy from abroad, I believe, would not be acceptable, nor 
would they wish to be in the position of the only national council not contrib- 
uting financially. Exchange relations, both for research workers and mate- 
rials, will have to be arranged with the minimum of international money 
In taking up the above points with the Soviet Council, the Secretary General 
will have to be constantly on the alert to see how much load they seem willing 
to carry and will have to stress the points correspondingly. If necessary, em- 
phasis could be merely laid on Data papers and Studies of Standards of Living. 
After all, such research work as would be represented in them and the making 
of it available to the other countries by means of translation is the main objec- 
tive of the Institute. Also the Secretary General must observe to what extent 
the Soviet Council is liable to be an integrated unit with functions of its own, 
and to what extent it tends to leave everything to the initiative and activity of 
the institutions out of which it is made. All discussion of plans with the Soviet 
Council will have to be tempered by whichever of the above cases is triie. 

B. 1. The Secretary General in his forthcoming tour should endeavour to 
discover the exact status of Soviet Studies in ench country visited, both as 
regards interest and actual accomplishment. My own impressions of what 
exists I have stated earlier. If they are correct, the only thing to be done 
seems to be to discuss with the few persons interested ways and means of 
utilizing the existence of the Soviet Council. 

2. The Secretary General could present to Moscow requests for help in 
Mackenzie's Statiis of Aliens coordination, his Communications project and 
the navalism project of the American Council. There also could be presented 
with a request for suggestions as to broadening or otherwise improving, 
a statement of the exchange relations between the American Council and 
various Soviet Institutions. Any other concrete requests for assistance 
should be gathered from the countries visited for presentation to Moscow. 

3. It should be stressed to the national councils that the Soviet Council 
is now in existence and eager to cooperate. 

Note. — The activities of the Pacific and the American Councils re the Soviet 
Union have become intermingled in the past. The library that is being built up 
in the oflBce of the American Council, for example, obtains many of its periodicals 
in exchange for Pacific AlTairs. The fact that J. Barnes when Secretary of 
the American Council acted likewise as representative of the Secretary General 
before the latter's arrival in Moscow, also added to the confusion in Soviet 
minds. It has been unavoidable owing to personnel reasons, and for the im- 
mediate future the distinction of activities will be hard to make at least to the 
Soviet Council. In the ideal future, of course, each council will have its staff 
worker able to handle Soviet materials, and the intermingling of activities will 
cease. Until then, it may be as well not to confuse the Soviets by attempting toa 
much to disentangle the Pacific and American Councils. 

OcTOBEB 22, 1934. 

Exhibit No. 1000 

Moscow, Noveniiber 22, 1934. 
Mr. E. C. Carter. 

Chatham House, St. James Sq., London, S. W. 1. 
Dear ]Mr. Carter: I have now been in Moscow twelve days and am more or 
less settled. I am sorry that I have not been able to write to you sooner but I 
have been separated from my typewriter for some days. 

As soon as I arrived I went to VOKS and they arranged for me to see Voitin?ky. 
He was very nice to me and offered to help me in every way possible, but of 
course, he referred all Institute matters to Kantorovitch. Unfortunately it took 
me almost a week to make arrangements to see him. Immediately after my inter- 
view with him I sent you the following cable : 

"Send complete list Institute publications. Have asked me for specific 
answers to questions sent to you. Especially interested in exchange of pub- 
lications and afraid you uninterested. General answer desirable now and 
details when you arrive." 
As soon as I met Kantorovitch, he got down to the business of the Institute. He 
first wanted to know if I was empowered to give him specific answers to the ques- 


tions which the Russian group addressed to you this summer. I, of course was 
not able to give him these answers. The question that interested him most was 
that of the exchange of publications. He aslved if the Institute had its own pub- 
lication establishment and I told him that we had books printed through com- 
mercial firms. He asked if books prepared by the separate National Councils 
appeared under the imprint of the Central Office. I said that apart from the 
conference papers this generally was not the policy. He inferred from the fact 
that you had not answered him specifically on the possibility of exchanging pub- 
lications that you were not interested in doing so. I told him that, as I under- 
stood the situation, you were very interested in making some such arrangement 
and were waiting to make the definite arrangements after you arrived here. 

In the course of the interview he asked many questions about the organization 
and functions of the National Groups. I am keeping a full record of these con- 
versations for you to see on your arrival. He asked to see the Memoranda. I 
have given him a few of my copies which I had with me. If it is possible, I think 
it might be wise to send copies here for a certain period. If you do not wish to 
do that officially, I will continue to give him mine. 

Both Kantorovitch and Voitinsky are very anxious to hear about new books 
published in America on this general field. Voitinsky asked specifically for one. 
He was not sure of the exact title l)ut thought it was some Annals on the United 
States Policy in the Pacific. Perhaps you know what book he is referring to. I 
shall try to discover the exact title and if it is convenient for you, you might bring 
it when you come. I shall also write Kathleen Barnes and ask her to keep me 
posted on all new books and to send me any that she considers particularly 

The Institute Office is in the office of the Soviet World Atlas. Kantorovitch 
is usually there and his secretary speaks perfect English, having lived in England 
for several years. She is taking care of the arrangements for me. There is a 
small lil)rary for the Atlas and they are able to get books for me from other lib- 
raries. They have also given me letters to two other places which may have more 
of the books which I need. Kantorovitch has offered to let me have a desk in the 
Institute Office and in a few more days I think that I will work there most of the 

As you undoubtedly know, the Pacific Ocean Cabinet of the Institute of World 
Economics and Politics of the Communist Academy is publishing a new magazine 
of the Pacific Ocean. It is a quarterly. At the moment I am in the process of 
reading it and hope to be able to tell you all about it when you arrive. Among 
other things, it has a long review of Empire in the East and a short statement 
about the IPR in Russia. 

At present I am giving a great deal of time to studying Russian, which you, 
of course realise is very important for me. I am starting working on the Na- 
tional Minorities, because I have no idea where to begin on the Standards of 
Living. I hope that you will be able to bring with you an outline of Gregory's 
book on Standards of Living and of any others that have been started. I am 
also very eager to hear from Bill Holland in answer to your questions about the 
National Minoi'ities. 

Just before I left London I heard that in November a new book was to be 
Published on the National Minority policy in the U. S. S. R. This is number 7 of 
the New Soviet Library, published by Gollanz, Ltd. 14 Henrietta St., Covent 
Garden. The title of the book is "tlie Soviet State and the Solution of the 
Problems of Nationalities," By Victor Dimanstein. He is a Russian Authority 
on the subject and it is very important for me to have this book. Could you 
bring it when you come or have it sent? 

In London I received from you two files of material in relation to Russian 
participation. One was supposed to contain the Preliminary Survey of Soviet 
Research Institutions Specializing in the Siberian and Far Eastern Field, pre- 
pared by Joe this Spring. On the folder it is marked that I already have this. 
Although I saw the first draft of it here in Moscow, I have never had a copy. 
If you think it is advisable, you might bring me a copy. 

In your letter of October 31st, you asked me to advise you where it would be 
most convenient for you to stay when you are here. At present, I would certainly 
advise the National again or the Metropole. Both are in a central position and 
near the Institutions in which we are interested. As soon as you know definitely 
when you are arriving and how many are coming with you, I will make the 
arrangements here for you. 

In my opinion the Soviet group of the Institute is a very serious and business- 
like group. We will get cooperation from them in proportion to the cooperation 
we are willing to give to them. For this reason it is most important that I be kept 


informed on all the latest Institute news and any changes in policy, etc. As you 
know, I have been away from the office for over a year and there are probably 
many things which you take for granted but which are news to me. I will con- 
tinue to cable you for specific information, but if you have any general informa- 
tion on the work being done by the various National Councils, I would be very 
grateful to be kept informed about it. 

I think it will be best if you continue to send my mail to Irftourist, as it is 
less likely to go astray. However in cases it is necessary to reach me some other 
way, my address is 


Savelevski Pereulok 

Dom 2, Kv. 4 


Harriet Mooee. 

Exhibit No. 1001 

Amstel Hotel, 
Amsterdam, December 15, 1934. 
Miss Harriet Moore, 

Hotel Metropole, Moscow, U. 8. 8. R. 

Deae, Harriet : There are no special instructions for our visit. It was thought- 
ful of you to ask me for further suggestions. 

The principal purpose of the visit is twofold — First, to be of every possible 
assistance to the new Soviet IPR as it develops its program. The second is to 
have the maximum time with you is conferring about your work and in loading 
you with IPR ammunition so that you can be of the greatest consultative value 
to Kamtorovich is the weeks following our departure. I want, of course, to 
talk fully with you regarding your work when you have finished your present 
Moscow assignment. 

Subordinate to those two purposes is the desire to give my three colleagues a 
favorable opportunity of seeing something of important influences in the 
U. S. S. R. as revealed in Moscow. For five hours each day all of them will be 
engaged on immediate IPR duties, but all of the rest of the time can be given 
to studying and observing the various aspects of INIoscow life. All of this can 
be easily arranged atter we have arrived. These purposes can be in part 
realized in connection with the main object of the visit, for example a couple 
of hours spent by us at the Institute of Minor Nationalities would serve many 

One incidental matter which I will want to discuss with you, and if you 
and Kamtorovich advise it, is this. How can scholars from abroad who obey 
the Soviet law fare nearly as well as those who violate it? 

As a result of your letter to Kate we got the coffee and can opener that yon 
requested in Paris. 

We will drive straight from the flying field to the Metroi>ole on our arrival 
on the night of the 20th. Did I tell you that Simon Wingfield-Digby will, be- 
cause of his luggage come by train, arriving in Moscow a little before noon 
on the 21st? I have ,iust received two friendly letters from Kantorovich in one of 
which he indicates that advancing my visit by a few days is equally convenient 
for him. I hope that on the 21st we can have a long conference with him and 
then on the 22nd or 23rd a meeting of the Soviet group, if that is regarded by 
Kantorovich and yourself as a possible and desirable thing to do. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C Carter. 

We want first of all a long talk with you. 

Exhibit No. 1002 
W. L. H from ECC 

Hotel Metropole, Moscow, 

December 25th, 19S4. 
A. Kantorovttch, 

20, Razin 8treet, Moscow. 
Dear Kantorovitch : In my conversation vsdth you on December 24th, I men- 
tioned two projects which have formed part of the International Research 
program of the Institute of Pacific Relations since the 1931 conference. These 
are, (1) an international survey of Communicatioits in the Pacific Area, and (2) 
an international survey of the Legal 8tatus of Aliens in Pacific Countries. 

8834&— 52— pt. 14 15 


This letter constitutes a formal request from the Pacific Council and the 
International Research Committee to the U. S. S. R. Council of the I. P. R. to 
contribute a section to each of these two studies. 

On December 24th I handed you the British paper on Communications, the 
Australian paper on the Status of Aliens, and four pamphlets dealing with the 
Status of Aliens in Canada, from which the final Canadian paper will be com- 
piled. These papers will serve to show you the general form which the Research 
Committee would like yovi to follow, but, of course, the details as to the method 
of treatment and the scope of the study would be left entirely to your discretion. 

If the U. S. S. R. Council agrees to contribute a chapter to each of these 
studies, these should be in manuscript form and mailed to the International 
Research Secretary, W. L. Holland, 30G Osaka Building, Tokyo, by April 1st, 
1935. A copy of the manuscript should be sent to Professor Norman Mackenzie, 
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Professor Mackenzie has been selected 
by the International Research Committee to act as final editor and complete the 
report on both these studies for publication. 

As you will note from the sample sections which I have given you, the material 
is almost entii'ely factual. Each study will be published as a small reference 
handbook, in which statistics and terminology will have been made as nearly 
uniform and comparable as possible. Professor Mackenzie has not decided as 
yet whether he will write an interpretive analysis of the material presented. If 
he does so, he will circulate it to all the National Councils before the final 
publications of the two reports. 

At present Professor Mackenzie has on hand papers on the Status of Alietis from 
the following countries : 

Japan China Australia 

United States Canada France 

Philippines Holland 

New Zealand Great Britain 

He is not planning to edit more than is absolutely necessary. His introduction 
will emphasize the similarities and the differences in treatment of aliens in the 
countries of the Pacific. 

With regard to the study of Communications, Professor Mackenzie has received 
papers from every member country of the Institute with the exception of 
Australia and tlie Philippines. He hopes to receive these papers in the near 

The details as to the publication of these two studies have not been decided,, 
pending the completion of the final manuscript. 

Both the Pacific Council and the International Research Committee feel that 
it is of the utmost importance that information from the U. S. S. R. on both 
these questions be secured if possible. I hope, therefore, that the U. S. S. R. 
Council of the I. P. R. will be able to respond favorably to this request for a 
Soviet contribution to each study. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Copies to Holland, Moore 

Exhibit No. 1003 

Moscow, December 26, 19S4, 

Frederick V. Field, Esq., 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 

Dear Fred : As Leonard Wu is coming to Moscow I would strongly recommend 
that you urge him seriously to consider reaching here before Harriet Moore 
leaves. The reception that we have had from Motylev and Kantorovich and the 
other members of the Soviet Council could not have been more cordial or useful. 
In no country has any group made more precise and more adequate arrangements 
for the fulfillment of the purposes of our visit than the offiees here. 

For the sake of continuity there would be very great advantages in Wu's 
arriving l)efore Miss Mooi'e leaves. She could be of the greatest assistance to 
him, and he could perpetuate the wonderful tradition that she is establishing- 

Could you and Kathleen talk this over with Wu to discover what' his plans 
are, what he particularly wants to study when he gets here, what his dates are. 


and then write Harriet very fully. It w<jald be better if he got here when Har- 
riet was in Moscow, rather than when slie was in the Buriyat Mongolian Republic. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edwabd C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1004 

Mi-. W. L. Holland : For your information. 

Chatham House, 10, St. James's Square, 

London, 8. W. 1, 4th January 1935. 
Galkn M. FiSHKR, Esq., 
5^7 Madison Aretiiic, 

New York City. 

Dear (tAlen : The enclosed from Lasker would seem to indicate that he has 
got a garbled idea of the proposed Bibliographical Service. I wonder whether 
he has received one of your American or international letters on the subject? 

I will be writing you more fully about the attitude of the four countries re- 
cently visited. Briefly it is as follows : 

In England, those who know Russian, Chinese, or Japanese think the proposal 
important. Those who do not know any one of these three languages seem to 
question its value. 

In France, Boyer, Bonnet, Dennery, and Lavey all thought the service would 
be of very great value. 

In Holland, the entire I. P. R. Council thought that the Service would be very 
important, but it would have to be started and an exhibition given of its value 
before any large number of people would recognize its importance and subscribe 
to it. 

In the U. S. S. R. several very important items came out, regarding which I will 
write you more fully later. 

1. The I. P. R. Group wants immediately from America and, if possible, from 
London, a desci'iption of what the I. P. R. people, for example in New York, feel 
are the i-eally important books and ai'ticles on the Pacific in the English language. 
Tlio listing of such books supported by good reviews that may appear in other 
journals not necessarily prepared for the I. P. R. would serve their purpose. 

2. Our friends in Moscow at the moment are not terribly impressed by the 
scientific quality or the indispensability of much of the literature that is being 
published in China and Japan. 

3. Although they do not say so, it is quite apparent that we will have to 
be careful not to lump Russia, China, and Japan together as in a similar category 
when we are dealing with our Rassian colleagues. At that moment when the 
Bibliographical Service includes English language publications, then the danger 
of Soviet leaders thinking that the Service is lumping Soviet Russia with China 
and Japan as Asiatic countries will disappear. 

It is difiicult for our Soviet colleagues to envisage a Service conducted from 
London or Washington by a staff that will be predominantly capitalistic, describ- 
ing either Soviet or other books in a manner that would be regarded as objec- 
tive by Communist and capitalist readers. 

Here is one of the central difficulties facing us, not only in the Bibliographical 
proposal, but from now on in "Pacific Affairs" and any other I. P. R. publications. 
We have worshipped at the shrine of objectivity, but nearly all of the wor- 
shippers heretofore have been non-Communist. The coming of the Soviet I. P. R. 
into not only formal but active, wholehearted, and generous co-operation with 
the I. P. R. involves a complete rethinking of our entire programme of research;, 
conference, and publication. Each one of us who is working for the Pacific 
Council is now a servant of an organisation in which the Communist outlook 
on politics and economics must organisationally be regarded as deserving the 
same consideration as the capitalists. 

Translating this into terms of the Bibliographical problems facing us. suggests 
among others three possible plans: (1) a note of each book and articles in the 
Bibliographical Service from both a Communist and non-Communist ; (2) an 
attempt at a description that would be regarded as equally objective by Com- 
munists and capitalists; (3) capitalist reviews of Communist books and articles 
and Comnmnist reviews of capitalist books and articles. 

As I say, I hope to write you a little more fully on this matter later, but I 
wanted to send you immediately this advance report on my discussions in four 
European countries. 


You have doubtless already appraised the value of the International Bibliog- 
raphy of Historical Sciences. I would like to have you write me fully as to 
vi^hat extent you feel that this meets the need that we have all had in mind. The 
fact that it does not come out until about IS or 20 months after the year under 
review militates against it slightly, though I suppose we might find ourselves 
from six to nine months behind the wishes of our constituency. Do you know 
whether the fact that a book or article is listed in this Bibliography persuades 
people that books and articles in their field are indispensable to them? The 
intrinsic importance of each book and article seems to be the principal criterion 
of selection. How widely does the scientific world accept the judgment of those 
who make the selection as final? 

The letter from Hughes, the Chinese expert at Oxford, is significant as an 
example of the reaction of one who knows Chinese. The letter from Webster 
is significant as coming from one who does not know any of the three languages, 
so also is the formal letter from Arnold here at Chatham House. 

Duyveudak, the great sinologist at Leiden, is very keen on the Bibliographical 
Service, and believes that both he and several of the Netherland institutions can 
-cooperate. Rade, the Japanologist at Leiden, is also ready and eager to help. 
Duyvendak goes to Columbia very shortly. It is of the utmost importance that 
you see him on arrival. You should talk with him as to the desirability of 
considering once a year the review of the very important Dutch publications on 
the Pacific. 

I am sending copies of this letter to Lattimore, Lasker, and Holland, with 
the request that they should not distribute it to others, as it is only a hurried 
interim report. I would ask that you share it immediately vdth Field and 
Kathleen Barnes, and that you three send me individually or collectively your 
Ibest reaction to the problem raised by Soviet cooperation with the I. P. R. 

At this point I perhaps ought to add that I believe that the Soviet Group is 
going to make a very substantial contribution both to scholarship and realism 
in the I. P. R. 

I am enclosing a copy of Miss Harriet Moore's private memorandum on the 
Bibliographical Service. This was written after she had listened in on the 
preliminary discussions which Miss Mitchell and I had with the Praesidium of 
the Soviet I. P. R. 

Apiiended is a list of those who were present at the Luncheon discussion and 
the Afternoon Conference at Oxford. At both of these meetings the Bibiliogra- 
phy was discussed. The attitude of those who knew Chinese and Russian was 
such as to convince nearly all those present as to the importance of the I. P. R. 
proposal. Zimmern, for example, does not know Russian, Chinese or Japanese, 
yet he felt that the project was of the utmost importance. 

I ought to add that our colleagues in the Soviet Union will cooperate superbly 
in whatever plan we finally decide to inaugurate. The resources of the Soviet 
I. P. R. Group are very gi-eat indeed. They will be able to command the active 
collaboration of the principal Russian scholars throughout the Soviet Union 
on any plan which we finally work out which thoroughly commends itself to us 
and to them. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edwabd C. Cabter. 

Exhibit No. 1005 

20, Razxn Street, 
Moscow, 3rd January, 1935. 

Meeting of the Peiaesidium of the U. S. S. R. I. P. R. 

Present. — V. E. Motylev 

A. Kantorovitch 
G. Voitinsky 
Edward C. Carter 
Harriet Moore 
Kate Mitchell 

Mr. Carter had prepared an Agenda for the Meeting, a copy of which is at- 
tached to this Report. It was agreed that the points listed should be taken up 
in order. 


1. Organisation of I. P. R. Conferences. — Mr. Carter explained that the various 
international committees of the I. P. C. listed under item 7 on the Agenda, held 
their Meetings for two or three days before and after the Conference. The 
Conference itself is devoted entirely to education and research work. Mr. Carter 
then described the "Round Table" technique. He explained that at I. P. R. Con- 
ferences, papers are read by the members in advance of the Confrence and that 
the discussion begins as soon as the Conference opens. The Conference is divided 
into four or five Round Table groups, with from 35 to 40 members at each. 
Discussions begin at 9 o'clock in the morning and ordinarily last until 12 p. m. 
The afternoons are given up to informal discussion amongst small groups of 
Conference members. The Conference meets as a whole, every two or three days, 
and at this time Reports are read by either the Chairman or the Secretary of 
each Round Table, thus enabling the Members to follow the course of discussions 
at Round Tables other than their own. 

Mr. Motylev asked whether discussion at the Round Tables was organised. 

Mr. Carter explained that each Round Table had a Chairman and a Secretary 
who were responsible for guiding a discussion in such a way that all points of 
view were presented. The object of the Round Table technique is to ensure both 
a free and informal discussion and at the same time to make sure that each 
member of a Round Table is given an opportunity to make his special contribu- 
tion. In dividing the Members of the Conference among the Round Tables, the 
Programme Committee consults with the National Secretaries and attempts: — 

(a) To see that national groups are divided equally amongst the Round 
Tables, and 

(b) To see that the division brings together men and women of similar 
interests or fields of knowledge. 

Every effort is made to avoid the formation of national blocs on any question 
under discussion. Mr. Carter explained that this description was, of course, a 
"Council of perfection," but that he hoped that in the next Conference the Round 
Tables would be organised better than they had ever been before, and that this 
standard of perfection would be more nearly attained than in former years. 

Mr. Motylev asked how the Round Table topics were divided amongst the 
different groups. 

Mr. Carter explained that all the Round Tables discussed the same topics at 
the same time. The equal di^^sion of time amongst the five Round Tables topics 
had not yet been decided. Presumably the first two days would be spent on 
topic (a) "Japanese Economic Expansion in World Markets." The next two 
days on "The United States Recovery Programme;" three days on the "Soviet 
Union" ; two days on "China" ; and three days on the final topic, "The Changing 
Balance of Political Forces in the Pacific." 

Mr. Motylev expressed satisfaction with this plan of organisation. He ex- 
plained that it would be something new in Russian experience but that he felt 
that it had a distinct advantage in that it created a chance for every member 
of the Conference to express his opinion on the subjects under disciission. 

Mr. Motylev then discussed the points raised in the letter sent by the Secretary 
General to the members of the Institute from Amsterdam, December 18th, 1934. 
In general he was in full agreement with the provisions contained therein. With 
regard to the specific points, he felt that the American Consul's proposal for 
changing topic (e) was not sound. The Soviet Union has no special interest in 
Manchuria and, therefore he did not see that the question of Manchuria's status 
could properly be discussed in connection with the topic concerning the Soviet 
policy in the Far East. It might, of course, be considered in connection with the 
topic dealing with China, but he felt that it would be better to leave it under 
topic (e). 

Mr. Carter said that he was very glad to have this expression of Soviet opinion. 

Mr. Voitinsky said that he felt topic (e) was very well formulated and should 
prove valuable in summarising the problems brought out during the discussion 
of the first four topics. 

With regard to the daily papers which the Union intends to contribute to the 
Conference, Mr. Motylev explained that the Council had decided to combine Nos. 
4 and 5. 

This paper will deal not only with the economies, but also with the political 
struggle in the Pacific and will therefore furnish the Soviet data for the final 
Round Table. Mr. Motylev raised the question as to whether the National Coun- 
cils were still to be allowed to prepare an official paper as stated in the Secretary 
General's Memorandum of June 21st. Mr. Carter said that this provision still 
held good and that his December 18th Memorandum in no way superceded the 


provisions of the former Memorandum. Mr. Motylev explained tliat the Soviet 
g^roup had not decided on any additional paper, but wished to be free to con- 
tribute one if international conditions should make it necessary. 

Mr. Kantorovitch added that the Soviet Council would see that a definitive list 
of papers were sent to the Secretariat by April 1st, 1935, and a partial list of 
probable Soviet members by December 1st, 1935. 

2, Interim Research Conferences. — Mr. Motylev explained that before he could 
give Mr. Carter a definite answer with regard to Soviet attendance at the pro- 
posed Conference in Tokyo in April, the Soviet Council would have to discuss 
the question of standards of living studies with various specialists in that field. 
This would be done during the next few weeks and he would then send to Mr. 
Carter and to Mr. Holland, the Soviet Council's views on the question of possible 
research projects in this field within the Soviet Union; With regard to Mr. 
Carter's invitation to him to attend the Conference in person, Mr. Motylev ex- 
j)lained that his teaching duties would ordinarily occupy him until June and that 
it might be difficult for him to leave Moscow by April 1st. He asked whether the 
Conference was to be a general one confined to Members from the Far Eastern 

Mr. Carter explained that the original plan had been for a Regional Confer- 
ence, but that information which he had received while in America and Moscow 
had led him to feel that it was of the utmost importance that the Soviet Union, 
Great Britain and the United States should be represented there. The principal 
task of the Conference will be to try and work out a common methodology for 
all future work in the field of standards of living and for this reason it ia 
desirable that it should be as international in character as is possible at this 
short notice. 

Mr. Motylev said that although Soviet representation might not be ix>ssible, 
the Council would send a Memorandum setting forth their views on this ques- 

The Meeting then took up items 3 and 4 on the Agenda. 

With regard to the exchange of staff, Mr. Motylev said that he was thoroughly 
in agreement with the principle involved. In this connection he might say that 
the financial aspect need not prove the handicap which Mr. Carter evidently 
feared. The Soviet Council could, if it desired, send students at its own ex- 
pense as it had been given a certain endowment in valuta. The working out of 
principle might, however, take time as the Soviet Council would first have to 
attract research workers and students interested in the idea of such an exchange. 

Mr. Kantorovitch expressed his gratitude at the invitation of the American 
Council for him to spend a period of months in the New York Office. It was, of 
course, impossible for him to accept at present, but it might be arranged at a 
later date. 

Mr. Carter said that he understood that ^Ir. Kantorovitch would be very' oc- 
cupied in Moscow for the next few months, but that the invitation was a stand- 
ing one which he hoped could be accepted later on. 

Mr. Motylev expressed regret that Miss Moore had not asked for more help 
from the Soviet Council. He exijlained that his Institute had a special depart- 
ment for securing all necessities in the way of materials for his staff, and he 
hoped that Miss Moore will make full use of it. He also hoped to arrange any 
special consultations with experts in various fields which would be useful for 
Miss Moore in carrying out her proposed study. With regard to the possibility 
of Miss Moore visiting F.uriat, Mongolia, he was a little doubtful, but promised 
to do everything he could to help her in arranging this, should she wish to do so. 
Miss Moore expressed her appreciation of this offer and explained that the 
reason she had not hitherto asked for more assistance was because she had 
been concentrating upon her study of the lan,guage and had not as yet begun 
much actual work on her research project. 

5. An English Edition of the Great Xoviet World Atlas. — Mr. Carter felt that 
it would be a very valuable contribution to the work of the I. I*. R. if such an 
edition could be arranged, as English was the first or second language for the 
majority of the member countries. 

Mr. Motylev promised to inform the Editorial Council of Mr. Carter's proposal 
and expressed the hope that a favourable decision would be possible. 

6. Langiiaffe Problem. — Mr. Carter explained that one of the most difficult 
problems now facing the I. P. R. was that of the language barrier amongst its 
different members. As one step in attacking this problem the American Coun- 
cil of the I. P. R., in collaboration with Harvard University, had put on 'a. 
Summer School during 1934, for an intensive study of the Russian language. 


This experiment had iiroved so .successful that it is to be repeated at Cohimbia 
University in the summer of 1935. Mr. Carter also mentioned that Mrs. Barnes 
had consulted with Tolokonoky. the Soviet Consul-General in New York, con- 
cerning the possibility of securing a Russian instructor for the school. Toloko- 
noky had suggested writing direct to Arosev for his suggestions. Prince Mlr- 
sky's name had been mentioned as a possibility and Mr. Carter wished to find 
out from the Praesidium their reaction to this proposal. Mr. Motylev asked 
what the terms would be. Mr. Carter explained that Professor Patrick at the 
University of California had been secured for the first part of the school and 
that Mirsky would be requested to take the second half, from approximately 
July 22d to August 30th. His travelling expenses wovild be paid and he would 
receive $800 in addition. The Praesidium appeared to feel that there was no 
reason why Mirsky should not be approached if it seemed advisable. 

Mr. Carter next mentioned the question of Basic English, explaining that 
the I. P. R.'s interest in Basic was entirely as a method of learning English in 
a much shorter length of time. He told of his conversations with Litvinova 
and showed Mr. Motilev the clippings from Pravda which dealt with the matter 
of language teaching in the U. S. S. R. Mr. Motilev expressed great interest 
and promised to get into touch with Litvinova at once. He agreed that the 
present teaching of English in the Soviet Union was far from satisfactory and 
was eager to learn more about Basic as a simpler and more effective method. 

7. International Committees. — Mr. Carter explained that the Soviet group 
was entitled to representation upon all the International Committees of the I. 
P. R. The Praesidium agreed to take up this question with the Council and to 
inform Mr. Carter as to their nominations for the varioiis positions. 

8. Studies in Standards of Living and Culture. — Under this topic the hope was 
merely left that, if possible, Mr. Motilov himself should attend the Research 
Conference in Tokyo, at which time he could convey the views of the Soviet 
group with regard to possible studies in this field, and that if his attendance 
was impossible, a memorandum embodying these views should be sent. 

9. Exchange of Books. — This had ali'eady been worked out with Kantorovich 
and no further discussion appeared necessary at this time. 

10. Catalogue in Russian of all books on the Far East. — Mr. Carter asked 
whether the catalogue of all books in Russian dealing with Far Eastern questions 
which the Soviet Council was planning was to be made available in England as 
well. Mr. Kantorovich explained that this would be a very expensive proposi- 
tion but that the catalogue would be available in the Soviet Council office and that 
Miss Moore could select such items from it as she considered important for 
translation into English. 

11. Finance. — Mr. Carter stated that contributions to the Pacific Council were 
not obligatory, but there were two factors to be considered. First, that the Pa- 
cific Council always needed money, and second, that if the Soviet Union made 
no financial contribution, some countries might feel that the Soviet Union was 
not fully taking part in the Institute's work. Mr. Carter himself, of course, did 
not share this feeling, but he knew that the Soviet Council would understand 
that such an attitude might be held. 

At Mr. Motilov's request, Mr. Carter quoted the contributions which each of 
the National groups had given over the last few years. He also explained the 
financial situation of the International Research Committee and the method by 
which grants from the International Research field were used to stimulate local 
financial support for research work. 

Mr. Motilev said that so far the I. P. R. had not proved itself in the Soviet 
Union sufficiently for him to be able to guarantee a definite financial contribu- 
tion. He said, however, that it was only a question of time and not of principle ; 
that the Soviet Council wants and can participate fully in the work of the I. P. R. 
and that the question of financial contribution will be discussed with all the 
institutions represented in the U. S. S. R. Council. 

12. Publicity. — As an example of the type of publicity which the I. P. R. sought 
for its publications, Mr Carter displayed a copy of a review of the economic 
liandbook of the Pacific area which had appeared in the New York Times. He 
explained that the Institute preferred to have its work speak for itself rather 
than go in for more direct methods of publicity and propaganda. 

13 & 14. Chatham Rouse Report and Report of Federation of British Industries 
Mission to Manchuria. — At the request of Mr. Carter six copies of the Chatham 
House Annual Report had already been received by Mr. Kantorovich. A copy of 
the report of the F. B. I. Mission to Manchuria will be sent at once. 


15. PtiUication of Somet I. P. R. studies in English. — Mr. Kantorovich ex- 
plained that the first instalment prepared by the Soviet Council should be ready 
for publication by June 1935, and Mr. Carter promised to take up the question 
of its publication with a publisher either in London or New York. 

16 & 17. Soviet Report, etc., and contribution to Pacific Affairs. — Mr. Kan-* 
torovich promised to send a regular contribution for I. P. R. Notes, and also to 
get into touch directly with Mr. Lattimore on the matter of Soviet articles and. 
reviews for Pacific Affairs. He also requested Mr. Carter to supply the Soviet 
office with a full set of all back numbers of Pacific Affairs. 

18. A possible bibliographical seri;(ce.— With regard to the possible biblio- 
graphical service already described by Mr. Carter, Mr. Kantorovich again ex- 
pressed the opinion that what the Soviet Council would value most would be a 
list sent at regular intervals from America, and, if possible, from London, of 
what the I. P. R. groups in both countries feel are the really important books 
and articles on the Pacific appearing in the English language. A list of such 
books together with a brief descriptive comment as to which might be the most 
important and also such reviews as might appear in other journals, would 
serve their purpose adequately. It was obvious that the Praesidium felt that in a 
bibliographical service conducted from London or Washington by a staff that 
would presumably be predominantly capitalistic, it would be diflicult to describe 
either Soviet or other books in a manner which could be regarded as objective by 
both communistic and capitalistic readers. It was also obvious that the Soviet 
Council did not welcome the idea of being grouped with China and Japan as 
Asiatic countries. Unless the bibliographical service included English language 
publications, it would not be greeted with any very enthusiastic support. It 
also appeared that they are not particularly impressed with the scientific quality 
or the indispensability of much of the literature now being published in China 
and Japan. 

19. Status of Aliens and Communications. — Mr. Kantorovich reported that the 
Soviet Council would undertake to prepare a section for the International studies 
on the status of aliens and on communications in the Pacific, as requested by Mr. 
Carter and by the International Research Committee. 

Decembeb 30, 1934. 


1. Organisation of I. P. R. Conferences. 

2. Attendance at Tokyo Research Conference. 

3. Exchange of staff and research workers. 

(a) Invitation to Kantorovich to visit New York. 

(b) Exchange of research workers (e. g., Miss Moore). 

4. Miss Moore's research plans. 

5. A request that an English edition of the new great Soviet World Atlas b» 


6. Language problems in the I. P. R. 

(a) Advisability of securing D. S. Mirsky for the L P. R.-Columbia Bn»> 

sian Language School. 

(b) Experiments with Basic English. 

7. International Appointments; 

(a) Pacific Council. 

(b) National Secretary. 

(c) Research Committee. 

(d) Publications Committee. 

(e) Finance Committee. 

(f) Pacific Affairs Correspondent. 

(g) Program Committee. 

8. Studies in Standards of Living and Culture. 

9. Exchange of books. 

10. Catalogue in Russian of all books on the Far East. 

11. Finance. 

12. Publicity. 

13. Chatham House Report. 

14. Report of Federation of British Industries Mission to Manchuria. 

15. Publication in English, in England or America, of Soviet I. P. R. studies. 

16. Soviet report, quarterly, to I. P. R. Notes. 

17. Regular Soviet contribution to Pacific Affaies. 
38. A possible bibliographical service. 

19. Status of aliens and Communications. 


Exhibit 1006 
On Board SS. "Chitral," January 18, 19S5. 

Miss M. E. Oleve, 

10 St. James Square, London, England. 

Dear Madge : In looking over our notes on the Moscow visit, I have discovered, 
that I have failed to pass on one question raised by Kantorovich. I do not know 
whether you have heard from him at all and, if so, whether he mentioned to you 
this matter. 

It is this. He would like to have the Chatham House publications on the 
Far East and on the Pacific on an exchange basis. In addition he wanted me to 
inquire whether you could consider an exchange arrangement by which you 
would send him the more important English books on the Far East in the eco- 
nomic and political field in return for Soviet publications on the Soviet Far East 
and Pacific. 

Mr. Field has arranged to send to Moscow not only everyone of the I. P. R. 
publications from the very beginning but in addition a substantial number of 
American and Canadian publications on the Far East and the Pacific. In return 
for these Kantorovich has already dispatched to New York a big shipment of 
Soviet publications. Enclosed is the list of those that have already gone. 

I fully appreciate the nature of the difficulties which Sir Hageburg Wright 
has raised in connection with exchanges of English and Soviet publications. 
While I have not met him personally, I am acquainted with friends of his iu 
liondon and Paris. I am told that he feels that English books of high quality 
are sent to Moscow and Soviet books of inferior quality are sent to London in 
return. Part of the diflSculty is due to two different sets of values. One in 
Moscow, another in London. It would not be surprising to discover that some 
Russian scholars do not regard as final some English writing. 

If you and your colleagues share Sir Hageburg's skepticism with reference 
to the importance of contemporary Soviet Publication, I would not advise your 
attempting at this stage any substantial exchange arrangement. 

If, however, there is at Chatham House any considerable group of people like 
E. H. Carr and Miss Makower who feel that it is of the highest importance that 
English students acquaint themselves fully with what Soviet leaders themselves 
regard as important, I should advise you to explore the possibilities of a substan- 
tial measure of interchange. It may be that you will find that it will not be 
worth while to do this until you have on the Chatham House staff some member 
-who not only has a mastery of the Russian language but also a mastery, through 
living and studying in the Soviet Union, of some one aspect of contemporary 
Soviet life. 

I would be grateful if you would share this letter with Arnold. 
Very sincerely yours, 

E. C. Carter. 


Copies to W. Holland, Miss Moore, and Mrs. Barnes. 

•office of the secret aey general 

Exhibit No. 1007 
The Instittjte of Pacific Relations 

honoltjlit, hawaii 

SS. "Cabthage," Feb. 23, 1935. 
WnxiAM Holland, 

123 Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai. 

Dear Brrx : You have very kindly sent me a copy of your letter of Feb. 5th to 
Kantorovich in which you rebuked the Soviet Group for proposing the Paper by 

In view of the fact that we were to meet within a fortnight. I wish to record 
my regret that you did not see fit to delay your rebuke until we could meet. With 
my colleagues of the Soviet Group I went over the proposed list of Papers for 
the next Conference. Without consulting me and within precisely five weeks of 
the Secretary General's Moscow visit you take a line that in Moscow might be 


regarded as evidence of a breach between the Secretary General and his Research 
Secretary. No such breach exists. It is a pity to give Moscow such a false 

Sincerely yours, 

[s] Ned. 
(Handwritten:) Please don't take this letter too seriously. Please hand me 
as soon as possible a copy of Kantorovich letter to you of Jan. 13. 

Exhibit No. 1010 
Extracts From Letter From Harriet Moore to E. C. Carter of March 20, 1935 

I was glad to receive a copy of your letter to Bill Holland about the Dimansh- 
tien paper. I understand unofficially from Harondar that the group here was 
rather taken aback by the letter. This matter, of course, arose over a misuuder- 
standing in terminology, a thing for which we are really to blame, since corre- 
spondence has to be carried on in English, due to our ignorance of other languages. 
Here "National Policy" always means policy in regard to (minor) nationalities. 

As a matter of fact, I don't understand why there is any objection to this 
paper, since the original list of proposed papers for the USSR group, as it ap- 
peared in the IPR Notes of October, listed a. Economic and Social development in 
Siberia and the Soviet Far East. The list that the USSR group proposed divided 
this group into two papers : The first and second Five-Year plans in the Soviet Far 
East, for the economic development; The National Policy in the Soviet Far East 
for the social development. It is true that they do not provide a paper on their 
foreign relations in the Far East, as was proposed in the original outline. That, 
however, could be an additional paper and need not exclude Dimanshtien's. 

You did not ask me for any comments on this matter, but I am giving them for 
two reasons ; first, because Dimanshtien, as you know, is the authority on this 
sub.1ect and his paper ought to be good ; and, secondly, because I feel that this 
question has a bearing on the agenda and even more on the research problem of 
cultural relations (Incidently, if it has no bearing, my Buriats also are a bit 

The next question is the "Suggestions for Round Table Agenda." As I under- 
stand it, the six points listed here would all be taken up in each of the first four 
major round tables, as announced in your letter of December 18th. For the fifth 
round table on "Changing balance of political forces in the Pacific" a different 
agenda would be worked out later. 

I would suggest adding one or two topics under several of the headings. Under 
3, Social Policy, I would add Social Insurance, in general. Under 4, Foreign 
Trade and Tariff Policy, I would add "INIanipulation of value of currency." 
Perhaps this is covered by "Foreign Exchange Policy," but it should be clearly 
stated. Under 6, National Defence Policy, it would be interesting to get an idea 
of the meaning of "Defense," as the term is used in each country : e. g., how far 
U. S. defense extends to defending the Monroe Doctrine ; offense as defence; etc. 

Another question I would raise is in regard to the inclusion of "Class con- 
Bciousness" under Social Policy. I think it is fair to say the USSR is the only 
country that has the development of class consciousness as part of its social policy. 
Other countries tend to foster patriotism, nationalism, or racial consciousness. I 
think this question is very interesting, but that some other term should be found 
to cover class consciousness and all the others, something that would mean "THE 
policy in regard to fostering some type of social psychology or maSs attitude." 
Perhaps "Mass attitudes" would serve though it would need a certain amount of 

The first three jwints in the agenda could be considered matters of primarily 
domestic importance, while the last three are directly international in their 
effects. In view of the fact that the topics for the round tables in your letter 
of December 18 emphasises the International effects of the respective national 
policies. I think it might be advisable to stress this in the agenda by putting 
under each of the last three points. 4, 5, 6. a defiaite topic on "International 
repercussions of, or reactions to, "The Foreign trade policy. Monetary policy, 
and Defence Policy, * * *. 


Exhibit No. 1011 

Copy for W. L. Holland. 

Imperial Hotel, 
Tokyo, May 4, 1935. 
Dr. V. E. MoTYLEV, 

20 Razin Street, Moscow. 
Dear Dr. Mottlev : This is to confirm our recent interchange of cables as 

follows : 

"Tokyo, April 22nd. 

"Cable whether coming Orient if so dates arriving China, Japan." 

"Moscow, April 23rd. 

"Trip Soviet Far East definitely scheduled June. Possibility visiting 
China, Japan, Korea decided late May. In case positive decision arriving 

The object of this letter is to inquire whether, in the event of your visiting 
China, Japan, and Korea, you would like me to arrange for Mr. W. L. Holland 
to meet you on or about the 1st of July, either in Peiping, Dairen, or Changchun 
(Hsinking). Mr. Holland is writing to Kanterovitch at this time very fully with 
reference to the recommendations which we are passing on to the National 
Councils in the light of the discussions at the Tokyo conference. They involve 
a substantial change in the program as adopted at Banff. In addition to the 
correspondence between Holland and Kantorovitch it would facilitate coopera- 
tion between the Pacific Council and the Soviet Council if it were possible for 
Mr. Holland to meet you personally. Among others there would be three advan- 
tages in such a meeting; 1) mutual acquaintance between yourself and Holland, 
and discussion of the I. P. R. research program, 2) you could tell Mr. Holland 
of the latest developments in the U. S. S. R. I. P. R., 3) Mr. Holland could 
assist in putting you in touch with I. P. R. and other leaders in China and 
Japan so as to make your visits as fruitful as possible from the point of view both 
of the I. P. R. and of the other purposes you have in mind in coming to the 
Far East. 

If you are not able to visit China and Japan but would like to have Mr. 
Holland spend a couple of days with you, he could meet you either at Manchouli 
or Vladivostok on or about the fifth of July. 

If you desire it Mr. Holland would be glad to spend a week with you in the 
first half of July either in China, Manchuria, the Soviet Far East, or Japan. 
It would be a tremendous education for Holland to have the privilege of meeting 
you. I realize, however, that your engagements in the Soviet Far East may 
make such a meeting impossible. 

As you know, I shall be in Honolulu from May 22nd to June 3rd. Would you 
please cable me. CARTER, INPAREL, HONOLULU, as soon as possible after my 
arrival in Honolulu as to whether you would like to have Holland meet you, 
and, if so, when and where. 

Holland himself has to leave Yokohama for Honolulu on either July 9th or 
July 19th. He can easily stay in the Far East until July 19th if this permits of 
meeting you. He is transferring his Far Eastern headquarters from Tokyo to 
Shanghai at the end of this month. His forwarding address throughout June 
will be % The China Institute of Pacific Relations, 123 Boulevard de Montigny, 
Shanghai; cables; Holland, Inparel, Shanghai. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carteii. 

Exhibit No. 1012 
Copy for Miss Austern. 

Sunset Farm, 
Lee, Mass., 10th September, 1935. 
Dr. V. E. Motilev, 

20, Razin Street, Moscow, U. 8. S. R. 

De:ar Db. Motilev : You will be receiving a formal acknowledgment from Mr. 
F. C. Atherton, the Treasurer in Honolulu, of the Soviet Council's very generous 
contribution of $2,000 (American) to the budget of the Pacific Council. I want, 


however, to add my own personal and official thanks, through you, to the Soviet 
Council, for this substantial aid in financing the international work of the I. P. R. 
It means a great deal, that the newest of the national member groups should 
make so generous a contribution within a year of its formation. 
With kindest personal regards, 
I am, sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Caeteb. 

Exhibit No. 1013 
Moscow — Meeting in Mottlev's Office, 12-2 : 30 

March 31, 1936. 

Present : Motylev, Harondar, Carter, Lattimore, Moore, Tyler, Donaldson. 

To be discussed at a future conference: The Administrative problems of the 
I. P. R., and the problems of the Pacific Area. 

Motylev said that he would arrange conversations with individuals who were 
primarily interested in Mongolia, for Mr. Lattimore in particular ; and the Far 
East in general, for Mr. Carter. 

Lattimore wanted to see all the reports and books on Mongolia available. 
Motylev stated that these were almost entirely in Russian, but if some could be 
found in Mongolian these would be produced for Lattimore, otherwise Moore could 
help L. with the Russian texts. 

Motylev said that his report was ready for the Yosemite conference, and that he 
had collected immense wealth of material. All reports Harondar would translate. 

Exchanfje of Literature. — Carter requested that more literature be sent to 
New York dealing with the internal development of the Soviet Union. 

Pacific Affairs to be discussed at a future conference. 

Organisational questions. — Questions v^^ere to be formulated to be answered 
at a future conference, in conversation not in writing. 

Motylev said that he was ready to discuss contradictions and interrelations 
in the Pacific, Britain's role in the Pacific, etc. 

Carter desired that his staff should have the Atlas shown and explained to them. 

German-Japanese alliance. — Motylev stated that a German-Japanese alliance 
was only feasible from a military point of view. Japan could not possibly hope 
to wage a war against the Soviet Union single-handed. Germany is strong in 
the air, Japan is not. From an economic standpoint the alliance is ridiculous. 
Neither party can expect to gain anything. Both are deficient in raw materials, 
both export finished goods. In fact, they are economic rivals. 

Soviet Far East industrialization was predetermined and inevitable without 
Japanese aggression. Naturally since 1931 it has been influenced by military 
considerations. The direction remains the same, but the tempo has changed. 
Japanese action has necessitated acceleration. 

Exhibit No. 1014 

May 18, 1936. 

ECC from FVF : 

In reply to your letter of May 12th regarding the allocation of Harriet Moore's 
services to the Pacific Council for the next year or two, the matter rests of 
course almost entirely with her. The work which the American Council would 
like her to do would, I think, fit easily into your own plan for using her. 
Specifically, she is now at work on the translation of Kantorovich's book on 
American policy in China, in collaboration with Kathleen Barnes. We would 
like to have this job finished as soon as possible. She is also engaged in the 
preparation of an article for the Fab Eastern Survey scheduled for publication 
at the end of June or early in July. We would of course also like to have this 
job completed. We would further like to have her contribute occasionally to 
the Far Eastern Survey during the next year or two, and we would like to 
feel somewhat free in asking her cooperation on the various things in which she 
is a specialist. 

But all these projects, as I have mentioned, fit as well into your scheme of things 
as into ours, so that I cannot see that it makes a great deal of difference to us 
whether she carries on under your banner or under ours. One additional fact 


should be mentioned, namely that the American Council probably cannot afford 
the luxury of two Russian experts, and we would welcome having the Pacific 
Council take over the services of one of them. 

Exhibit No. 1015 

Council of the USSR, 
Institute of Pacific Relations, 
20, Razin Street, Moscow, June 11, 1936. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

12i) East 52n(L Street, New York. 

Dear Carter : I take this opportunity to express once more my regret that 
I was not able, as promised, to send you our recommendations for the modification 
of the Yosemite agenda to London. This delay was caused by the absence from 
Moscow of several members of our Council which prevented us from arranging a 
general meeting of the Council for the discussion and approval of these amend- 

Bearing in mind that because of the short time left at your disposal you would 
not be able to communicate our comments to other member countries, we decided 
to confine them exclusively to Round Table programme No. 3 ( Economic Develop- 
ment and Nationality Policy of the Soviet Union). 

We would offer the following suggestions : 

(1) We proposed to omit entirely from Round Table No. 3 agenda item 29, or; 
at least, to reformulate it radically. The original wording ("privations suffered 
by the entire population under the First 5 Year Plan") reminds one of the unfair 
anti-soviet statements one can still find in some foreign papers. We are confident 
that you would prefer to avoid the unfavourable impression which would inevita- 
bly be produced here should such a statement appear in a questionnaire published. 
by a serious scientific organization. 

(2) Item 30 should read : "the peasants as compared to the proletariat ; collec- 
tive farmers as compared to individual farmers"' instead of "opposed." The use 
of the word "opposed" could result in an absolutely wrong conception of the 
situation which in no way corresponds to the actual relations between the peas- 
antry and the proletariat in the U. S. S. R. 

(3) In item 40 (page 21 IPR Notes) the question "If so, would she be willing 
to and would the other powers allow her to?" should be omitted. Reply to such 
a question could naturally not be given by the Soviet delegation and it is up to 
the delegates of corresponding countries to answer it. 

(4) W^e consider unnecessary the inclusion of item 44 as all questions treated 
therein are covered fully by the two preceding items. 

(5) In items^ 40 and 45 the relations between the USSR and Sinkiang are 
presented as a special separate problem. These relations should really be dis- 
cussed simultaneously with Sino- Soviet relations as a whole. 

(6) Referring to item 40, we were surprized to see that the Soviet nationality 
policy could be characterized as "offensive." The application of this term seems 
so irrelevant that we would prefer not to see it in the agenda. 

(7) It would seem more feasible to transfer discussion of item 47 to Round' 
Table No. 1 (USA). The same refers to item 49. The problems covered should, 
be discussed in Round Table No. 5. 

These are the essential minimum changes which, we believe, should be intro- 
duced into the agenda. 

At the same time I would like to point out that in our estimation the programme 
of discussion in Round Table No. 5 does not give adequate consideration to the 
problem of determining the aggressor in the Pacific. On the contrary, some of 
the questions are evidently intended to present this problem in a form as vague 
and indefinite as possible. As an example, question No. 4 could be indicated. 

Once more I repeat that to my regret I am not in the position to offer our:' 
criticism of other Round Table topics as I perfectly realize that before intro- 
ducing any change you would have to communicate with the respective counti-iea 
which is impossible in view of the short time left. 
Sincerely yours, 





Exhibit No. 1016 

Depabtment of State, 
Washington, July 18, 19S6. 
Unofficial and Confidential. 
Deab Carter : Referring to your letter of July 8. 

It was a pleasure to me to see you and to make the appointments which 
you requested in connection with your I'ecent visit to Washinston. 

With regard to the question which you ask in relation to the text of a mimeo- 
graphed memorandum on Far Eastern policy a copy of which you enclose : 

First of all a bit of narrative. Early in April I attended, by invitation, a 
luncheon where foreign policy was to be under discussion. I was seated beside 
a very intelligent woman whom I met for the first time who is active in the 
work of women's clubs. In the course of our conversation this woman asked 
whether I had seen a memorandum which was being circulated by the "Cause 
and Cure of War", on American Far Eastern policy. I said that I had not. 
She produced from her pocketbook a copy of the memorandum to which she 
referred, with which the copy you give me now is identical. I glanced through 
that copy and remarked on the fact and that she considered it outrageous that 
«uch materials were circulated thus anonymously ; she went on to say that 
she had received this paper along with a number of other papers in an envelope 
of materials sent her from the office of the Cause and Cure of War in New York, 
and that she thought that all the other papers had some indication of source 
or authorship or both. She inquired whether I considered the presentation given 
in this memorandum of our Far Eastern policy in its actuality a fair presenta- 
tion ; also whether I would care to express myself (to her) with regard to the 
suggestions offered in the latter part of the text. 

In the light of the above, you will realize that it is very Interesting to me 
to have the account which you give of the origin of this document. You do not 
ask the same questions which were asked of me on the occasion to which I refer ; 
and I shall not now make the same comments that I made (to her) at that 
time. You state, however, that now you and Mr. Field would like to have 
from me "a full personal criticism of this statement" ; and you expressly ask, 
"To what extent does the . . . . statement represent various schools of thought 
now curi-ent in the United States? 

Before addressing myself to this request and enquiry, may I take the liberty 
of making the observation that any attempt which I might make to respond 
to the request of criticism of the statement under reference would in my opinion 
be of far greater value to all concerned had the enquiry and the response been 
made before the memorandum was circulated — in January 1936. I believe 
that it is regarded as axiomatic that when statements have been made and 
there are later made statements in criticism or correction thereof, the latter 
never catch up with the former. 

I am sure that both you and Mr. Field must realize that it is not possible for 
me to discuss Far Eastern policy or statements made with regard thereto on a 
purely "personal" basis. I am in an official position; I am an official; I have 
as an official some knowledge of and constant connection with the question of 
American Far Eastern policy ; and I cannot separate wliat I learn, what I know 
and what I think as an official (and in relation to public matters) from what 
I know and what I think as a private person. It does not seem to me that any 
very useful purpose would be served by my attempting- — especially at this time — 
to set down in writing something purporting to be a "personal" criticism of the 
statement of policy under reference. IMoreover, I have reached that point (age?) 
where the exercise of criticism gives no pleasure and little if any gratification ; 
and, in addition, "life is .short" and there is paucity of time, I shall, nevertheless, 
take time and make an effort to make some comments— because you ask it and 
because I hope that it may be helpful. 

To begin with, let's forget the authorship and the circumstances of origin of 
the memorandum. Let me treat the matter wholly impersonally and on the 
basis solely of what appears in the memorandum. 

To the express question asked in the last sentence of your letter, quoted abovB, 
I can answer readily that the statement seems to me clearly to set forth what 
are the concepts and views of some "schools" of thought now current in the 
United States. Going further, I may say that it does not, in my opinion, ac- 
curately portray or adequately take account of the reasoning, the conclusiv->ns and 
the courses of action of the American Oovcrnment (whether in the past or now). 
The author sets out to state, "First, what our Far Eastern policy actually is." 


In that connection, in the first paia?:raph he makes it appear that the building 
up of our Navy is intended "to make enforcement" of our policy "possible in 
the future." He makes it appear that it is a part of our policy to "maintain" 
equal trading opportunities for all foreigners in China and to "maintain" China's 
territorial and administrative integrity. I am not aware that it is the thought or 
intent of the American Government to "enforce" its views or to "maintain" a par- 
ticular situation in the Far East. It has been, it is, and I think it will continue 
to be the policy of the United Htates to pursue in and with regard to tlie Far 
East ohjectivc-^ similar to or identical with those which it pursues in other parts 
of the world. Important among these objectives are enjoyment by American 
nationals, American ships, and American trade of equal opportunities and fair 
and nondiscriminatory treatment ; and, enjoyment by free peoples of rights of 
sovereignty and independence within tlie territories which are tlieirs. But — to 
seek and to advocate constantly the acceptance and application of certain prin- 
ciples is one thing : to f/)*/.s-^ (up to and by threat or use of force) upon the appli- 
cation of those principles is quite another thing. 

The primary purpose of the present building up of the American Navy is, as 
I understand it, not to enforce upon others the views of this country or of the 
existing Administration but to diminish the likelihood of resort by others to 
methods and instruments of force in such assaults upon American nationals or 
interests as, if made, would tend to lead to war ; and, if war should come, to 
ensure as far as possible against hostilities being brought to our own shores 
or onto our own soil and against a final victory over us by the armed forces of 
the assaulting nation. In other words, the naval program is designed for the 
purpose of keeping this coutitry out of war. (There are, of course, and there 
can be differences of opinion with regard to the efficacy of armament as an 
instrument or agency for keeping its possessor out of war. There is less room 
for difference with regard to the soundness, in the event of war, of the view 
cited by Voltaire that "God is always on the side of the heaviest battalions.") 

The author's treatment of the subject of our Far Eastern policy makes it 
appear that he considers that the activities of the American Government in 
and with regard to the Far East have been and are directed almost entirely 
and almost exclusively to the protection and promotion of American business in- 
terests. Thio is, in my opinion, altogether too narrow a concept. American 
policy and American action in and with regard to the Far East have for more 
than a century revolved around and been concerned with at least three things : 
protection and promotion of American trade* ; protection and promotion of 
American cultural efforts and influences (especially in the field of missionary 
activities — evangelistic, educational, philanthropic, etc.) ; and advancement of 
certain political concepts which prevail among the American people, especially 
the concept that independent nations have the right to remain independent and 
that international relations should be regulated by processes of discussion and 
agreement rather than processes of war. 

It is by no means certain that "China remains one of the greatest, if not 
the greatest, future market of American commodities and capital." 

It is absolutely erroneous, in my opinion, to say that, "Traditional American 
Far Eastern policy is based strictly on commercial interests. The present Far 
Eastern policy of the Government is ultimately based on nothing more nor less 
than commercial interests." American Far Eastern policy, in line with American 
foreign policy in general, has rested and still rests on a far broader basis than 
merely that of "commercial interest", trade, or investments. 

Not accepting, as you can see very clearly that I do not, the author's account 
of what the policy of the United States "actually is," I feel that it would be futile 
for me to discuss the suggestions which he makes for change of policy. I may 
say, however, that I do not regard the building up of the Navy or the maintenance 
in Far Eastern waters of American ships (and at some points in China of small 
contingents of American landed forces) or the development of American aviation 
in the Pacific Ocean as intended "to defend American imperialistic Interests 
in the Far East" or for "the military protection of American investments and 
business abroad." 

The subject under discussion is too big for compression into any satisfactory 
discussion within the limits of the seven pages of the memorandum under refer- 
ence or the limtis of a letter such as I am now taking time to write. No one can, 
in my opinion, say in a fetv words and categorically what American policy is, 

♦And, of c6urse, protection of the lives and various rights (general) of American 


than to avoid disseminating statements which, purporting to be statements of 
what it is, declare it to be that which it is not. 

It is the policy and the effort of the American Government in any administra- 
tion to safeguard and promote the interests of the United States. In different 
administrations and at different moments there will be differences in methods 
resorted to and instrumentalities employed ; but by and large each administra- 
tion reflects the fundamental thought and attitude of the American people. Are 
the American people solicitously interested in the idea of protection by their 
Government to the nth degree of American "business interests" in the Far East? 
Do they desire, would they support resort by this country to arms to "enforce'^ 
the principle of the "open door" in China or to "maintain" China's administra- 
tive or territorial integrity? Our Far Eastern policy is a part of our foreign 
policy in general. We use certain methods and certain instruments in connection 
with certain problems and certain situations in the Far East because those prob- 
lems and situations are peculiar. But the objectives of our action in that connec- 
tion are neither peculiar nor unique. And a changing of the methods and the 
instrumentalities would by no means signify or effect an alteration of the 

I am going to give you for your and Mr. Field's confidential information a 
copy (herewith enclosed) of a memorandum which I wrote sometime ago which 
relates to one part of our many problems in connection with the general question 
of operations or course of action in connection with the Far East. When you 
have perused this, please be so good as to return the copy to me. You may make 
of the thoughts expressed in it any use which you may see fit short of quoting it 
with any attribution as to source. If you really care to make a careful study of 
what I believe to be the essential principles of our foreign policy, I shall be glad 
to send you upon request therefor, for your confidential consideration, a copy of 
the talk which I gave at the Army War College last December on that subject. 

With cordial regards and all best wishes — always, I am. 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Stanley K. Hornbeck. 

Enclosure : Memorandum. 

Exhibit No. 1017 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New Yark City, 19th October 1936. 
Mr. Fredebick V. Field, 

New York City. 

Dear Fred : This morning I received your round-robin with the copy of 
Alsberg's important letter of October 8th to Holland and Holland's letter of 
comment to you of October 13th. I agree heartily with Alsberg that it would 
be a grand thing for the IPR if it got into the position not of asking the 
S. S. R. C. for funds but of telling it where it ought to head in in research. 

Of the various proposals before me I would personally be inclined to put in 
the first category Holland's proposal with reference to the economic and political 
status of the Philippines and your own with reference to the American Navy 
in the Pacific. How the other questions were rated and broken up you and 
your colleagues, Alsberg and Holland, should determine better than I'. One 
problem is to get questions into manageable proportions. If the continuation 
of Remer's work could be done without too great an expenditure it would 
clear up several important questions. The study of American shipping and 
shipping policies is of considerable importance and if the study of this problem 
went ahead concurrently with the study of the American Navy each might 
throw a little light on the other. 

Of course a full length study of the American Stake in the Far East is a 
major item on the agenda of the American Council. If a very able far-reaching 
scholar could be put to work on this problem by the S.S.R.C. he would profit 
enormously by the work that you have already done and might add substantially 
by way of verification and supplement. 

I am all for going ahead at the full steam with Alsberg's excellent suggestion 
and I am glad that you and Alsberg and Holland have the framing of the project 
in hand. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter, 
Copies : Alsberg 


Exhibit No. 1018 

129 East 52nd Street, 
iVew York City, 5th January, 1937. 
Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, 

State Department, Washington, D. C. 

Deau HoFvNbeck : A temporary member of the Institute's International Secre- 
tariat is making for us at this time a study of Germany's position in the Far 
East. In connection with his studies he has run across the question of the Ger- 
man-Japanese Alliance, news of which was published in Moscow, Paris, Shanghai 
and Budapest in the first part of 1919 as having been concluded in Stockholm in 
1918. Most of the news items trace back to a message in cipher which it was 
stated was sent by Major Slaughter of the United States Army from Siberia to 
Washington. According to these dispatches Major Slaughter was an observer 
with the Allied Intervention Forces in Siberia and got the Treaty and a note on 
the occasion of the occupation of Perm by Admiral Kolchak. 

I do not know whether you are in a position to answer any of the questions 
which my colleague wishes me to put, but, if you can answer any or all of them, I 
shall be grateful. Here they are : — 

a. General Graves mentions Major Slaughter but does not describe his 
duties, particularly while at Perm. Do you know what these were. 

b. Did Major Slaughter really send a message in cipher regarding the 
alleged German- Japanese Treaty? If so, from what place and by what 
cable service? 

c. Did Major Slaughter ever report as to how he got the document? Were 
there any middlemen involved, for example, Chinese or White Russians, or 
did he find the document himself? 

d. Was the original document sent subsequently to Washington? If so, 
in what form was it and in what language? 

e. Reports in Paris, perhaps circulated by the Chinese Delegation to the 
Peace Conference, state that the document was a part of a correspondence 
between the Soviet Government and the Soviet Ambassador to Berlin. Is 
there any explanation of why the document was left in Perm by the Soviets? 
Did Major Slaughter give any evidence to the effect that the Bolsheviks left 
the document in Perm by design? 

f. Wlien Senator Lodge on July 15, 1919, inserted the dispatches regard- 
ing the Treaty in the United States Senate Documents was there any formal 
protest made by the Japanese Embassy in Washington? Did the State De- 
partment have any answer sent to Senator Lodge or to the Senate regarding 
the authenticity of the Treaty? 

g. Is it known whether Senator Lodge was in possession of any other 
information besides these dispatches of which the United States Govern- 
ment also had knowledge? For example, was Major Shiughter back from 
Siberia and was he permitted to give information to Senator Lodge or to 
other private persons? 

Do the files on the matter give any evidence as to whether Senator Lodge 
discussed the matter formally and directly either with the United States 
Army or with the Department of State? 

h. If there are any clippings or references in your files relating to the 

matter, would it be possible for you to have someone in your office send us 

the titles and dates to aid in our study of this question? 

I do not know whether any of these questions are out of order, but I know 

you will not hesitate to let me know which, if any, of the questions you are in a 

position to answer. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

(Handwritten:) Unofficial. 

Department of State, 
Washington, January SO, 1937. 
E. C. Carter, Esquire, 

Secretary-General, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East Fifty-second Street, New York, New York. 

Dear Carter : Referring to your letter of January 5 laying before me, on be- 
half of an unnamed temporary member of the Institute's International Secre-- 
tariat, certain questions, — 

88348—52 — pt. 14 16 


I am able to give informally answers to some of the questions as follows : 

(a) Major Slaughter, formerly Assistant Military Attach^ in Russia, was 
assigned to duty with the Siberian Expeditionary Force in September 1918. 
General Graves immediately directed Major Slaughter to proceed wherever 
necessary in Siberia to maintain contact with both Czech and Russian Head- 
quarters, and to keep the American Commanding Officer informed in regard to 
developments. Major Slaughter was in effect Liaison Officer and Military Ob- 
server with both Czech and Russian Armies as General Graves' representative 
for the United States Army from September 1918 until January 1920. 

(b) In November 1918, probably about November 20. a Bolshevik Commissar, 
well known to Major Slaughter, informed him that such a treaty was known 
to exist and that the treaty and all pertinent facts had been published in the 
'•Rote Fahn," communist publication of Hamburg, on or about November 8, 
1918, and that it would also be published in the Moscow IzvestUja immediately. 
A few weeks later, probably about December 20, the same Commissar informed 
Major Slaiighter that he had been to Moscow and .showed Major Slaughter a 
copy of the Izvestiya containing the alleged treaty but declined to surrender the 
paper. On the capture of Perm, Major Slaughter proceeded at once to that place 
to go over the copies of the Izvestiya required by law to be kept in court and 
public offices. Copies were made under court direction and given to Major 
Slaughter. Because Major Slaughter declared this news dispatch to have little 
or no value, the Commissar stated that he would secure photostat copies of the 
treaty. Early in February 1919, the Commissar showed what purported to be 
a photostat copy of the treaty in German and in Japanese. There was also said 
to be an unofficial initialed copy in French. The Commissar declined to sur- 
render the copy without substantial payment, and in view of lack of authentica- 
tion Major Slaughter declined to purchase the copy. 

An interpreter, who translated the alleged treaty as published in Izvestiya, 
later, on arrival in Peking, gave a copy to a North China newspai^er, and this 
was published with many apparent factual details intended to give weight to the 
story of the existence of the alleged treaty. 

(c) No. 

(d) Answered above. 

(e) Answered above. 

(f) Question. 

(g) No. No. Question, 
(h) Question. 

You will note that I have not attempted to an.swer those portions of questions 
(f), (g) and (h) which relate to the Department's files. A preliminary exami- 
nation of the files indicates that we have not a great amount of material on the 
subject of this alleged treaty ; also, that publicity of one kind or another was 
given at many points in Europe, at the time, to stories with regard to the alleged 
treaty. In view of the fact that the whole matter seems to have rested on 
foundations of mere affirmation and allegation, I am reluctant to ask that anyone 
in the Department give much time to a study of it. It is clear that the De- 
partment did not give credence to the stories that such a treaty had been 

Could you give me an exact reference to the U. S. Senate document or docu- 
ments in which "Senator Lodge on July 15, 1919, inserted the dispatches regard- 
ing the Treaty"? 

It should be understood, of course, that, in any use which may be made of 
the information given above, there should be made neither reference to nor 
attribution to the Department of State or the undersigned. 

With all best wishes, I am. 
Yours sincerely, 

Stanley K. Hoenbeck. 


Exhibit No. 1019 
Council of the U. S. S. R. 

Institute of Pacific Relations 

Moscow, January 15, 1937. 

Mr. E. C. Carter, 

Secretary-General, Institute of Pacific Relations, 

New York. 

Dear Carter : First of all I want to thank you for sending us the manuscript of 
the Soviet chapter of "Problems of the Pacific 1936." Having carefully studied 
its contents I note with satisfaction that in general it renders a correct summary 
of the discussion at the Conference. In view of that I was quite surprised to 
read the first preliminary paragraph. This literary introduction to the subject 
is so queer, not to say offensive, that I simply cannot make up my mind to see 
how a statement of that kind could be incorporated in the report. I sincerely 
believe that the author intended to say something different. I would request 
you to omit it altogether and begin the chapter from the second paragraph as the 
first one is entirely inadmissible from the viewpoint of the Soviet Council. 

Passing to our comments on the report as such, I would like to offer the fol- 
lowing suggestions : 

For the purpose of permitting the readers a more objective and comprehensive 
study of the prol)lems involved we believe it would be desirable to introduce some 
corrections and additions : 

( 1 ) To begin with, I would request you, insofar as possible, to quote my state- 
ments instead of rendering their summary. This does in no way mean that we 
are discontented with the summary as given in the report, but we would rather 
prefer to see those statements printed in full as we believe them to be of signifi- 
cance as a matter of principle. 

(2) Every time mention is made of separate statements made in Round Tables, 
the manuscript invariably refers to "an English member," "an American member" 
and so forth. We fully realize that the disclosure of the names of those who 
participated in Round Table discussion might unfavourably affect the frankness 
of their statements at future Conferences. However, we believe it is possible 
and would well serve our common purposes if some discrimination was intro- 
duced here for stressing the importance of the statements made by the heads 
of the delegations. This could easily and conveniently be done by saying "a 
leading member of the British delegation," or "a distinguished American mem- 
ber," etc. In particular we believe it would be necessary to resort to such a 
method of stressing the importance of some statements on pages 20-22 of the 
manuscript covering the German-Japanese alliance. 

(3) Two further remarks are of utmost importance from our viewpoint. The 
first concerns the German-Japanese agreement. On page 21 of the manuscript 
it is stated that "the French members were only partially satisfied with the 
Japanese denial of the existence of such a treaty, since it did not extend to the 
future possibilities." As you probably remember, Mr. Sar rant's second state- 
ment was followed by Mr. Yoshizawa taking the word for the second time and 
saying that he did not admit such an agreement could be concluded even in 
future. We believe this second statement should be included in the report for 
the purpose of adequate presentation of such an important problem. This would 
also throw light on the existence of difference of opinion on the same question 
between members of the delegation of one and the same country ; while in Moscow, 
you mentioned this was one of the main objectives of I.P.R. Conferences. In 
this particular case this would be of primary importance as it would reveal the 
fact that there are influential circles in Japan, which are not agreeing with the 
aggressive attitude in Japan's foreign policy. 

(4) The second remark concerns Mr. Takayanagi's statements. We believe 
it would be essential to include IMr. Takayanagi's outburst and our full reply 

(my statement at Round Table "B" session on Aug. 19), of course excluding 


those parts of the latter which were presented on the preceding images o^f tb«- 
report. As a result the two different trends in Japanese public opinion — a 
manifestation of which could also be found, as you know it, in the statements- 
of the Japanese delegates — would be embodied, at least superficially, in the 
report. On the other hand this would be an explanation of the firm reply given 
by the Soviet delegation to Mr. Takayanagi, and would at the same time supply 
an answer to the question as to the reasons justifying the location of considerable 
Soviet forces in the Far East. Otherwise the report is offering no answer to 
this question. 

(5) On page 24, where my words are extensively quoted, a sentence concern- 
ing Germany has been omitted. I would request you to include it. 

(6) I would further like to direct your attention to two more items. On 
page 2 of the manuscript we read about "the absence of expansionist tendencies 
in the Soviet Union in the immediate future." Insofar as I can remember the 
words "near iutvire" have been mentioned at the Conference in connection witb 
Soviet exports and not with eventual war. A mention of these words in a differ- 
ent connection might be misleading. 

The second remark concerns our understanding of classless society as pre- 
sented on page 3 of the manuscript. The report failed to convey a correct inter- 
pretation of our idea. Instead it would be much better to quote paragraphs 4, 11^ 
and 12 of the new Soviet Constitution. 

(7) Moreover, I have a number of suggestions to offer purely concerning the 
matter of wording. 

On page 7 instead of the words "socialists maintain" we should have : "Soviet 
delegates maintain." 

On page 10 the sentence : "One should call the U. S. S. R. a directed rather than> 
a planned economy" is of no real importance from the viewpoint of the report 
as such. However, it is absolutely inadmissible to Soviet representatives. The 
Soviet economy is a socialist economy and the above sentence, as we understand 
it, confuses a socialist economy with fascist methods of directing national econ- 
omy. As you perhaps remember, this has been specially emphasized by Comr. 
Stalin in his interview given to Roy Howard. I think that the report would in. 
no way suffer if that sentence were simply eliminated. 

On page 11 we find reference to the "so-called dumping" "disturbing certain 
markets." It seems to me that the use of such misleading words is hardly 

On page 18, when speaking about commodities the U. S. S. R. would have to- 
secure abroad, I would like you to add that we had in mind such commodities 
"as for example bananas." 

On page 26 (second line from the bottom) it seems to me that my own words 
are attributed to the Japanese delegate. 

On page 36 I found traces of considerable hesitation on the part of the editor 
as to the manner in which Mr. Lattimore should be presented to the reader. 
We would find no objection to his being called "an outstanding expert on 
Mongolian problems." 

On page 32 (last lines) my statement to the effect that China should be allowefl 
to work out its own destiny without foreign interference is badly located. An 
impression could be thereby created that my statement was directed against 
collective security, which of course is absurd. Please have this statement of mine 
transferred to some other place or omit it entirely. 

On page 43 it is stated that "the U. S. S. R. thought it possible to accept this 
offer and agreed to create a demarcation commission." This is probably a bad 
misprint, as in the statement I issued on this problem, which has been handed 
to the Secretariat in writing, I used the word "redemurcation." As you know, we 
consider this difference to be politically of essential importance. I would like the 
editor of the book to bear this in mind. 

On page 45 terrorist activities of certain Japanese fascist officers are referred 
to as related to Marxian ideology. This is such an unbelievable libel, that 
nothing more absurd could be invented. You will greatly oblige me by eliminating 
this passage. I believe this could be done easily as the corresponding words 
are not quoted but rendered in the form of a summary. 

Finally, I would suggest to supplement the report by an appendix, in which 
be printed the main statements of the Chairman of delegations presented at 
plenary sessions ; it would be worth while to include the most interesting pro- 
nouncements of other leading delegates (for example Mr. Bisson's) at the same- 
sessions. I believe that such a supplement would be of real value to serious; 
students of the problems of the Pacific. 


I have to stress here that under no circumstances would I want to create any 
kind of inconvenience to you in connection with adopting my suggestions out- 
lined in items (2), (3) and (4). Will you kindly accept them in that case only 
If that can be done without any difficulties or complications. However, I would 
insist on eliminating altogether the introductory paragraph on page 1, as I 
believe this is quite necessary. 

As a whole I note with considerable satisfaction that the present report is 
very favorably differing from that published in I. P. R. NOTES. From the politi- 
cal viewpoint, the standard of presentation of all questions is high and they are 
objectivelp interpreted. 

I am awaiting with great interest the publication of this volume. 
Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) V. E. Motylev 



P. S. (handwritten) Manuscript herewith returned. G. H. 

Exhibit No. 1020 

Extract From Letter Dated San Francisco, April IS, 1935, Owen Lattimore 

TO Catherine Porter 

I find around here that the knowing Mr. John Thompson of the San Francisco 
Daily News has an explanation of the Moscow trials which is widely accepted. 
It is simply that Stalin is getting rid of all the people "who knew him when" 
«o as to monopolize control of the political machine. To me this simply does not 
make sense because even from the little I know of the personalities of 1917, 1918, 
it is clear that a number of the people who have since come to be classified as 
Old Bolsheviks did not properly belong to the famous closely welded core of 
the Communist Party. On the contrary, many of them were radicals who be- 
longed to the fringe of the Party and many of them had already been known 
for years of obstinate partisans of one or another variant theory. 

As a reader, I should like to find a good article on the Who's Who of the Old 
Bolsheviks, sorting out who was really a close follower of Lenin and who was a 
more or less loosely harnessed sidekick whom only Lenin's genius could keep 
pulling in the traces. As an editor, I don't know whether I should prompt any- 
one to write such an article at the present time. 

Exhibit No. 1021 

January 15, 1937. 
• Dear Mr. Carter : In re the Hazard article, I would say that he has done a 
fine job. In answer to your questions specifically, I think : 

a. His account is very thorough and well documented. 

b. His article in no way reveals his point of view. He is presenting the Soviet 
analysis, with no apologies or comments. His article, however, does reveal a 
thorough understanding of the theory of Marxism. This means nothing in 
particular, since no student in a Soviet field is permitted to escape without this. 

c. I likewise do not think it possible to judge much about his imaginative 
•qualities from this article, as it is a straight-forward factual account. I think 
the article is quite well arranged, and, except for unavoidable condensation of 
large fields of law, it is written in a comprehensible and easy-reading style. I 
may be a poor judge of this, however, as at the moment I am extremely interested 
in the subject. 

Thank you for sending me the reprint, as I might not have taken the time to 
read it, just from its title. I will appreciate your sending me any other articles 
on the Soviet Union that you happen to see in out-of-the-way places. 

In re Richard's letter to Motylev : I wonder if it misht not also be suggested 
that Richard find out how a decision is reached in the U. S. S. R. to translate 
foreign books and whether there is some one institution where we should send 
our books immediately with this purpose in mind. 

Motylev is likely to raise the whole question of getting Soviet material pub- 
lished abroad. Insofar as we have anything to say on this point, I hope we 


will remind him that the question of editing Soviet translations is of paramount 
importance to us, if we are to sponsor any such publications. If we should 
make any arranf^ements with them about this, I expect we will run into difficulty 
on this point. Perhaps Motylev's experience in regard to the Data Papers has 
shown him what we mean. He is not unaware of the work we had to put in 
on them, and he also probably knows that it did improve them. 

I would not be surprised if Motylev wanted to know more about how and 
why the proceedings were written as they were. This is just a matter of 
information but I think Richard had better be prepared for it. 

In that letter I sent you from Harondar you will see some indication of the 
type of question he may ask. It might be a good idea for Bill to write him 
about the general principles on which it is done, to save Richard the explanation. 

Incidentally, I don't think that Motylev will be particularly helpful in regard 
to increasing the circulation of our books in the USSR. It might be a good 
idea if Richard asked to be put in touch with the institution which handles 
the import of foreign books. He might be more successful in dealing directly 
with them, as they are the ones who publish lists, etc. and keep in touch with 
all the libraries. Moreover, I think that it is through them that all purchases 
must be made and it might be possible to establish some sort of an agency 
with them, as they are the ones who publish lists, etc., and keep in touch with 
sort of thing. He might also try to see the main libraries, such as the Communist 
Academy Library, which have special funds for the purchase of foreign books. 

You probably have heard that in the last Tikhii Okean there is an article by 
Voitinsky on the conference and on Whyte's article. If you don't know the 
contents I could make you an outline, or a translation, as you prefer. There 
is also an article by Motylev in Pravda on the position of Japanese workers 
and peasants as revealed in the big Mitsubishi book. 

I will be in the ARI office Saturday morning, if you want to talk to me about 
any of these things. At the moment I can't think of anything else which 
Motylev might ask Richard. 


Exhibit No. 1022 
"RoMM Widely Known in U. S. for Peace Efforts 

"Vladimir Romm, who has 'confessed' that he was the contact man between 
the Trotzkyite conspirators in Russia and Trotzsky himself, is widely known 
to the press fraternity in the United States and was an active participant at 
the Institute of Pacific Relations conference at Yosemite last summer. 

" 'Mr. Romm's confession of personal participation in something which never 
happened and in which it would have been physically imposible for him to 
have played the part to which he has confessed,' said Chester H. Rowell, editor 
of The Chronicle, who was a delegate to the Yosemite meeting, 'is only one 
more chapter in the unsolved mystery of these Russian conspiracy trials.' 

"Romm, with his colleague. Dr. V. E. Motylev, famous geographer and director 
of the Institute of the Great Soviet World Atlas, had an important part in the 
conference at Yosemite, said Rowell. 

" 'These two,' he said, 'were probably the hardest-working members of the 
institute, laboring with documents far into the night and frequently all night. 

" 'On account of his better knowledge of English, the brunt of the running 
discussions in the round tables fell on Romm, though the major written state- 
ments were usually made by Motylev. 

" 'Romm collaborated in their preparation. He made brilliant analyses of 
the Soviet economic and governmental stioicture, and defended with the orthdox 
arguments even the ambiguous provisions for the freedom of the press in the new 
Soviet constitution. He was an accomplished linguist, speaking Russian, Ger- 
man, French, English, and Japanese, and an extremely capable newspaper man. 

" 'I first worked with Mr. Romm in Japan, where I learned to know him a» 
a newspaperman who I lived up to the highest standards of his profession 

" 'Personally, from many contacts with him, some of them close and continued,, 
all over the world, I became very fond of Romm.' 

"Rowell described Romm as one of the most important Soviet foreign corre- 
spondents and much the best known in America. He formerly represented 
'Tass', the Russian Associated Press, first in Europe and later in Japan. He 
was then transfeiTed to America as the Washington correspondent of the Moscow 
'Izvestia,' of which Karl Radek, another of the 'confessed' conspirators, has 
long been editor. 


"Romm was the first Russian observer accredited to the Institute of Pacific 
Relations at its conference in Kyoto, Japan, in 1929, and was one of the two 
regular delegates at the institute conference at Yosemite. He also reported the 
national conventions of the two parties last summer and commented to friends 
that the procedure in Russia was far more democratic and less steam-rollered 
than these American conventions." 

( Source : San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 1937, p. 2.) 

Exhibit No. 1023 

Stanford, Feb. 10, 1937. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

129 East 52nd St., Neio York. 

Dear Mr. Carter: I have gone over all Motilev's revisions and find I am in 
full agreement with all the changes you and Harinet suggest. I'm sorry about 
the misunderstanding over the opening para. I did not realize that Harriet de- 
sired and expected it to be left out. 1 certainly have no objection to omitting it. 

I agree entirely to having Motilev's reply to Takayanagi quoted directly and 
fully in Harriet's chapter, and footnoted to the Takayanagi statement in 
Chapter II. I am reluctant to give the Takayanagi statement in direct quota- 
tion as I had to reconstruct his words from two not completely identical records, 
and I feel that the present form is fuller and more accurate in substance than 
if I tried to quote disjointed parts of the recorder's notes. 

In the footnote on page 39 of my chapter I now suggest adding the following 
words at the end of the note : 

", where the Soviet member's reply to the Japanese statement is directly 

In the paragraph beginning near the foot of Page 39 of my chapter I see no 
reason to make any changes, but I am quite ready to accept any amendments 
from Harriet or you. 

I have generally adopted Motilev's idea of using suitable adjectives to indicate 
the importance of speakers and will make further changes of this sort where it 
seems advisable. 

I accept your suggestion of quoting from the Constitution in a footnote. 

My only other comment is on Motilev's wish to cut out the passage about 
Japanese officers being actuated by Marxian ideologJ^ I agree it seems an 
absurd libel, but it was said in all seriousness by a responsible Japanese, and if 
some Japanese think that, I suppose it is not without significance. My own 
inclination would have been to leave Harriet's text as it is but add a sentence 
saying that to the Soviet and many other members such a statement seemed 
inci-edible. However, I don't really mind if the passage is omitted and will 
gladly accept Harriet's and your judgment. 

You are right in thinking that wherever possible we are including in the 
text the relevant and important parts of the national chairmen's statements. 
I don't think it practicable or advisable to reproduce them all in an appendix, 
even if we could afford the space. Many of them, you recall, are already 
printed in IPR Notes. 

All in all, Motilev's comments are sound and very reasonable. It's a nice 
letter, and I'm glad you decided to s^eud him the MS. I'm keeping the copy 
of his letter and returning the MS by air mail herewith. Do you think I should 
send him a note personally thanking him for having read and revised the chapter 
so carefully? If you don't think it necessary, please be sure to add my thanks to 
those of Harriet and yourself when you write. 

I have had your wire in answer to my travel inquiry. I shall await further 
definite word from you as to whether you are booked for the Empress of Japan 
on Mai'ch 26, before I decide anything. Will you please wire or air mail me as 
soon as you know. I had the idea you preferred Dollar accommodations to 
C. P. R., and in fact I have the impression that in tourist class Dollar ships 
are Ijetter, even in the older ships like the Taft. However, either line will suit 
us iperfectly well. My slight preference for staying here till March 20 was 
mainly because we are liking it so well here, not because of any important 
IPR reasons. 


W. L. Holland. 

P. S. — -Alsberg and I talked briefly to Wilbur about the Lapham scheme. He 
thought it an excellent scheme and said he would be glad to speak in support 


of the plan to Lapham senior, who is one of his trustees I gather. The Bay Re- 
gion is to hold an Executive Committee meeting on the 16th. I am invited 
and will relay to you any news you want. Wilbur leaves today for Chicago 
where he can be reached on the 13th and 14th c/o Palmer House. If Alsberg 
goes to Europe next June, Wilbur will grant him leave of absence with pay. 

Exhibit No. 1024 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New Ywk City, March 1, 1937. 
Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, 
The Riverside Church, 

Riverside Drive, New York City. 

Dear Harry: One of the functions of the Institute of Pacific Relations is 
to confront thoughtful people with points of view that are radically different 
from their own. It has recently occurred to me that it might be useful if 
you were to invite Bishop McConnell and eight or ten equally intelligent and 
open-minded clergymen to meet for a long discussion Constantin Oumansky, 
the present Counsellor of the Soviet Embassy in Washington. An immediate 
reason for such a meeting would be the perplexity in the minds of a considerable 
section of the American public with reference to the recent Moscow trials. Some 
Americans seem to be delighting in the Trotskyist attack on the U. S. S. R., in 
ignorance of the fact that in supporting Trotsky they are probably supporting 
a war maker. I am convinced that for our generation at least Stalin is an 
asset for peace. 

Oumansky has long been a colleague of Radek and others who figured in the 
recent trials, and, now that the verbatim record of the court proceedings is 
available, could clear up certain points which have been a matter of concern 
to American liberals. 

Recently I took the initiative in asking Oumansky whether he would be 
willing to meet you and a few other liberal clergymen. He said that he 
would be glad to do so. He normally comes to New York about once a fortnight 
so a date convenient to you and him could be easily arranged. I may add that 
Oumansky said that if desired he would be glad to answer questions with 
reference to the status of the Christian Churches in the U. S. S. R. 

We are leaving New York for the Far East on Friday, so it might be better 
if you communicated with me by letter or phone before I go but if this is not 
feasible my colleague Miss Mitchell could communicate with Mr. Oumansky 
In case you wished to act on my proposal. Or you could write him direct at 
the Soviet Embassy, 1119 16th Street, Washington. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1025 

129 East 52nd Street. 
New Yorh City, 2nd March 1937. 
Mr. Jaites G. McDonald, 

New York Times, Times Square, 

New York City. 
Dear McDonald : Knowing Romm as you did in Kyoto, Washington, Yosemite 
and Geneva, you must have been particularly interested in the recent Moscow 
Trials. You doubtless knew Radek also. 

The Ti'otskyists in America are doing so much to play into the hands of 
Americans who are anti-Soviet that I thought you would want to have the 
text of the public trial. I have at last succeeded in securing a few copies of 
the verbatim report of the Proceedings of the Military Collegium of the Supreme 
Court, January 23-January 30, 1937. I am sending you a copy under separate 
cover because I know you will want to read it. It is barely possible that you 
will want to comment on it editorially. 

It is certainly a most amazing record and seems to be very definite evidence 
of a widespread counter-revolutionary movement organized by Trotsky, Trot- 
sky's denials not withstanding. 


If you already have a copy I would be grateful if you would return the one 
I have just sent you as they are difficult to get. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carteb. 

Exhibit No. 1026 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, 2nd March 1931. 
Mr. H. B. Elliston, 

Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Dear Elliston : So many journalists as well as others have been perplexed by 
the recent Moscow Trials that I have thought that possibly you would like to 
have a fuller background than has thus far come through on the wires from 

I have recently managed to secure a few copies of the verbatim report of the 
Proceedings of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court, January 23- 
January 30, 1937, and I have just sent a copy to you thinking that it was the kind 
of thing that you would want to read. At least you will want to read all that 
Radek and Romm said. Knowing them both personally their testimony 
in Moscow came to me at the time of the Trial as a complete surprise. Now, 
as I think over my relationships with them, I realize something of the striiggle 
they have had and the depth of their convictions at certain periods that 
Trotsky, not Stalin, had the right way for the world. 

The Trotskyists in this country are doing so much to play into the hands of 
Americans who are anti-Soviet that the appearance of this book is most timely. 
It looks to me as though those Americans who are delighting in the Trotskyists 
attack on the U. S. S. R. are ignorant of the fact that in supporting Trotsky they 
are supporting a war maker, Trotsky's denials notwithstanding. 

May I now turn to another matter? Are you likely to become an American 
citizen? The reason for my question is this: Your name is repeatedly proposed 
for membership in the American Council of the I. P. R. Unfortunately, the 
Constitution limits the membership to American citizens. The American Council 
is losing a great deal through your not being a member. How do things stand? 

With kindest personal regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Copies of the verbatim report of the 1937 Moscow Trial sent to : 

Hon. Newton D. Baker, Cleveland 

Mr. Carroll Binder, Chicago 

Mr. Edward C. Carter, New York 

Professor Joseph P. Chamberlain, Columbia University, New York 

Dr. J. . Defoe, Winnipeg, Canada 

Mr. H. B. Elliston, Boston 

Frederick C. Field, New York 

Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, New York 

Mr. James G. McDonald, New York 

Miss Kate L. Mitchell, New York 

Mr. Chester H. Rowell, San Francisco 

The Hon. Newton Howell, Chief Justice of Ontario, Toronto, Canada 

Professor Frank R. Scott, Montreal, Canada 

Exhibit No. 1027 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, 2nd March, 1937. 
Mr. H. B. EixiSTON, 

Christian Science Monitor, 

Boston, Massachusetts. 

Dear Elliston : So many journalists as well as others have been perplexed 
by the recent Moscow Trials that I have thought that possibly you would like 
to have a fuller background than has thus far come through on the wires from 


I have recently managed to secure a few copies of the verbatim report of the 
Proceedings of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court, January 23-Jan- 
uary 30, 1937 and I have just sent a copy to you thinking that it was the kind 
of thing that you would want to read. At least you will want to read all that 
Radek and Romm said. Knowing them both personally their testimony in 
Moscow came to me at the time of the Trial as a complete surprise. Now, as I 
think over my relationships with them, I realize something of the struggle they 
have had and the depth of their convictions at certain periods that Trotsky, not 
Stalin, had the right way for the world. 

The Trotskyists in this country are doing so much to play into the hands of 
Americans who are anti-Soviet that the appearance of this book is most timely. 
It looks to me as though those Americans who are delighting in the Trotskyists 
attack on the U. S. S. R. are ignorant of the fact that in supporting Trotsky 
they are supporting a war-maker, Trotsky's denials notwithstanding. 

May I now turn to another matter? Are you likely to become an American 
citizen? The reason for my question is this : Your name is repeatedly proposed 
for membership in the American Council of the I. P. R. Unfortunately, the 
Constitution limits the membership to American citizens. The American Coun- 
cil is losing a great deal through your not being a member. How do things 

With kindest personal regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1028 


March 3, 1937. 
Hall Borovoy, 

Soviet Consulate Oeneral, 

7 East 61st Street, New York City: 
Can you lunch with me Hotel Ambassador room four eleven one o'clock today. 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1029 

McGiLL Uni\^ersitt, 

Faculty of Law, 
Montreal, March Jfth, 1937. 
Edward C. Carter, Esq. 

c/o Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52d Street, New York, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Dear Carter : I am much obliged to you for taking the trouble to send me the 
report of the Moscow Tibials. I shall read it carefully when it comes, and will 
let you know how the trial appears to me. I shall also see that others in Mont- 
real have a chance to look at it. 

There is no doubt that the effect of the trials is vei'y serious for those who wish 
to see our society develop a form of economic planning based upon social 

Yours sincerely, 

[s] F. R. Scott 
F. R. Scott. 

March 8, 1937. 
FVF from ECC : 

Enclosed for your information and that of Mrs. Barnes are copies of letters 
from Joseph P. Chamberlain of Columbia and Professor Scott of McGill. 

I wish to reiterate the seriousness of the effect in this country of the most 
recent ]\Ioscow Trial. Your suggestions that steps be taken now with reference 
to the next trial are most fudamental. I hope you can act on this matter. I am 
incined to think that the American Council of the I. P. R. is in a much better 
position to do this than the Americari Russian Institute. 


Columbia University in the City of New York, 

510 Kent Hall, March ^, 1937. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter 

Institute Of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52d Street, New Ywk City. 

Dear Ned : Thank you for sending me the proceedings of the Soviet court in the 
recent Moscow trials. I have not had time to read it carefully, but I hope to get 
a chance to do so shortly. 

I have personally been anti-Trotsky, because, if for no other reason, I read his 
book and became convinced that Stalin was right and he was wrong in regard to 
the organization of the Soviet Union. Trotsky, according to his own book, was 
a very brilliant person who did not believe in the organization of the state but 
opposed the bureaucracy and was for world revolution, while Stalin recognized 
that a great job of construction had to be done, that it had to be done by a bureau- 
cratic organization and that Russia could stand on its own feet, if organization 
and internal discipline were provided. 

Furthermore, I have always felt that it would be quite improper for me to join 
a society for the defense of Leon Trotsky, for the reason that I do not like to 
join committtees whose object would api)ear to be to attack the government of 
a state at peace and amity with the United States, especially where I knew as 
little as I did about the truth of the situation. 

I hope you have a very good trip. I am sorry that I have not had a chance to 
see you and Mrs. Carter. 

Very sincerely yours, 

[s] J. P. Chamberlain 
J. P. Chamberlain, 


Exhibit No. 1030 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, 5th March, 1937. 
Mr. William L. Holland 

Food Research Institute, 

Stanford University, California. 

Dear Bill : You will, I think, be able to help people who have been perplexed 
by the recent Moscow Trials to realize that they make sense by loaning them a 
copy of the verbatim report of the Proceedings of the Military Collegium of the 
:Supreine Court, January 23-January 30, 1937. I have just managed to secure 
a f«w copies and I am sending one to you under separate cover, as I know you 
will find it fascinating and will want to read it all the way through. 

I think also that the very able law professor whom Alsberg so greatly admires 
will want to read it also. 

The Trotskyists in this country are doing so much to play into the hands of 
Americans who are anti-Soviet that the appearance of this book is most timely. 
It looks to me as though these Americans who are delighting in the Trotskyists 
attack on the U. S. S. R. are ignorant of the fact that in supporting Trotsky 
they are supporting a war-maker, Trotsky's denials not withstanding. 

When the volume has been read by those whom you and Alsberg think would 
most appreciate it, it should be put in the library of the I. P. R. in San Francisco. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edwaud C. Carteb. 

Exhibit No. 1031 

129 East 52nd Street, 
Neic York City, 2nd March, 1937. 

Professor Joseph P. Chamberlain, 

Cohimhia University, New York City. 

Dear Joseph : As a friend of Kurovia and as a student of the Soviet Union 

you must have followed with some interest the newspaper accounts of the recent 

Moscow Trials. In view of the fantastic interpretations appearing in many 

newspapers I have been eager to see whether I could get a copy of the record 


of the public trial. At last I have been able to secure a few copies of the 
verbatim report of the Proceedings of the Military Collegium of the Supreme 
Court, January 23-January 30, 1937, and I am sending you one of these under 
separate cover. I am rather anxious to have your opinion as a lawyer on what 
appears here. The first 150 pages would furnish a pretty fair sample though 
you may be intrigued by the whole record as it unfolds from section to section. 

As the number of copies available in this country seems limited, it may be 
that you will want to share this with one or two of your friends who may be 
especially interested and who would not ordinarily have easy access to this 
report. It is most interesting to see how the Trotskyists in America are using 
this Trial to fool anti-Soviet Americans into believing that Trotslsy is a peace- 

Alice and I are off on Friday for a long absence in the Far East, I only wish 
you were going along too. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1033 

En Route New York-San Francisco, 

March 8th, 1937. 
Dear Kate: If it meets with your approval, I wish you would order from 
"Soviet Russia Today," 824 Broadway, N. Y., the requisite number of copies of 
the 5-cent pamphlet — "At the Moscow Trial" by D. N. Pritt, so that you can 
send it with individual letters to each of those whose names appear at the bottom 
of this letter. Your letter to them might read somewhat as follows : 

"Just before sailing from San Francisco, Mr. Carter asked me to order and 
send you a small pamphlet by D. N. Pritt, K. C, M. P. This is his comment on 
the Moscow trials of last August. Mr. Pritt was in Moscow at the time and 
attended the public trial. He seeks, in the light of his own knowledge of English 
court procedure to explain the differences between the English and the Soviet 

Though Pritt's pamphlet describes the August trial, the procedure was presum- 
ably the same at the trial in January, the report of which Mr. Carter recently 
sent to you. That report and this pamphlet may serve as a useful background 
for the impending trial of Bukharin and Rykoff and others." 

When you are ordering the Pritt pamphlet, please order six extra for me; 
3 can be sent to Tokyo and 3 to Shanghai. It will be interesting to see whether 
they all arrive. 

Gratefully yours, 

Edward C. Carter, 
Ben Cherrington, 
Herbert Little, 
We miss you Kate — A. C. 

Hon. Newton D. Baker 

Mr. Carroll Binder 

Professor Joseph P. Chamberlain 

Dr. J. W. Dafoe 

Mr. H. B. Elliston 

Mr. Chester H. Rowell 

The Hon. Newton Rowell 

Professor Frank R. Scott 

Exhibit No, 1034 

Hotel Sir Francis Drake, 
San Francisco, 11th March 19S7. 
Miss Kate Mitchell, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52d Street, New York City, N. Y. 

Dear Kate : It was good of you to send me Baker's letter about the Verbatim' 
Report, and the extra copies. I am privately sending a copy to Oumanski and 
wish that you would show copies of Baker's letter to me, to Fred, Kathleen, ^nd 


I expect to see Bill and Alsberg this afternoon and will try and raise all of 
your questions with them. Now I am just starting out to make a round of 
financial calls with Esberg. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Caetek. 

Exhibit No. 1035 

Mabch 21, 1939. 

From ECC : 
For your private information I enclose a copy of a letter from a friend in 
Peiping dated February 21st. Under no circumstances ruust this letter be 
circulated or the identity of its author disclosed. Please return it to me when 
you have read it. 

Exhibit No. 1036 

Imperial Hotel, 

Toki,o, 20th April, 1931. 
Miss Kate Mitchell, 

129 East 52nd Street, Neio York City. 

Dear Kate: Purely for your private information I enclose this purely per- 
sonal letter from Holland. I had Insisted that he and Doreen move from second 
to first class from Honolulu to Yokohama, that is the point of the last part of 
the letter. 

Bill and Doreen are in grand form and have received a very warm welcome 
back to Tokyo. The Japanese Council would now appreciate it enormously 
if they would spend a year instead of only a week in Tokyo. 

This is to acknowledge with thanks your letter of March 29th congratu- 
lating the staff on the output between San Francisco and Honolulu. 

The point about living on a high intellectual level in my review of the Moscow 
trial was simply this : The substance of the dialogue in the Verbatim Report 
revealed not only high intellectual development on the part of many of the 
participants, but seemed to reveal also that they were living as members of 
social groups where discussion was carried on at a level of mental develop- 
ment not easily duplicated elsewhere. I cannot remember the record of any 
court proceedings in the United States for many years in which the level of 
examination and reply averaged as high as that in the January Moscow Trial. 

Thank you for forwarding me this copy of Tarr's letter to me of March 23. 
I will write him direct to London in a few days and send him a copy. 

You will be interested to know that Elisabeth Downing made a highly favor- 
able impression during her brief working visit. Both the Japanese I. P. R. and 
the Grews and the Andrews spoke of her with enthusiasm. You might pass 
this on to her mother. 

Affectionately yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1037 

Council of the U. S. S. R., 
Institute of Pacific Relations, 
20 Razin Street, Moscow, Ma^y 15, 1937. 
Mr. E. C. Carter, 

g/o China Institute of Pacific Relations, 

123, Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai, China. 

Dear Mr. Carter: Upon receipt of your letter of April 11, we cabled you as 
follows : 

"Regret delay answering re trip myself or Bremman Far East. Stop. 
Expect decide within few days will immediately advise by cable. 


We very deeply regret that such a considerable delay occurred in finally 
settling our plans for arranging a visit with you to the Soviet Far East. This 


was caused by the fact that Mr. Motylev wanted to accompany you iiersonally 
and was endeavouring to schedule correspondingly his obligations connected 
with the work on the Great Soviet World Atlas. However, recent developments 
of his work are such that it does not seem likely he would be able to leave Moscow 
at the time of your proposed visit. As we did not want to further delay thi.s 
matter, it was finally decided that I would spend a forrnight in July and August 
with you in the Soviet Far East. Consequently, we immediately cabled to you :. 

"Deeply regret unable personally go Far East looking forward see you 
Moscow. Stop. Bremman will spend fortnight with you Soviet Far East 
assisting your studying region. Stop. Your visa providing stay Far East 
granted Soviet Consulate General Shanghai instructed correspondingly. 
Stop. Please cable exact date arrival Vladivostok." 

The necessary formalities for arranging such a trip also required some time 
because, as you probably know, Intourist does not take care of rendering ac- 
commodations for trips in this region. 

I am greatly looking forward to meeting you in the District. As I did not. 
have an opportunity of visiting the Soviet Far East in recent years, I am sure 
this trip will prove most interesting to both of us. We will try to avoid spend- 
ing too much time on conferences and instead will endeavour to see the maximum^ 
of what it is possible to see on a visit of short duration. 

I sincerely hope that this delay did not put you to too much inconvenience 
and did not interfere with the elaboration of your further plans. 

Would you kindly advise us in advance of the exact date of your arrival so a.s 
to enable me to be in Vladivostok a few days ahead of you. That would give 
me the possibility of making all necessary arrangements beforehand and no time^ 
would be wasted on trying to find people whom we want to meet and making 

Sincerely yours, 

Y. P. Bremman, 



Exhibit No. 1038 
Copy to KM. 

123 Boulevard de Montigxy, Shanghai. 

May 27, 19S7. 
Dr. V. E. Motylev, 

Pacific Institute, 20 Razin Street, Moscow. 

Dear Dr. Motylev: This is to acknowledge with thanks your cablegram of 
May fifteenth reading as follows: Deeply regret unable personally go Far East. 
Looking forward see you Moscow. Stop. Bremman will spend fortnight with 
you Soviet Far East assisting your studying region. Stop. Your visa providing, 
stay Far East granted. Soviet Consulate General Shanghai instructed corres- 
pondingly. Stop. Please cable exact date arrival Vladivostok. 

I was in Nanking at the time and so was delayed in replying. On my return 
here on May twenty-tirst, I cabled you as follows : Many thanks will arrive 
Vladivostok July nineteenth or twenty first. Will cable exact date May thir- 
tieth. Stop. Barely possilile Holland could accompany me Soviet Far East <»nly 
cable frankly whether easy arrange oi' whether better not ask for permission now. 

The reason for uncertainty as to the date of my arrival in Vladivostok is due 
to the fact that the SovtorgOot S. S. Saver is now under repair in Shanghai and' 
it is not known whether she will be repaired in time to resume her regular 

In view of this uncertainty, it will probably seem best for me to take the steamer Siberia Mam, leaving Seishin (Korea) July eighteenth and 
arriving in Vladivostok at 8 : 00 a. m. on July nineteenth. 

I am exceedingly glad that Bremman can meet me and that we will find yoir 
in Moscow on our arrival. 

My present plan is to depart for Moscow on the train which leaves Vladivostok 
on Thursday, July twenty-ninth. (I suppose we would join the train at Khaba- 
rosk or west of Khabarosk.) My plan is to have the train at Karymskaya on 
Sunday, August first, and stop over there for two days until the train from 
Manchouli arrives, on which Mrs. Carter, my daughter Ruth, and Miss Nan 
Smith will be traveling from Manchouli to Moscow. By joining the train at 


Karyraskaya, I could take the long journey across with them. I would hope 
that Mr. Breninian could travel with us, as this would give us such a splendid 
opportunity of conversation day by day, discussing the significance of our visit 
to the Far East and preparing for our visit to Moscow. 

Tills means that we would all arive in Moscow at 15 : 30 on Sunday, August 

Miss Smith has to go on from Moscow after a week or ten days, but I am plan- 
ning to remain, if you think it desirable, from August eighth until August twenty- 
sixtli, when I shall probably have to leave for western Europe. 

Tlie time between August eighth and August twenty-sixth I will be prepared to 
spend under your direction, staying all the time in Moscow or going to one, two 
or three other places, as you think best. There is one short trip that I would 
like to make if it is convenient, and that is to go to the industrial city of Kolumua. 
I visited Kolumna in 1931. I would tremendously appreciate the privilege of 
going there again so as to compare Kolumna then and now. 

With reference to the clause in my cable about Mr. Holland, the situation is 
this. Ix)ng-postponed work on his book, "The Effect of the Depression on the 
Far East," and the fact that the Pacific Council is not to meet in Europe this 
year, have decided him to remain in the Far East until he goes to Australia and 
New Zealand next November. He would, however, like to accompany me to the 
Soviet Far East in July, provided it is perfectly easy for you to get the necessary 
permission and also provided transportation arrangements are such that Mr. 
Bremman can arrange for two of us to travel about from place to place with him 
instead of one. 

Neither Mr. Holland nor I wishes to inconvenience you or Mr. Bremman with 
this proposal, so we liope that you will feel perfectly free to cable vetoing Mr. 
Holland's accompanying me. He will visit the Soviet Union next year after the 
meeting of the Pacific Council in China next April, and could go to Moscow then 
by way of the Soviet Far East if it is not possible for him to go there this year. 

Owing to the fact that Mr. Holland cannot go to Moscow this year, we will 
probably arrange for Miss Kate Mitchell to be in Moscow when we are there, in 
order to confer with you, Voitinsky and me regarding the research program. 
She is handling the supervision of a good deal of the research work in collabora- 
tion with Mr. Holland and is particularly anxious to have a long talk with you 
about the Economic Handbook, a large responsibility for which has been dele- 
gated to her. 

Will you continue to address me here, care of the China Institute of Pacific 
Relations, 123 Boulevard de Montigny, Shanghai. I am going to Manila on 
June fifth, but Shanghai continues to be my best forwarding address for mail 
and cables. 

AMtli kindest personal regards, I am 
Very sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1039 

123 Boulevard de Montigny, 

Shanghai, China, 

May 31st, 1937. 
Joseph Barnes, Esq., 

New York Herald Tribvne Bureau, 

Moscow, U. 8. 8. R. 
Dear Joe : Our present plan is to reach Moscow on August 8th. I spent about 
a fortnight befoi-e in the Soviet Far East with Bremman. 

I wonder whether you would be willing to give me a little travel tip. Is the 
Hotel Metropole still presumably the most logical place for us to stay or has 
some new Hotel arisen which has all the advantages of the Metropole and is a 
little less gloomy? 

I wish the newspapers of China and Japan would buy your Moscow despatches. 
Misinformation in these two countries regarding the Soviet Union is prettj" 

Ever sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Cakter. 


Exhibit No. 1040 

Bay View Hotel, 
Manila, 18th June, 19S7. 
Miss Kate Mitchell, 

Neio York City. 

Dear Kate : Yesterday evening the delayed clipper arrived with your very 
welcome airmail letters of June 7. I cannot tell you how grateful I am to you 
for arranging to send me Mrs. Barnes's latest article on the Soviet Union in 
the Far East. This should give me just the kind of pointers that I want. I 
hope that you and she and Harriet will include any questions for which you 
wish me to seek the answers. Thank you also for sending me the clipping from 
the Times about the "Spy Scare." 

Yes, I got your May 11th letter but it was delayed In reaching me owing to 
my absence for a week in Szechwan. By now you have received tlie copy of 
my letter to Motylev of May 27, in the next-to-last paragraph of which you will 
find Bill Holland's reasons for deciding that you visit Moscow in order to 
represent him in going over with Voitinsky and Motylev the entire research 
program. You have also by now, I hope, received by letter of the 30th of May 
in which, in addition to giving Bill Holland's reasons, I mentioned the necessity 
of starting work on the semifinal draft of the Budget toward the end of August 
or early in September. 

In accordance with your request for a cable, which I am sending for fear 
my earlier letters may have been delayed in reaching you, I am cabling you 
today as follows : 

"Mitchell, Inparel, New York: 

"Staying Meti'opole, Moscow, until August twenty-sixth. Satisfactory 
if you arrive ninth. Stop. Holland self think your visit important. Stop. 
If, however, very difficult arrange meet me Berlin August Twenty-eighth 
cable. Stop. Ask Dorothea, Kuth, or Martha cable family news this 
week end. 


Your tentative schedule calling for leaving on the "Washington" on July 28, 
reaching Paris on the 4th, Berlin on the 7th and Moscow on the 9th, is satis- 
factory to me, except that I wish that you might have a day or two longer in 
Paris to relax after your arduous schedule throughout July in New York. 

I am told that Catherine Porter's Survey article was widely quoted in the 
Philippine papers. Tell her that yesterday we met Mrs. Traynor, who was 
Gladys Plunkett of the Inquiry staff. She is now a most sedate matron. We 
were delighted to find that Annette's very vivid and attractive sister. Miss 
Mayer, is living here at the Bay View. 

I have decided to return to Shanghai by steamer from Hongkong so all the 
letters that you have sent to Shanghai will reach us automatically, and anyhow, 
in Wellington's absence, Elizabeth Downing is attending to the forwai'ding of 
all our mail. 

The future of the Philippine Council hangs in the balance. I wonder whether 
if you go to Washington before you sail, you could have a really frank talk 
with Conrado Benitez, who may have left or may stay on in Paredes' place. 
Affectionately yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1041 

Supplementary Agenda for Discussion Between U. S. S. R., IPR, and the 
Secretary-General, Moscow, Aug. 17, 1937 

1. Memorandum from Chatham House dated August 3rd, 1937. 

2. What steps will be taken to insure intelligent and significant reviews of 
Great Soviet World Atlas in principal countries. How secure a few advance 
copies with memorandum on principal points of significance. 

3. Recommendation as to duration Miss Harriet Moore's visit to Buryat 

4. Could Bremman spend at least 8 months as a member of the Internatiopal 
Secretariat in 1938 or 1939. 


5. Procedure with reference to members of the International Secretariat and 
the Secretariats of the National Councils visiting the Soviet Union in the future, 

6. The internal situation in the Soviet Union. 

7. Suggestions from Soviet Council to the Secretary-General regarding making 
the worii of the International Secretariat more efficient. 

8. How secure promptly several copies of the following publications of the 
Institute of World Politics and Economics. Provisional titles only : 

a. Symposium on Fifth Anniversary of Japanese Invasion of Manchuria. 

b. Guerrila Warfare in Manchuria. 

c. Symposium on China. 

d. Position of and Struggle by the Peasantry for Improved Conditions 
in Japan. 

e. Financial Situation in Japan. 

f. Position of the Working Class in Japan. 

g. Dissertation on the Decay of American Imperialism by Gourivitch. 

h. Dissertation by Levina (?) developing Lenin's idea that Capitalism is 
acceptable to the United States peasant because of the absence of feudal 

9. Other business as proposed by the officers of the U. S. S. R. IPR. 

10. Shiman. 

11. Lattimore. 

Exhibit No. 1042 

Please pass on the word of Shiman's arrival in the Far East to Liu Yu-wan, 
Saionji, Pyke and Downing. 

Hotel Metropole, 
Moscow, 20th August, 1937. 

Feederick v. Field, Esq., 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City, N. Y. 

Dear Fred : In order to keep the records complete, this is a record of the 
Shiman incident. 

On the 12th August I received your cable of the 11th reading as follows : 

"Shiman stuck London no word Soviet visa applied 8 weeks ago. 
Can you push Moscow end cable Shiman Amexco London today." 

In order to discover whether he wanted merely to visit Moscow or to go to 
the Far East via Manchuria or via Vladivostok I wired him as follows : 

"Wire Metropole kind of visa desired". 

He replied as follows : 

"Tourist visa preferred leaving London new address American Express 

As I could only act if I had precise information I wired you as follows on 
August 13th. 

"Shiman gone Austria wire me duration stay itinerary desired". 

To this Hilda replied as follows. 

"Shiman care Markus Sevensix Weidner Hauptstrasse Vienna communi- 
cate directly no knowledge present itinerary." 

I then wired Shiman in Vienna as follows : 

"Wire duration stay itinerary desired." 
Shiman then wired me on the 16th, as follows : 

"Desire enter Negoreloye 3 days Moscow transit Manchouli". 

This I received late on the evening of the 16th. On the morning of the 17th 
I delivered, personally, letters of recommendation, information, and appeal to, 
Belsky, the head of Intourist, Ward, the passport man at the American Embassy, 
and to Dr. Motylev. Belsky rang up the Government immediately and discovered 
that Shiman's visa had not been refused. This meant that the situation was 

88348—52— pt. 1 1 — 17 


still hopeful. As Belsky told me to pull all possible wires iu order to get 
speedy action, I wired you on the 17th as follows : 

"Suggest you ask Umansky burn wires behalf Shiman." 

On the 19th I had to leave for Kalinin for two days. On my return on the 
21st I received a telegram from Shiman in Vienna reading as follows : 

"Boat tickets too scarce to wait longer. Stop. Sailing Naples Singapore 
August 28 Japanese Terukuni signing off with thanks." 

A few moments later Belsky informed me that the visa had been granted and 
that the telegram to the Soviet Consul in Vienna had gone forward late on the 
evening of the 19th or early on the morning of the 20th. I immediately wired 
Shiman at his home address in Vienna, as follows : 

"Your telegram received visa telegraphed Vienna nineteenth." 

Shiman presumably left Vienna before the final telegram arrived or felt 
already committed to sail via Singapore. 

Now for the future. Whenever fully accredited and important members of the 
Pacific Council or the American Council staff desire to visit or pass through 
the Soviet Union, full details as to the person and the purpose of the trip should 
be sent by you or me to Dr. Motylev with a copy to Secretary-General Y. P. 
Bremman. If possible this information should be sent a full fortnight in 
advance of making the application for the visa at the local office of Intourist and 
the Soviet Consulate. 

Simultaneously similar letters giving all details should be sent to the Chief 
of the Consular Section of the American Embassy in Moscow. I would recom- 
mend that, even though no one in Moscow proposed it, a similar letter be sent 
to any personal friends you may have in the Soviet Embassy in Washington 
or Shanghai or wherever the application is made. 

Both Motylev and the officials of the American Embassy are always embar- 
rassed if the People's Commissariat of Foreign Afi'airs address communications 
to them regarding the visits of I. P. R. personalities of whose visits they have not 
already heard. 

One other suggestion I gather that with reference to members of the American 
Council who are not members of the staff you should be very discriminating 
in giving letters of introduction to the Soviet I. P. R. Any member of the 
American Council who is a really serious student can be introduced but any 
who want to go purely as trippers had better stick closely to the Intourist 
program. I deeply regret that the hours that I spent on Shiman's behalf did not 
secure action two hours earlier. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edwaed C. Caeter. 

P. S.— You might show this letter to CHS, HA, CP, HM, KB, and EFC. 

Exhibit No. 1043 

Hotel Richemond, 
Geneva, Switzerland, 7th September, 1931. 
Dr. V. E. Motylev, 

% Soviet Union Institute of Pacific Relations, 
20 Razin Street, Moscow, U. S. S. R. 
Dear Motylev : From London I cabled Mr. Field to send you a copy of each 
Issue of Amerasia from the beginning mailing each copy separately. I hope 
that all will reach you in due course. 

In the meantime my copy of the July issue has arrived. I am, therefore, post- 
ing it to you. On page 230 you will find the translation of your Pravda article. 
Here in Geneva I have had the great privilege of meeting Mr. Sokoline, th» 
Soviet Under Secretary-General of the League of Nations. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 1044 

On Board M. V. "Geobgic," 

En Route to New "York, 

18th October, 1931. 
Owen Lattimore, Esq., 

SS Ta Yuan Fu Hutung, 

Peiping, China. 
Dear Owen : One of the cables that I sent to you which was apparently garbled 
was that in which I inquired whether I could give Motylev a copy of your two 
articles on your visit to the Chinese Communists. The first was "The Stronghold 
of Chinese Communism." The second was "The Present and Future of Chinese 
Communism." Motylev was naturally exceedingly eager to have the benefit of 
your impressions. Perhaps more eager than any other member of the Pacific 

I did not tell him that I had copies of these two articles because I was not 
quite sure whether you would wish me to show them to him. But I would like 
to hear from you as to whether I may send them or whether you would prefer 
to send him copies or to write him direct a long letter giving him the benefit of 
your impressions. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1045 


War Department, 
War Department General Staff 
Military Intellience Division G-2, 

Washington, D. C, November 5, 1937. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

129 East 52nd St., New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Carter : In reply to your request of November 5, I am listing below 
the ofiicers who attended the meeting in Colonel Strong's office this morning. 

With much appreciation for your kindness in giving us so much of your time, 
I am 

Sincerely yours, 

R. S. Brattou 
R. S. Bratton, 
Lieut. Col., Inf., DOL. 
List of Officers : 

Captain W. L. Lind, U. S. N., Office of Naval Intelligence 
Commander S. M. Creighton, U. S. N., Office of Naval Intelligence 
Captain W. L. Bales, U. S. M. C, Office of Naval Intelligence. 
Colonel Geo. V. Strong, U. S. A., War Department, G-2 
Lieut. Col. P. E. Van Nostrand, U. S. A., War Department, G-2 
Lieut. Col. R. S. Bratton, U. S. A., War Department, G-2 
Major William Mayer, U. S. A., War Department, G-2 

Exhibit No. 1046 

JosBPH Baenes, Moscow Correspondent 

New York Herald Tribune, 

Hotel Metropole, 
Moscoiv, November 10, 1937. 
Dear Mr. Carter: Your reference to Nyon, however pessimistic, hardly 
needed toning down. All that has happened since then has only strengthened 
the case of those, and they are legion here, who feel that there is nothing more 
to do but wait, and arm, and fight. The blackmail policy of aggression — taking 
endless half-loaves of bread by threatening each time to take the whole loaf — 
seems to pay such dividends that it is not likely to be discarded voluntarily. 



and the chances of checking it by any sort of collective action certainly grow 
slimmer and slimmer. I have reason to believe that even some of the more 
bitter-minded Soviet people score the steady losses up to bad diplomacy in 
western Europe, and to the failure of otherwise-sensible people to see just 
what the policy of endless forbearance and compromise leads to. For myself, 
this is steadily a less satisfactory explanation. It maljes me appear to out- 
Bolshevik the Bolsheviks, which is not a fair conclusion, but it is hard for me 
to dodge the suspicion that increasing groups of owning people, in Japan, in 
eastern Europe, and now in England, have beaten the workers to class-conscioii<a- 
ness, and that they have in spirit if not in the letter of treaties decided to get 
down ofC their post-Versailles fence on the Facist side, God knows it's not an 
unreasonable conclusion for a Yugoslav banker, say or Montague Norman, o'- 
the b'lwasakis to come to, but it's a depressing one for those who watch it. 
Without some such explanation, it is hard to understand the endless patience 
of the English, or their old-maid's fright at the thought of a Soviet under the 
bed. Brussels appears to have gone the way of Nyon. If I were a Czecho- 
slovak today, or a citizen of Danzig, or a young Englishman of draft age, I 
would feel that my very life depended on the slim chance that some of my 
rulers would wake up to the fact that cooperation with the Soviet Union, a 
united front of democi-acies committed to collective security and the indivisibil- 
ity of peace, is the only thing that could now stop what's going on. 

God knows the Russians don't seem to be working very hard on convincing 
them, but they've had twenty years of trying, and maybe they're justified in 
being discouraged. If the Bolsheviks decide, after their Spanish expei-ience, 
to give the Chinese their blessing and their sympathy — which I am increasingly 
convinced is what is happening, and no more — and watch the Japanese slowly 
founder in the snow of North China, it will be pretty hard for us Friends of the 
Soviet Union, or for our first-cousins, the self-righteous liberals stranded 
between realpoUtilc and pacifism, to keep up the present chorus about the world's 
liaving been let down by the Soviet Union. 

This started out to be a simple note, telling you that I was glad to see you 
in Moscow, but the indignation which gets choked on a cable line seems to 
liave overflowed. 

I assume you have heard all the recent news about Moscow which would 
interest you from those of your staff who read Pravda attentively. The issue 
of October 3 was full of news. 

News continues for us too, with no sign of a let-up. The elections are now 
ahead, as soon as the celebration is decently over. When the dull routine 
days will come, when I have been planning to settle down and do some of the 
real work that I have got to do, is still uncertain. 

Give my best regards to Mrs. Carter, Ruth, and John [Handwritten.] Carter. 
Very sincerely yours, 


Exhibit No. 1047 


Overland Limited, East-bound, 

Decem'ber 23, 1937. 
Mr. Fkederick V. Field 

San Francisco 

Dear Fred : May I recommend that the Membership Committee of the Ameri- 
can Council undertake to make a serious study of the desirability of securing for 
membership in the Council several, if not all, of the members of the House and 
Senate Committees on Relations. 

The Committee might at the same time consider whether there are not other 
members of the two Houses who should be invited to become members of the 
American Council. The Nominating Committee or the Executive Committee may 
wish to consider having the SURVEY and some of the pamphlets go to key mem- 
bers of the House and Senate Foreign Relations Committees even though they 
decide against asking them to become members of the Council. 


As one means of capitalizing on my recent expensive visit to Kansas, I would 

like to propose that the Nominating Committee consider Governor Landon for 

membership in the American Council. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edwaed C. Cakteb. 

Exhibit No. 1048 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, February 2Jt, 1938. 
Miss Virginia Btjrdick, 

Amei'iGan Russian Institute, 

56 West 45th Street, New York City. 
Dear Miss Burdick : 1. Because the Bulletin of the American Russian Institute 
aims at objectivity, covers contemporary life in the Soviet Union and is written 
by a highly competent staff, its importance both to scholars and to the more 
thoughtful section of the general public cannot be overemphasized. 

2. I was attacked the other day, not by a Soviet citizen but by an American 
capitalist, for being on the Board of the American Russian Institute in which, 
it was alleged, there are still a number of Trotskyists. To what extent is this 
true? I do not believe in persecuting American Trotskyists in general, but I do 
not see any point in including them on the Governing Board of an Institute that 
is trying to promote intelligent understanding between the United States and 
the U. S. S. R. 

3. Of what committee of the American Russian Institute am I a member, the 

Board or the Executive Committee? 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1049 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, February 25, 1938. 
Purely personal 
Constantine Oumansky, Esq., 

Embassy of the U. 8. S. R., Washington, D. C. 
Dear Oumansky : When I saw you last Wednesday, I meant to show you a copy 
of the letter that I sent to Motylev last November. At that time I sent a similar 
letter to several consultants, the majority of which favored the proposal. 

In the light of these letters from several parts of the world we have now 
drafted a short statement as to the inquiry to be organized. This I enclose 
also. You will note that it is marked confidential. 

I would enormously appreciate your personal criticism of these two enclosures. 
I was very glad that the Ambassador invited me to lunch, and was particularly 
pleased that I was able to meet Mrs. Oumansky. It was delightful sitting beside 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1050 
Additional Names Recommended fob Membership in the American Coitncil 

(By Edward C. Carter) 

Oscar Littleton Chapman, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. O. 

Ernest L. Gruening, Director, Division of Territories and Insular Possessions, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Alger Hiss, attached to the staff of Assistant Secretary of State Francis B. Sayre 

Daniel A. de Menocal, Vice President, First National Bank of Boston, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Moore, Hubbard Woods, Illinois 

Recommended by himself: 

Dr. Frank Bohn, 2219 California Street, Washington, D. C, formerly a 
contributor to the New York Times ; lecturer at the University of Southern 
California ; now son-in-law to the Secretary of Commerce 



Exhibit No. 1051 

1795 Califoknta Street, 

March 11, 1938. 
Mr. William W. Lockwood, Jr. 
129 East 52vd Street, 

New York, Neio York. 

Dear Bill : You will find enclosed a copy of a letter to Dr. Davis which follows 
a long discussion which wasted a good deal of the time available to the local 
advisory research committee at its meeting last week. I hope that the rela- 
tionships I have outlined will be accepted without comment. In any case, I 
never could make out why research people were interested in these legalistic 

The remarks in my letter to Davis pertain also to the formation of a research 
committee in the East as discussed in your letter of March 14th. Since talk- 
ing with you in New York I have somewhat changed my views as I have tried 
to figure out an organizational procedure which would be consistent through 
the country. It is quite definitely recommended in the report of the nominating 
committee to the Annual Meeting of December 17, 1937, that the national 
research committee shall remain a skeleton committee composed only of the 
chairman, now Dr. Alsberg, and a secretary from the staff, yourself, and that 
a series of regional advisoi-y research committees on the model of the one 
already established in San Francisco should be organized. Therefore, to 
make the committee which you are getting together in and near New York 
the national research committee instead of a New York or Eastern research 
advisory committee would be contrary to the recommendation made and accepted 
at the Annual Meeting. 

A procedure more consistent with our development elsewhere and with the 
needs of the organization would be to make the committee on which you are 
now at work another in the series of advisory research committees to which 
Dr. Alsberg and yourself will make definite requests from time to time. At 
the moment the principal responsibility which is being put on this new com- 
mittee is to take charge of the studies which the International Secretariat has 
requested the American Council to undei'take on behalf of the large war settle- 
ment inquiry. I shall seek the advice of our research groups here and In 
Southern California and of research individuals in other parts of the country 
but responsibility for the work will be placed in the hands of this new group. 

Do you agree that this will be a sounder way to go alwut our work? 

In any case the composition of your committee is hardly affected as we are 
not likely to develop more than one research advisory between Chicago and New 
York for some time to come. There would be, therefore, no difficulty in includ- 
ing a Chicago member on the regional committee established from New York. 

I think the names you suggest are excellent with the possible exception of 
Erich W. Zimmerman of North Carolina. His book on raw material I'esources 
was my bible for a couple of years and I have the highest regard for him as 
a scholar. For committee work, however, he is not particularly useful, largely 
because of very conspicuous deafness which makes it diflScult for him to par- 
ticipate in a discussion. He served on one of the American Coordinating Com- 
mittee groups of which I was a member and I recall that the general impression 
was that he was very seriously handicapped. There is the further point in 
connection with him that the University of North Carolina represents a good 
deal of travel expenses to New York. The only other possible question as to 
the members you have suggested is Shotwell whose name in some quarters 
has become synonymous with monkey wrench. There is no question that he is 
inclined to run away with a committee if he becomes interested nor is there 
any question that he has more than once started research work off on a tangent 
and an expensive one at that. Confidentially, Miss Walker of the Rockefeller 
Foundation expressed the frank opinion at lunch three weeks ago that valuable 
as Shotwell had been in the past that time had come when he should be no longer 
appointed to research committees of any sort. 

I feel very self-conscious about Shotwell because of having gone to con- 
siderable trouble to organize a stop-Shotwell movement among the younger 
people in New York six or seven years ago. The movement was so success- 
ful that I have often wondered since whether we were justified in taking such 
an unfriendly attitude towards him in our IPR work. At his request Barnes 
and I got together a group of about eighteen or twenty people who met at 
Shotwell's house and ate his food one evening a week for about four months 


in order to engage in an open discussion of tbe original motivations of inter- 
national relations. Barnes and I carefully stacked the cards so that out of 
a meeting of twenty ihere were nineteen Marxists or pseudo-Marxists and one 
violent anti-Marxist, Shotwell himself. Each meeting was more embarrassing 
than the last for, all being young, we were rather unmerciful in tearing to pieces 
every clause Issued by this renowned scholar. 

With regard to a representative from the business community, I am quite 
certain that Whitney Shepardson will not accept a position on one of our com- 
mittees. Some years ago he decided that he would undertake outside work 
with only one organization, namely the Council on Foreign Relations, and as 
far as I know he has stuck religiously by this self-imposed rule. He is always 
available for personal consultation hut not, I think, for committee work. I do 
know your alternative candidate, Howard Houston of the American Cyanamid 
Company. I do not think that he is a vice president but rather assistant to the 
president. He is an old friend of Carter's, was at one time on the staff of the 
League of Nations, and very likely was one of the important YIMCA boys during 
the War, though of this I am not certain. My acquaintance with him is slight, 
being limited to two or three fairly long talks in connection with a possible 
gift to the IPR from the company with which he works. We did not receive 
the gift but our relations with Houston, and with the company for that matter, 
were extremely satisfactory. They actually read a very elaborate report I 
prepared for them and gave me the impression of understanding rather accu- 
rately what we were driving at. In other words, I would very much support 
the suggestion that Houston be included in the committee. 

I am also glad to see that you have included Edward M. Earle of Princeton. 
I have never met him personally but for a long time I have heard only the high- 
est praise of his work. He was a great friend of the Barnes family who used 
to tell me about him while I was still an undergraduate at Harvard. More 
recently I have often heard Professor Chamberlain speak about him. 

In going over your list again as I dictate I notice that you have included 
Alsberg on this committee. If we adopt the organizational procedure which I 
recommend in the first fifteen paragraphs of this letter, he should not, of course, 
be made a member of a regional advisory committee in view of his position as 
chairman of our national research committee. 

Finally, on the question of the procedure which should be adopted for appoint- 
ing this committee, I am today taking the first step which is to secure Alsberg's 
approval. After you have replied to this letter, giving me the final list of the 
committee, I shall communicate with members of our Executive Committee by 
correspondence and I have no doubt that our recommendations will be speedily 

Sincerely yours, 

Frederick V. Field. 

Exhibit No. 1052 

225 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C, 

March 31, 1938. 
Mrs. Edward C. Carter, 

American Council, I. P. R., 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City. 

My Dear Mrs. Carter : It is a pleasure to accept your invitation to participate 
in the week-end conference at Princeton, on April 23rd and 24th. 

The agenda for the conference is certainly complete. My only criticism would 
be that it is too minutely detailed, and in some instances duplicated. It may be 
that a somewhat broader and shorter agenda might be easier to handle at a 
conference which is to last only two days. 

In addition, I would like to suggest one more topic, and that is, concerning 
the German-Japanese Pact and its implications. How much truth is there in the 
Japanese warning that China is on the verge of going Communist, and what is 
meant by Communism in China? A clarification of these issues would go a long 
way toward creating a better understanding of what American business may or 
may not expect in China, whether victorious or defeated. 
Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Philip J. Jaffe. 


Exhibit No. 1053 

Embassy of the Union op Soviet Socialist Republics, 

Washington, D. C, March 29, 1938. 

]VIr. Edward C. Caetek, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52nd Street, New York City, N. T. 
Dear IMe. Carter : Thank you for your letter of March 26. As before I am 
at your disposal for the dinner. 

I understand that the verbatim report in English of the recent proceedings 
will arrive in this country shortly. At that time I shall not fail to send you a 
copy immediately. 

Sincerely yours, 


p, s, — I have sent you under separate cover two issues of the Moscow News 
dealing with the trial. 

Exhibit No. 1054 

129 East 52nd St., 
New York City, March 31, 1938. 
Mr. Owen Lattimoke, 

1795 California St., San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Owen : Here is a copy of my second letter to Scherer. I think I have 
already sent you Yasuo's comment. 

Tsuro is supposed to have Leftist sources of information. Shiman and Jatte 
regard him very highly. 

Now it may be that Scherer is right and Tsuro and Yasuo wrong, but I need 
to be shown. 

Scherer wrote as if he were writing for Pacific Affairs. I hope this is not 
the case. He doubtless is a swell guy, but I cannot quite see the point of Pacific 
Affairs suddenly taking up with him when our best friends in the Japanese 
I. P. E. would have been pained if we had featured him even when he was 
doing his pro-Japanese writing. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter^. 

Exhibit No. 1055 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, March 31, 1938. 
Professor Joseph P. Chamberlain 
8 Sutton Square, New York City 
Dear Joseph : Would you be interested in dining with me and a few others 
at the Centurv Club at 7 :15 on the evening of Wednesday, April 20th, to listen 
to a hundred-percent Bolshevik view of the Moscow trials? I have invited 
Constantino Oumansky, the able, two-fisted Counselor of the Soviet Embassy in 
Washington, to come to New York that evening to speak to a little dinner of 
a dozen of my friends and then submit himself to the frankest questions that any 
of my guests care to put. 

If it is possible to accept, I can promise you a provocative and interesting 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

(Handwritten note:) 

Mr. Chamberlain's secretary called to tell Mr. Carter that a previous engage- 
ment prevents Mr. Chamberlain from accepting the dinner invitation for April 20. 

April 6, 1938. 


Exhibit No. 1056 

129 East 52nd Street, 
Vew York City, April 2, 19S8. 
Dr. John H. Finley, 

Editor in Chief, New York Times. 
Dear Dr. Finley : Would you be interested in dining with me and a few others 
at the Century Club at 7 : 15 on the evening of Wednesday, April 20th, to listen 
to a hundred-percent Bolshevik view of the Moscow trials? I have invited Con- 
stantine Oumansky, the able, two-fisted Counselor of the Soviet Embassy in 
Washington, to come to New York that evening to speak to a little dinner of a 
dozen of my friends and then submit himself to the frankest questions that any 
of my guests care to put. 

If it is possible to accept, I can promise you a provocative and interesting 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1057 

April 16, 1938. 
E. C. C. to Russell Shiman : 

When I was seeing Ballantine, Thursday, in the State Department on another 
matter, lie said he wished to talk to me about Virginia Thompson's notes on 
Siam. It apears that she has been most industrious in making voluminous notes 
from the private consular reports. The Department has been carefully scruti- 
nizing these and hopes that, in the terms of my original application, she will use 
this material only as background. Ballantine and Spencer read me an "aide 
memoir," a copy of which I attach for your private information. Ballantine 
was clearly in a dilemma. He did not wish to have the Department appear rigid 
and restrictive with reference to Miss Thompson's work. At the same time, he 
felt that there was some material in Miss Thompson's notes which would be em- 
barassing if published, especially if the State Department was given as the 

I think the Department has confidence in the I. P. R. and in Miss Thompson. 
At the same time, they were worried about a good deal of what they felt was 
irrelevant, marginal, and indiscreet in her notes. 

I as.sured Ballantine and Spencer that Miss Thompson could be trusted to 
play the game 100 percent and that I would make a point of seeing her personally 
and assuring myself on this score before she sailed for Europe. 

This I did yesterday afternoon with entirely satisfactory results as you can 
see from the attached letter to Mr. Ballantine. 

It seemed to me that all the Department's points were well-taken, but I am 
sure that Miss Thompson's promise will dispel their fears. 

For the purpose of their confidential information, I wish you would share this 
memorandum and the attached correspondence with Miss Porter, Mr. Lockwood, 
and Mr. Field. 

Exhibit No. 1058 

Department of State, 
Division of Far Eastern Affairs, 

April IJf, 1948. 

In your letter of February 24, 1938, addressed to the Secretary, requesting 
permission for Miss Thompson to examine the political reports from Siam, it 
was stated that her desire was "solely to get background for her study, not in 
any case for direct quotation." It is on the basis of that understanding that it is, 
therefore, requested that the materials and information contained in the notes 
taken by Miss Thompson in no case be quoted from or be cited as obtained from 
official sources. In this connection, attention is invited in particular to the pas- 
sages in the notes which have been marked on the margin with red pencil. 


In addition, throughout the notes there will be found certain passages which 
have been marked with red brackets. It is desired that the information and 
statements contained in those bracketed passages in no wise be used, cited, or 
quoted from. 

It is with the understanding that the above-mentioned conditions are acceptable 
to you and to Miss Thompson that there are being returned to you for delivery 
to Miss Thompson the notes under reference. 

Exhibit No. 1059 

129 East 52nd Street, 
Ifew York City, April 15, 1938. 
Joseph W. Ballantine, Esq., 
Department of State, 

Division of Far Eastern Affairs, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Ballantine : In accordance with my promise to you yesterday I have 
just handed Miss Thompson her notes and told her of my conversation with you 
and Mr. Spencer yesterday. I also gave her a copy of the memorandum which 
was the basis of our discussion. 

As I expected Miss Thompson understood that her notes were solely to serve 
as background for her study and not in any case for direct quotation. 

As I assumed was the case, she has just assured me that she was planning 
to make no reference whatsoever in her book to the privilege which you have 
accorded her ; and, in addition, was planning to send you the whole manuscript 
informally before publication in the hope that you would feel free to read it to 
make doubly certain that at no point had she violated the understanding which 
was the basis of her work while in Washington. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1060 

(Handwritten:) Copy. FVF return to ECC. A.W.Dulles. 

Cable address : "Ladycourt," New York — Paris 

Sullivan & Cromwell 

48 Wall Street, New York. 39 rue Cambon, Paris 

New York, April 22, 1938. 
Edward C. Carter, Esq., 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 East 52nd St., 

New York, N. T. 

Dear Mr. Carter : I want to tell you how much I enjoyed our dinner the other 
evening with Mr. Oumansky. It was one of the most interesting affairs of this 
character that I have attended for a long time. 
Faithfully yours, 

[s] A. W. Dulles 
(A. W. Dulles.) 

Exhibit No. 1061 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, May 8, 1938. 
Miss Virginia Bttrdick, 

American Russian Institute, 56 West JfStJi Street, New York City. 
Dear Miss Burdick : The International Secretariat has arranged for the trans- 
lation of the titles of every one of the maps in the "Great Soviet Atlas of the 
World." It has also arranged for the translation of detailed items on — 
Map 27 — Mineral resources of the world 
" 53 — World map of oil and coal industries 

" 68 — ]Map of the financial dependence of countries in the capitalist world 
" 69 — Map of the financial dependence of capitalist countries. Spheres 
of capital investment 


Map 83 — Economic rivalry of imperialistic powers in the Pacific 
" 99 — Map of mineral resources of the U. S. S. R. 
" 133-34 — Fuel, mining metalurgical, and chemical industries in the 

European part of the U. S. S. R. 
" 135-36 — Machine-building and machine-working industries of the 

European part of U. S. S. R. 
" 137 — Machine-building and metal-working industries in the Asiatic 

part of the U. S. S. R. 
" 138 — Forests, timber and paper industry of the Asiatic part of the 

U. S. S. R. 
" 141-42— Light industry in the European part of the U. S. S. R. 
" 143— Light industry in the Asiatic part of the U. S. S. R. 
" 144— Food industry in the Asiatic part of the U. S. S. R. 
" 151 — Industry within the limits of the Asiatic part of the U. S. S. R. 

in 1913 
" 152— Industrial map of the Asiatic part of the U. S. S. R. in 1935 
" 166— Map of the foreign trade of the U. S. S. R. (imports) 
" 167 — Map of the foreign trade of the U. S. S. R. (exports) 
The translation takes about 28 pages of double-spaced typing. If this abbrevi- 
ated translation is of any value to you it can be supplied by the International 
Secretariat at $2.00 per copy. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1062 

Washington, D. C, 23rd May, 1938. 
Ref: 55886/749 
Mr. I. F. WizoN, 

U. 8. Department of Labor, Immigration and Naturalization Service, 
Dear Sir : Very many thanks for your letter dated May 21st, advising me 
that you have directed that the visas of Mr. Chen Chu and Mrs. Susie Ku Chen 
be extended to May 18, 1939. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1063 

Address Reply to Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and Refer to 
File Number 55886/749 

U. S. Department of Labor, 
Immigration and Naturalization Service, 

Washington, May 21, 1938. 
Mr, Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52d Street, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir : Referring to your letter of the 11th instant and your telegram of 
the 18th instant, you are advised that the Department has directed that the 
temporary admission of Mr. Chen Chu (Geoffrey C. Chen) and Mrs. Susie Ku 
Chen be extended to May 18, 1939. 

I. F. Wixon 

I. F. Wixon, Deputy Commissioner. 

Exhibit No. 1064 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York, June 30, 1938. 
Miss Sydnor Walker, 

The Rockefeller Foundation, 

J,9 West 49th Street, New York. 

Dear Miss Walker : Have you any convictions as to whether the I. P. R. ought 
to seek to create in any of the Latin American countries unofficial societies for 
the scientific study of international affairs? 


Both Sumner Welles and Lawrence Duggan in the State Department would 
give a good deal if the I. P. R. could catch on in Latin America. 

Their difficulty and that of the I. P. R. is that in none of the states as yet is 
the nonofBcial study of international affairs encouraged. 

Have you, throuiih any of your contacts or reports, any advice to give? 
Sincerely yours, 

[t] Edwaed C. Cabtee. 

Exhibit No. 1065 

129 East 52nd Street 
New York, June 16, 1938. 

Maxwell M. Hamilton, Esq., 

Department of State, Washington, D. C. 

Deae Hamilton : Would it be possible for you to arrange to have the enclosed 
letter sent to Salisbury in the diplomatic pouch? I am particularly anxious to 
avoid any risk of having it read by the censors of the present Peking regime. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1066 

(Handwritten:) HM 






In the City of New York 

faculty of political science 

Dear Carter: Thanks for your note. I'm not talking in public in re USSR. 
It's too durned complex, & we were there only 3 wks. 

I did see Motylev, who is a corker. Got from him a glowing sense of a 
scientist at work in U. S. S. R. — as well, of course, as much inf 'n. 
We will "plan another visit," of course, but it isn't in sight as yet. 


Exhibit No. 1067 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, December H, 1938. 
Dr. Robert S. Lynd, 

Physics Building, Columbia University, 

New York City 
Dear Lynd: It was delightful to see you across the room at the Town Hall 
Club last week. I would like to hear your impressions of the U. S. S. R. and 
if you're giving them to any little group at Columbia, I hope I will be included 
in the invitation. 

When your hurry-up letter came asking for letters of introduction to Moscow 
last summer, I was away. I got back to the office and received your letter a 
few hours before you sailed. Someone assured me that Oumansky had given 
you the necessary introductions so I did not send any. I do hope that Ouman- 
sky's letters gave you the necessary entree. If they didn't and you are planning 
another visit, give me a month's notice and I think I may be able to interest 
Dr. Motylev, the head of the U. S. S. R. IPR, in your visit. He has thus far 
been unfailing in the apportunities he has made available for all who have gone 
with our credentials. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 


Exhibit No. 1068 

Columbia University 

In the City of New York 


June 20, 1938. 

Mr. E. C. Carteb, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 120 East 52nd Street, 

New York City 

Dear Carter : Mrs. Lynd and I are going into Russia this summer. We hope 
to settle down in a Middletown-sized community of 40-50,000 growing up around 
a new industrial site and try to get some sense of how social and community 
organization is taking place in Russia. 

Ceroid Robinson says we should certainly have a letter of introduction to 
the editor of the great Soviet Atlas. Robinson believes he would understand 
our problem and be helpful. If you know the editor and are in a position to 
give us a letter to him we would appreciate it a lot. 

As we sail tomorrow (Tuesday) will you answer this in care of the Open 
Road, 8 W. 40th Street, New York City, attention of Miss Messenger? 
Truly yours, 

[s] Robert D. Lynd. 

Exhibit No. 1070 

120 East 52nd Street, 
New York, June 18, 1938. 
Lawrence E. Salisbury, Esq., 

American Emhassy, Peipinff, China 
Dear Salisbury: Would you be kind enough to see that the enclosed letter 
is delivered privately to Professor George T^iylor at Yenching University? It 
so happens that I want to avoid any risk of its being read en route. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward 0. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1071 

Department of State, 
Washington, June 21, 1938. 
Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 129 East 52nd Street, 

New York, New York 
Dear Mr. Carter : As requested in your letter of June 16, 1938, there is being 
sent in the diplomatic pouch to the American Embassy at Peiping your letter 
addressed to Mr. Laurence E. Salisbury, together with its enclosure addressed to 
Professor George E. Taylor, Yenching University. As you of course know the 
Department transmits private communications in the pouch only in exceptional 

Sincerely yours, 

Maxwell M. Hamilton, 
Chief, Division of Far Eastern Affairs. 

Exhibit No. 1073 

Sunset Farm, 
Lee, Massachusetts, 19th July, 1938. 
Owen Lattimore, Esq., 

c/o Allie Robinson's Camp, 
Independence, California. 
Dear Owen : Thank you for your long and delightful letter of July 10 from 
Independence. What an intriguing name for editorial work in this particular 


In the strictest confidence I am sending you a copy of Paul Scheffer's comment 
on Bloch's original outline (I did not tell Scheffer who wrote the outline). 

With reference to Hu Shih, we had him here at Lee for a week-end conference 
just befoi'e he sailed. Chen and Chi were also here. Though both these men 
differ with Hu Shih very strongly, the both believe in his integrity of character. 
We are all trying to get him to write a major monograph to document the 
"temporizing policy" of Nanking in the last few years. He is convinced that 
the Generalissimo was preparing as fervently for ultimate resistance to Japan 
as were the Communists. We have asked him to go the whole way in making 
available documents that would prove his thesis. Whether we agree with his 
thesis or not it is important to have the job well done. This a a round about 
way of answering your question as to the weight which Hu Shih exerts in 
American circles and the extent in which he molds or leads tlie opinions of the 
Chinese in America. With Americans who have never heard of Chu Teh, Hu 
Shih stands out as a really great Chinese patriot — a man of dignity and a mind 
with a spacious point of view. To those Americans wlio feel that the Chinese 
Communists are making an epic contribution to Chinese unification Hu Shih 
seems to be living in the Victorian Age, albeit in rather a distinguished fashion. 
The reaction of Chinese in America to Hu Shih is similar to that of Americans 
according to their own line up on the question of Chinese Communists. 

Thank you for the tip about Sereno. I will write to Lasswell today. 

With reference to the question which you raise as to the role that you should 
play in view of Japanese attacks on the impartiality of members of American 
Council staff and the Pacific Council staff I am inclined to take the position that 
the American Council staff are in one category, the Chinese and Japanese members 
of the International Secretariat are in a second, and you. Bill Holland, and I 
in a third, though all three categories blur into each other. The American 
Council staff are responsible only to the American people. They thus should 
be among the freest people on earth. The Chinese and Japanese members of 
our own staff are chosen among other reasons because they are Chinese or 
Japanese and we want from them the fullest possible reflection of all that is 
most fundamental in the attitudes^f their countries. You and Holland and the 
other non-Oriental members of the International Secretariat and my.self are the 
servants of all eleven Councils. Our role is an almost impossible one. It 
might be likened to the role of the Speaker in the House of Commons, namely 
to ensure that every responsible point of view in the Institute is given a full 
hearing. This means that we ought to convince all the National Councils that 
whatever are our own private views, the Secretariat, the research program, the 
conferences, and Pacific Affairs are administered with complete detachment 
so that every responsible point of view is represented in the most favorable 
possible light. 

If in our private capacities we take a line that is so conspicuous that any large 
element in our constituency feels that we cannot administer our international 
responsibilities with impartiality then I think that our non-Secretariat activities 
should be reconsidered. Some weeks ago I came to the tentative conclusion that 
so far as I myself am concerned I should seriously consider declining all public 
invitations to speak on the Far Eastern situation. By public invitations I mean 
those which are reported by the press. In the past month I have declined to 
write for Amerasia. I did this because in Japan Amerasia is regarded as having 
been founded with a definite anti-Japanese bias. 

However unjust this feeling may be we have got to make some allowance for 
the exigencies of war psychology as it affects our Japanese friends. 

Saionji is one of the straightest thinking of young Japanese. He has stood 
apart ana above the muddled-headed war philosophy during the past year in a 
most striking manner. The other day I learned privately that he had single- 
handed raised the money that was needed to carry on the Japanese I. P. R. this 
year, but that now the donors were hammering him because of the line taken 
both by members of the International Secretariat and the American Council Staff. 
I understand that he feels that the American Council staff are free. In other 
words to his friends he defends the right of the American Council staff to take 
any line they want. But he finds it diflicult to explain what api)ears to be 
partisanship on the part of members of the Secretariat. I personally wish that 
it was possible for you to withdraw from the Amerasia board in the interests of 
the major task of integration which we have ahead of us for the next two years. 
I do not think any hasty action is called for but it is a matter I have long wanted 
to discuss with you and have never had the opportunity. 


I am exceedingly glad that you approve of the way Yasuo is functioning. If 
ever a man was in a hot spot he is it. 

Motylev is going to the Soviet Far East instead of coming here. I am urging 
him to send Voitinsky in his place. 

Dennery, Takayanagi, and Dafoe are all coming to Sunset Farm for ten days 
on August 10 to meet with the International Secretariat. Is there any chance of 
your coming east in time for this meeting or at least arriving by the 16th or 17th? 

Would you let us know just how we should describe your Johns Hopkins 
appointment so that it can be announced in the next issue of I. P. R. NOTES. 

If you are able to come on while Dennery is here you will be able to find out 
who the French counterparts of Archie Rose and Barbara Wooton are. 

It is grand to hear that the family is all well and that you are making good 
progress on your book. If anything takes you to Seattle you may wish to look up 
John Alden Carter who is acting as an assistant to the president of McDougall 
Southwick Co. He is at present staying with Herb Little. Mrs. Carter and Ruth 
send their gi-eetings to your whole household. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Edwabd C. Caeter. 

FVF (Pencilled:) 

Exhibit No. 1074 

Yenching University 

Office of the President 


Telegraph Address : "Yenta" 

July 20, 193S, 

Mr. Edward C. Carter, 

Institute of Pacific Relations, 

129 East 52n(l Street, Neio York, N. T. 

My Dear Ned : The last American mail brought your note and the clipping 
from the New York Times about happenings here. This was quite accurately 
reported, and I am impressed with the promptness with which the news reached 
America. It happens that thus far yours is the only word that had come to me 
about this, so that I am the more grateful. 

There has been during the past few days a recrudescence of pressure on another 
matter, the yielding of which would seem to me to violate the principle of aca- 
demic freedom. The matter is being dealt with at present on a basis of friendly 
negotiation, but if driven to it, we shall stand for our principles and take any 
consequences. I think the odds are, however, that those concerned will not carry 
it to any such extreme. 

I hear indirectly that the IPR is considering the organizing of American 
opinion with a view to somewhat more definite action. If this is true, I feel very 
much pleased, and should like to be kept informed of developments. 

With all good wishes. 
Very sincerely yours, 

[s] J. Leighton Sttjart, 


Exhibit No. 1075 

Sunset Farm, 
Lee, Massachv^etts, July 25, 1938. 
Frederick V. Field, Esq., 

1795 California Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Fred : For a variety of reasons, both scholarly and politically, both the 
Chinese and Japanese outlines have been drastically revised. Enclosed for your 
advance information are copies of the latest edition of the two outlines. 

The process and reason for these changes I will explain to you on my arrival. 

I need hardly add that the following approve of the outlines as they now 
stand : Holland, Mitchell, Chen, Borton, Chi, Cholmeley, and myself. 


None of the assignments to individual research worliers, e. g., Borton, Chen, or 
Chi have in any vray to be altered by reason of the reformulation of the outline 
of these two studies. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward C. Carter. 

Exhibit No. 1076 

129 East 52nd Street, 
New York City, August 23, 1938. 
W. L. Holland, Esq. 

Dear Holland: Yesterday, at the suggestion of W. W. Lockwood, Han-seng 
and I had a call from Theodore H. White who has this year graduated with high 
honors from Harvard University. Lockwood met him at the Ins